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Full text of "Medical lexicon : a dictionary of medical science : containing a concise explanation of the various subjects and terms of physiology, pathology, hygiene, therapeutics, pharmacology, obstetrics, medical jurisprudence, &c., with the French and other synonyms : notices of climate, and of celebrated mineral waters : formulae for various officinal, empirical, and dietetic preparations, etc."

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Bethesda, Maryland 




3 3 










JtMual ttx'lWL 















Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by 

in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States, in and for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

Printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins. 


In issuing a new edition of his Dictionary the Author has, again, the pleasure 
to express his acknowledgments for the reception it has met with from the profes- 
sion. The last two editions comprised about nine thousand subjects and terms not 
contained in the edition immediately preceding, many of which had been introduced 
into medical terminology in consequence of the progress of the science, and others 
had escaped him in the previous revisions. 

That the author has not suffered his exertions to diminish, in the preparation of 
the present edition, is sufficiently manifested by the fact, that he has added about 
four thousand terms, which are not to be found in the last. These additions 
have necessarily required a great amount of labour, which has been cheerfully be- 
stowed, however, in order that the work might be rendered still more worthy of the 
vast favour which it has experienced. It has been the anxious desire of the author 
to make it a satisfactory and desirable — if not indispensable — lexicon, in which the 
student may search without disappointment for every term that has been legitimated 
in the nomenclature of the science ; and the present very carefully revised, greatly 
enlarged, and accurately printed edition cannot fail to be more extensively useful, 
and to offer stronger claims to the attention of the practitioner and student, than 
any of its predecessors. 

Philadelphia, 18 Girard Street. 



The present undertaking was suggested by the frequent complaints, made by the 
author's pupils, that they were unable to meet with information on numerous topics 
of professional inquiry, — especially of recent introduction, — in the medical diction- 
aries accessible to them. It may, indeed, be correctly affirmed, that we have no 
dictionary of medical subjects and terms which can be looked upon as adapted to the 
state of the science. In proof of this, the author need but remark, that he has found 
occasion to add several thousand medical terms, which are not to be met with in the 
only medical lexicon at this time in circulation in the country. 

The author's object has not been to make a mere lexicon or dictionary of terms, 
but to afford, under each, a condensed view of its various medical relations, and thus 
to render the work an epitome of the existing condition of medical science. In its 
preparation, he has freely availed himself of the English, French, and German 
works of the same nature, and has endeavoured to add every subject and term of 
recent introduction, which has fallen under his notice ; yet, with all his care, it will 
doubtless be found that subjects have been omitted. The numerous additions, how- 
ever, which he has made, and his strong desire to be useful, " by removing rubbish 
and clearing obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius press 
forward to conquest and glory," will, he trusts, extenuate these and other objections 
that might be urged against the work ; especially when the toil, which every com- 
piler of a dictionary must endure, is taken into consideration ; a toil which has been 
so forcibly depicted by the great English Lexicographer, as well as by the distin- 
guished Scaliger: 

"Si quelqu'un a commis quelque crime odieux, 
S'il a tug son pere, ou blasphem6 les Dieux, 
Qu'il fasse un Lexicon: s'il est supplice au monde 
Qui le punisse mieux, je veux que Ton me tonde." 


If the simple synonymy of any term be needed, a mere reference to the term 
may be sufficient ; but if farther information be desired, it may be obtained under 
the term referred to. For example, the French word Tronc is said to be synony- 
mous with Trunk. This may be sufficient for the inquirer: should it not, the 
requisite information may be found by turning to Trunk. 














F. or Fah. 
















Nat. Ord. 

Natural Order. 




pharmacopoeia of Dublin. 




Ph. L. 



Ph. P. 



Ph. U. S. 


of the Uni- 
ted States 
of America. 






Specific Gravity. 



Sex. Syst. 

Sexual System. 





A, before a consonant; An before a vowel, a, av, 
have, in the compound medical terms, a privative 
or debasing signification, like that of the particles 
in, im, un, ir, in English. Thus: Stheni'a means 
strength; — Astheni'a, want of strength; — Anm- 
mia, want of blood, <fcc. Occasionally, in com- 
pound words, they have an intensive meaning. 

AACHEN, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

A, or H. See Abbreviation. 

is in the canton of Berne in Switzerland. The 
chief spring contains chlorides of calcium and 
sodium, sulphates of lime and soda, oxyd of iron, 
and sulphohydric acid gas. 

AASMUS, Anhelatio. 

sulphuretted saline spring, not far from Ratisbon 
or Regentsberg in Bavaria. 

ABAISSEMENT, Depression : see Cataract — 
a. de la Matrice, Prolapsus uteri. 

pressor alae nasi — a. de I'angle des levres, De- 
pressor anguli oris — a. de la levre inferieure, 
Depressor labii inferioris — a. de la machoire in- 
ferieure, Digastricus — a. de I'ceil, Rectus inferior 


ABALIENA'TUS. Corrup'tus, Corrupted; from 
ab, and alienus, 'different.' Membra abaliena'ta. 
Limbs dead or benumbed. — Celsus, Scribonius 

ABANGA. Name given by the inhabitants of 
St. Thomas to the fruit of a palm tree, the seeds 
of which they consider very useful in diseases of 
the chest, in the dose of three or four, two or 
three times a day. 

ABAPTIST'A. Abaptistonor Abaptis'tum, from 
a, privative, and (iaitri^uv, 'to plunge.' A term 
applied to the old trepan, the conical shape of 
which prevented it from plunging suddenly into 
the cavity of the cranium. 

ABAPTISTON, Abaptista. 

ABAPTISTUM, Abaptista. 

ABAREMO-TEMO. A Brazilian tree, which 
grows in the mountains, and appears to be a 
mimosa. Piso relates that the decoction of its 
bark, which is bitter and astringent, was applied 
in that country, to ulcers of a bad character. 

ABARNAHAS, Magnesia. 

ABARTICULATIO, Diarthrosis and Synar- 

ABATARD TRSEMENT, Degeneration. 

ABATTEMENT, Prostration. 

ABATTIS, Giblets. 


chalybeate spring, six leagues from Paris, and 
one from Poissy. It was once much frequented, 
but is now abandoned. 

acidulous chalybeate at Abbeville, in the depart- 
ment of Somme, France. 

ABBREVIATION, Abbrevia'tio, Braehyn'sis, 
Brachys'mo8, Abbreviatu'ra. (F.) Abreviation, 
from brevis, 'short.' Abbreviations are chiefly 
used in medicinal formulae. They are by no 
means as frequently employed now as of old, when 
every article had its appropriate symbol. The 
chief abbreviations now adopted are the following: 

R. Recipe, Take. 

A. XI, ANA, (ava) utriusque, of each. 
Abdom. Abdomen. 

Ads. Febr. Absentefebre, In the absence of fever. 
Ad. or Add. Adde or addatur. 
Ad Lib. Ad libitum, At pleasure.. 
Admov. Admoveatur, Let it be applied. 
Altern. Hor. Alternis horis, Every other hour. 
Alv. Adstrict. Alvo adstrictd, The bowels be- 
ing confined. 
Aq. Aqua, Water. 

Aq. Comm. Aqua communis, Common water. 
Aq. Font. Aquafontiz, Spring water. 
Aq. Bull. Aqua bulliens, Boiling water. 
Aq. Ferv. Aqua fervens, Hot water. 
Aq. Marin. Aqua marina, Sea water. 

B. A. Balneum arena, A sand-bath. 
Bals. Bahamum, Balsam. 

BB. BBDS. Barbadensis, Barbadoes. 

Bib. Bibe, Drink. 

Bis ind. Bis indies, Twice daily. 

B. M. Balneum marice, A salt water bath. 

Bol. Bolus. 

Bull. Bidliat, Let it boil. 

But. Butyrum, Butter. 

B. V. Balneum vaporis, A vapour-bath. 
C>erul. Caruleus, Blue. 

Cap. Capiat, Let him take. 
C C. Oornu cervi, Hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Oornu cervi ustum, iurnt hartshorn. 
C. M. Oras mane; To-morrow morning. 

C. N. Cras node, To-morrow night. 

C. V. Oras vespere, To-morrow evening. 

CocHL. Cochleare, A spoonful. 

Cochl. Ampl. Cochleare amplum, A large 

CocnL. Inf. Cochleare infantum, A ehild'i 

CocnL. Mod. or Med. Cochleare modicum o» 
medium, A dessert-spoonful. 





CoCHL. Parv. Oochleareparvum, A tea-spoonful. 
Col. Cola, and Colatura, Strain, ind to the 
B trained. 

Com p. Compositus, Compound. 
Conf. Con/ectio, Confection. 
Cons. Conserva, Conserve. 
Cont. Continuetur, Let it be continued. 
Coq. Coque, Boil. 
Cort. Cortex, Bark. 
Crast. Crastinus, For to-morrow. 
Cu.f. Cujus, Of which. 
Cujusl. Oujuslibet, Of any. 
Cvath. Cyathus, A glassful. 
Cyath. The^e, A cup of tea. 
D. Dosis, A dose. 

D. et S. Detur et signetur, [placed at the end 
of a prescription.) 

D. D. Detur ad, Let it be given in or to. 
D. D. Vitr. Detur ad vitrum, Let it be given 
in a glass. 

Deaur. Pil. Deaurentur pilulas, Let the pills 
be gilded. 

Deb. Spiss. Debita spissitudo, A due consist- 

Dec. Decanta, Pour off. 

Decub. Decubitus, Lying down, going to bed. 
De D. in D. De die in diem, From day to day. 
De.i. Alv. Dejectiones alvi, Alvine evacuations. 
Dep. Depuratns, Purified. 
Det. Detur, Let it be given. 
Dieb. Altern. Dicbusalternis, Every other day. 
Dieb. Tert. Diebus tertiis, Every third day. 
Dig. Diijeratur, Let it be digested. 
Dil. Dilutus, Dilute. 
Dim. Dimidius, One-half. 
Dist. Distilla, Distil. 
Div. Divide, Divide. 

Donec Alv. Solut. Fuer. Donee alvus soluta 
fuerit, Until the bowels are opened. 
Dracii. Drachma, A drachm. 
Ejusd. Ejusdem, Of the same. 
Enem. Enema, A clyster. 
ExHIB. Exhibeatur, Let it be exhibited. 
Ext. super Alut. Extinde super alutam, Spread 
upon leather. 

F. Fiat, Let it be made. 
F. Pil. Fiat jnlula, Make into a pill. 
F. or F. VS. Fiat venccsectio, Let bleed- 
ing be performed. 

Feb. Dur. Febre durante, The fever continuing. 
Fem. Intern. Femoribus internis, To the inside 
of the thighs. 

Fist. Armat. Fistula armata, A bag and pipe, 
a clyster pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl. Fluidus, and Flores, Fluid, and Flowers. 
Frust. Frustil/atim, In small pieces. 
Gel. Quavis, Gelatind qudvis, In any kind 
of jelly. 

(jr. G. G. Gummi guttce Gambia;, Gamboge. 
Gr. Granum, A grain. 
Gtt. Gutta, A drop. 

Gtt. or Gutt. Quibusd. Guttis quibusdam,'With 
gome drops. 

Gum. Gummi, Gum. 
Guttat. Guttatim, By drops. 
Hor. Decub. Hord decubitus, At bed-time. 
Hor. Interm. Horis intermediis, At interme- 
diate hours. 

H. S. Hord somni, At bed-time. 
Inf. lnfunde, Infuse. 
Ind. Indies, Daily. 

Inj. Enem. Injiciatur enema, Let a clyster be 

In Pulm. In pulmento, In gruel. 

Jul. Julepus, A julep. 

Lat. Dol. Lateri dolenti, To the pained side. 

Lb. and Lib. Libra, A pound weight. 

Lib. Llb, Libra:, Pounds. 

LlQ. Liquor. 

M. Misce, Mix. 

Mac. Macera, Macerate. 

Man. Manipnlus, A handful. 

Man. Prim. Mane primo, Early in the morning. 

Mic. Pan. Mica panis, Crumb of bread. 

Mrs. Minimum, The 60th part of a drachm by 

Mitt. Mitte, Send. 

Mitt. Sang. Mittatur sanguis, Let blood be 

Mod. Prescript. Modo praescripto, In the 
manner directed. 

Mor. Sol. More solito, In the usnal manner. 

Muc. Mucilago, Mucilage. 

N. M. Nux moschata, Nutmeg. 

0. Octarius, A pint. 

01. Oleum, Oil. 

Ol. Lini, S. I: Oleum lini sine igne, Cold-drawn 
linseed oil. 

Omn. Bid. Omni biduo, Every two days. 

Omn. Bih. Omni bihorio, Every two hours. 

Omn. Hor. Omni hord, Every hour. 

Omn. Man. Omni mane, Every morning. 

Omn. Nocte, Every night. 

Omn. Quadr. Hor. Omni quadrante hora, 
Every quarter of an hour. 

0. 0. 0. Oleum olives optimum, Best olive oil. 

Ov. Ovum, An egg. 

Ox. Oxymel. 

Oz. JJncia, An ounce. 

P. Pondere, By weight. 

P. and Pug. Pugillus, A pugil. 

P. M. Partes (equates, Equal parts. 

Part. Vic Partitis vicibus, In divided doses. 

Peract. Op. Emet. Peractd operatione emetici, 
The operation of the emetic being over. 

Pil. Pilula, A pill. 

Post Sing. Sed. Liq. Post singula* sedea 
liquidas, After every liquid evacuation. 

Pot. Potio, A potion. 

P. P. Pulvis patrum, Jesuits' bark. 

P. Rat. jEtat. Pro ratione cetatis, According 
to the age. 

P. R. N. Pro re natd, As occasion may be. 

Pulv. Pulvis, A powder. 

Q. P. Quantum placeat, As much as may please. 

Q. S. Quantum sujficiat, As much as is sufficient. 

Quor. Quorum, Of which. 

Q. V. Quantum volueris, As much as you wish. 

Rad. Radix, Root. 

Ras. Rasura, Shavings. 

Rect. Recti ficatus, Rectified. 

Red. or Redig. in Pulv. Redactns in pulve- 
rem, or Redigatur in Pulverem, Powdered, or Let 
it be powdered. 

Reg. Umbil. Regio umbilici, The umbilical re- 

Repet. Rcpetatur, Let it be repeated. 

S. A. Secundum artem, According to art. 

Sem. Semen, Seed. 

Semi-dr. Semi-drachma, Haifa drachm. 

BemI-H. Scmi-hora, Half an hour. 

Skrv. Serva, Keep, preserve. 

Sesquih. Sesquihora, An hour and a half. 

Sesunc. Sesunciu, An ounce and a half. 

Si Non Val. Si non valeat, If it docs not answer. 

Si Op. Sit. Si opus sit, If there be need. 

Si Vir. Perm. Si vires permittant, If thestrength 
will permit. 

Solv. Solve, Dissolve. 

Sp. and Spir. Spiritus, Spirit 

Ss. Semi, One half. 

St. Stet, Let it stand. 

Sub Fin. Coct. Sub finem coctionis, Towards 
the end of the boiling. 

Sum. Siuiiat, Let him take; also, Summitate*. 
The tops. 




S. V. Spiritus vini, Spirit of wine. 

S. V. R. Spiritus vini rectijicatus, Rectified 
«pirit of wine. 

d. V. T. Spiritus vini tenuior, Proof spirit of 

Syr. Syrupus, Syrup. 

Temp. Dext. Tempori dextro, To the right 

T. 0. Tinctura opii, Tincture of opium. 

Tr., Tra. and Tinct. Tinctura, Tincture. 

Trit. Tritura, Triturate. 

V. 0. S. or Vit. Ov. Sol. Vitello ovi solutus, 
Dissolved in the yolk of an egg. 

VS. Vencesectio, Venesection. 

Z. Z. Anciently myrrh: now zinziber or ginger. 

lb, Libra, A pound. 

3, Uncia, An ounce. 

3>, Drachma, A drachm. 

y, Scrupulum, A scruple. 

T^U, Minimum, A minim. 

6s, Semissis, or half; iss, one and a half. 

j, one; ij, two; iij, three; iv, four, &o. 

The same system is not always followed in ab- 
breviating. The subjoined will exhibit the usual 


In/us. Otilomb. f^iss 

Tinct. Gent. c. f gi 

Syr. Cort. A want. f gss 

Tinct. caps. gtt. xl. M. 

Capt. coch. ij. p. r. n. 

This, written at length, is as follows : 

Infusi OolombcB sesqui-fluidunciam. 
Tinctura; Gentiance Composites fluidrachmam. 
Syrupi Oorticis Aurantiorum semi-tluidrach- 

Tincturoz Gapsici guttas quadraginta. 
^Capiat cochlearia duo pro re nata. 
ABOES, Abscess — a. Aigu, see Abscess — a. 
Chaud, see Abscess — a. Ohronique, see Abscess — 
o. Par congestion, see Abscess — a. Diathesiqne, 
see Abscess — a. Fro id, see Abscess — a. Metasta- 
tique, see Abscess — a. Scrofuleux, see Abscess — 
a. Soudain, see Abscess. 

ABDO'MEN, from abdere, 'to conceal;' — 
Etron, Hypogas'trion, IJypocce'lium, Epis'ehion, 
Lap'ara, Hypochoi'lion, Gaster, Hypou'trion, 
Nedys, Abdu'men, Venter, Venter imits, Venter 
in'fimus, Alexis, U'terus, The belly, (F.) Ventre, 
V. inferieur, Bus ventre. The largest of the 
three splanchnic cavities, bounded, above, by the 
diaphragm; below, by the pelvis; behind, by the 
lumbar vertebra: ; and at the sides and fore part, 
by muscular expansions. It is distinguished into 
three anterior regions, from above to below; viz. 
the epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric, each 
of which is itself divided into three others, one 
middle, and two lateral: thus, the epigastric re- 
gion comprises the epigastrium and hypochon- 
dria; the umbilical, the umbilicus and flanks or 
lumbar regions ; and the hypogastric, the hypo- 
gastrium and iliac regions. None of these re- 
gions has its limits well defined. The chief vis- 
cera contained in the cavity of the abdomen, 
Coe'lia, Oavum Abdom'inis, are the stomach, in- 
testines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, &c. It 
is lined by the peritoneum. 
Abdomen, Pendulous, Physconia. 
ABDOM'INAL, Abdomina'lis, Ventra'lis, Ven- 
tral. That which belongs to the Abdomen, as 
abdominal muscles, abdominal viscera, <fcc. 


ABDOMINISCOP'IA, Gastroscop'ia. A hy- 
brid word, from Abdomen, 'the lower belly,' and 
okoxcu), 'I view;' Laparoscop'ia, Abdom'inis Ex- 

plora'tio. Examination of the lower belly as a 
means of diagnosis. See Auscultation. 

ABDUCENS LABIORUM, Levator auguli 

ABDUCENTES, Motor oculi externus. 
ABDUCTEUR BE L'CEIL, Rectus externua 
oculi — a. cle Voreille, Abductor auris — a, du grot 
orteil, Abductor pollieis pedis — a. du petit orteil, 
Abductor minimi digiti pedis — a. court du ponce, 
Abductor pollieis brevis — a. long du pouce, Ab- 
ductor longus pollieis. 

ABDUCTION, Abduc'tio, from abducere, to 
separate, (ab and ducere, 'to lead.') The move- 
ment which separates a limb or other part from 
the axis of the body. 

The word has also been used synonymously 
with Abrup'tio, Apag'ma, Apoclas'ma, a fracture 
near the articular extremity of a bone, with sepa- 
ration of the fragments. 

ABDUCTOR, same etymon. (F.) Abducteur. 
A muscle which moves certain parts by separat- 
ing them from the axis of the body. 

Abductor Auricularis, Abductor auris — a. 
Indicis pedis, Prior indicis pedis, Posterior indicia 
pedis — a. Medii digiti pedis, Prior medii digiti 
pedis — a. Minimi digiti, Flexor parvus minimi 
digiti — a. Minimi digiti, Prior minimi digiti — a. 
Oculi, Rectus externus oculi — a. Pollieis mantis, 
and a. Brevis alter, Abductor pollieis brevis. 

Abductor Auris, Abductor auricula' ris. (F.) 
Abducteur de I'oreille. A portion of the posterior 
auris, whose existence is not constant, which 
passes from the mastoid process to the concha. 

Abductor In'dicis, Semi-interos'seus in'dicis. 
A muscle which arises from the os trapezium and 
metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is inserted 
into the first bone of the forefinger. Its use is to 
bring the forefinger towards the thumb. 

Abductor Min'imi Dig"iti, Qarpo-phalan'geus 
min'imi digiti, Co rpo-phalangien du petit doigt, 
E.rten'sor ter'tii interno'dii minimi digiti— (~l)ou- 
glas.) Hypoth'enar minor metacarpals. See 
Flexor parvifs. It originates fleshy from the os 
pisiforme, and from the annular ligament near 
it; and is inserted, tendinous, into the inner side 
of the base of the first bone of the little finger. 
Use, to draw the little finger from the rest. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis, Calc.o-sub- 
phalangeus minimi digiti, CalcaneO-phalangien 
du petit orteil, Paratli'cnar major — (By Wins- 
low, the muscle is divided into two portions, — 
ParatAenar major and metatarsals.) Cfalcaneo- 
sous-phalangien du petit orteil — (Ch.) (F.) Ab- 
ducteur du petit orteil. This muscle forms the 
outer margin of the sole of the foot, and is im- 
mediately beneath the plantar aponeurosis. It 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the outer side 
of the protuberance of the os calcis, and from 
the root of the metatarsal bone of the little toe, 
and is inserted into the outer part of the root 
of the first bone of the little toe. Use, to draw 
the little toe outwards. 

Abductor Pol'licis Brevis, Abductor Polli- 
eis Mantis, Scnpho-carpc svper-phalangeus Pol- 
lieis, Sus-phalangien du pouce, A. pollieis manna 
and A. brevis alter — (Alhinus.) (F.) Abducteur 
court du pouce, Oarpo-sus-phalangien du ponce — 
(Ch.) A short, flat, triangular muscle, which arises 
from the anterior surface of the os scaphoides and 
the annular ligament of the carpus, and termi- 
nates at the outside of the upper extremity of 
the first phalanx of the thumb. A particular 
portion, on the inner side of this muscle, is 
called, by Alhinus, Abductor brevis alter. 

Abductor Longus Poi.ltcis, A. I. P. Nanus. 
Extensor ossis metacarpi pollieis manus, Extensor 
primi interim/Hi — (Douglas,) Extensor primus 
Pollieis, Cubito-radi-sus- n ietacarpie~i du pvuet^ 




Cubito-sus-mStacarpien du pouce, — (Ch.) (F.) 
AbducU-ur long du pouce. A long, thin muscle, 
arising from tho posterior surface of the ulna, 
radius, and interosseous ligament, and inserted 
at the outer side of the upper extremity of the 
first metacarpal bone. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, Calco-sub-phalan- 
geus J'ol'licis. (F.) Abducteur du gros orteil. 
This muscle arises, fleshy, from the anterior and 
inner part of the protuberance of the os calcis, 
and tendinous from the same bone where it joins 
■with the os naviculare. It is inserted, tendinous, 
into the internal os sesamoideum and root of the 
first bone of the great toe. Use, to pull the great 
toe from the rest. 

The name Abductor has been given also to all 
those interosseous muscles of the hand and foot, 
which perform the motion of abduction on the 
fingers or toes, and to muscles which execute the 
same function on other parts of the body. 
ABDUMEN, Abdomen. 

ABEBiE'OS, from a, neg. and /?£j3aioy, 'firm/ 
Injir'mus, Deb' ilia. Weak, infirm, unsteady. 

ABELMELUCH. One of the names of the Rici- 
nus, according to some authors. — Prosper Alpinus 
says that a tree, which grows about Mecca, is so 
called. Its seeds, which are black and oblong, 
are said to be a most violent cathartic. 

ABELMOSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. 
Moschatus, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 
ABELMUSK, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 
is a city of Bavaria, where there is a cold, sul- 
phureous spring. 

ABERRATIO, Aberration— a. Lactis, Galac- 
toplania — a. Mensium, Menstruation, vicarious — 
a. Menstruorum, Menstruation, vicarious. 

ABERRA'TION, Aberra'tio, from aberrare, 
(ab and errare,) 'to stray,' 'to wander from.' 
This word has several meanings. 

1. The passage of a fluid of the living body 
into an order of vessels not destined for it. In 
this sense it is synonymous with the Error Loci 
of Boerhaave. 

2. The flow of a fluid towards an organ different 
from that to which it is ordinarily directed ; as in 
cases of vicarious hemorrhage. Aberrations of 
sense or judgment are certain errors in the percep- 
tions, or certain derangements of the intellectual 

The word is used in optics to designate the dis- 
persion of the rays of light in passing through a 

Aberration, Chromatic, Aberration of Re- 

Aberration of Refrangjbil'ity, Ohromat'ie 
aberra'tion, exists, when, as in a common lens, 
the rays that pass near the circumference of the 
lens are decomposed, so that a coloured image is 
observed. This aberration in the human eye is 
corrected by the iris, which does not permit the 
rays to fall near the circumference of the lens, 
and also by the crystalline lens itself, which, 
owing to its structure, serves the purposes of an 
achromatic glass. 

Aberration, Spherical, Aberration of sphe- 

Aberration of Spheric"ity or spher'ical ab- 
erra'tion takes place, when the rays, as in a com- 
mon lens, which pass through the centre of the 
lens, and chose which pass near the circumfer- 
ence, are unequally refracted, so that they do not 
meet a* a common focus. 

This aberration of sphericity in the human eye 
Is corrected by the iris. 

ABESSI, Realgar. 

ABEVACUA'TIO, Apoceno'sis, from ab, and 

evacuare, 'to empty.' An evacuation. A partial 
or imperfect evacuation. By some it is applied 
to an immoderate evacuation. — Kraus. 

ABHAL. A fruit well known in India, and 
obtained from a species of cypress. It passes for 
an emmenagogue. 

ABIES, Pinus picea— a. Balsamea, Pinus bal- 

Abies Balsamifera, Pinus balsamea — a. Ca- 
nadensis, Pinus Canadensis— a. Exeelsa, see Pinus 
abies— a. Gallica, Pinus picea— a. Larix, Pinus 
larix — a. Pectinata, Pinus picea, — a. Picea, Pinus 
picea — a. Rubra, Pinus rubra. 

ABIGA, Teucrium Chaniaepitys. 

ABIOSIS, Death. 

ABIOTOS, Conium maculatum. 

ABIRRITA'TION. Abirrita'tio,from ab, priva- 
tive, and irritatio, 'irritation.' This word strictly 
means absence or defect of irritation. The disci- 
ples of Broussais used it to indicate a pathological 
condition, opposite to that of irritation. It may 
be considered as synonymous with debility, 
asthenia, Ac. 


ABLASTES, Sterile. 

ABLATIO, Extirpation. 

ABLEPH'ARUS, from a, privative, and /3X £ - 
(papov, 'eyelid.' One who has no eyelids. 

ABLEPSIA, Ceecitas. 

ABLUENTIA, Detergents. 

ABLU'TION, Ablu'tio, Aponip'sis, Cataclys'- 
mus, from abluere, (ab and luere,) 'to wash.' A 
name given to legal ceremonies in which the 
body is subjected to particular affusions. Ablution 
(especially of the extremities) with cold or tepid 
water is employed, therapeutically, to reduce 
febrile heat. Also, the washing by which medi- 
cines are separated from the extraneous matters 
mixed with them. 

ABNORMAL, Abnormous. 

ABNORMITY, Anomalia. 

ABNOR'MOUS, Abnor'mal, (F.) Anormal, 
from ab, 'from,' and norma, 'rule.' Not con 
formable to rule ; irregular. 

ABOLP'TION, AboW'tio, destruction or sup- 
pression, from ab and luere (?) 'to wash.' A 
word, often employed, especially by the French, 
to express the complete suspension of any symp- 
tom or function. Abolition of the sight, e. g. ia 
the complete loss of sight. 

ABOMA'SUS, Aboma' sum, Enys'tron, Rennet. 
The lowermost or fourth stomach of ruminating 


ABONDANCE, Plethora. 

ABORSIO, Abortion. 

ABORSUS, Abortion. 


ABO II TIF, Abortive. 


di'tio. (¥.)Avortem<nt,Bhssure, Miscarriage, from 
ab and oriri, ' to rise,' applied to that which has 
arisen out of season. The expulsion of the fcetus 
before the seventh month of utero-gestation or 
before it is viable. The causes of this accid'ent 
are referrible either to the mother, and particu 
larly to the uterus; or to the foetus and its de" 
pendencies. The causes, in the mother, may be • 
—extreme nervous susceptibility, great debility' 
plethora; faulty conformation, &c. ; and it is fre 
quently induced immediately bv intense mental 
emotion, violent exercise, <fce. The causes seated 




jn the foetus are its death, rupture of the mem- 
branes, Ac. It most frequently occurs between 
the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation. The symp- 
toms of abortion are : — uterine hemorrhage with 
or without flakes of decidua, with intermitting 
pain. When abortion has once taken place, it is 
extremely apt to recur in subsequent pregnancies 
about the same period. Some writers have called 
abortion, when it occurs prior to three months, 
Effluxion. The treatment must vary according to 
the constitution of the patient and the causes giv- 
ing rise to it. In all cases, the horizontal posture 
and perfect quietude are indispensable. 

Abortion is likewise applied to the product of 
an untimely birth,— Abor'tns, Abor'sus, Apoble'- 
nia, Apob'ole, Ecblo'ma, Amblothrid'ion, Eetro'ma, 
Fruc'tus immatu'rus, Abortment. (F.) Avorton, 

TOABORT,4&or ! -'n.Tomiscarrv.(F.).'W<er. 

ABOR'TIVE, Abotti'vus, Ecbol'iua, Amblo'ti- 
cus, Amblothrid' ium, Ambol' icus, Phthor'ius, Apo- 
phthor'ius, Ectrot'icus, Abortifa'ciens, Acyte' - 
rius, Expel'lens, Phthi roc' tonus, Phthoroc' tonus, 
Ecbol'icus, Contrac'tor u'teri, Accelerator Partes, 
Parturient, Parturifa'cient, Ecbolic. (F.) Abor- 
tif. A medicine to which is attributed the pro- 
perty of causing abortion. There is probably 
no direct agent of the kind. 

ABORTMENT, Abortion. 

ABORTUS, Abortion. 

ABOUCHEMENT, Anastomosis. 

ABOULAZA, a tree of Madagascar, used, ac- 
cording to Flacourt, in the practice of the coun- 
try, in diseases of the heart. 

ABOUTISSEMENT, Suppuration. 

ABRABAX, Abrasax, Abraxas. A mystic 
term, expressing the number 365, to which the 
Cabalists attributed miraculous properties. 

ABRACADA'BRA: the name of a Syrian 
Idol, according to Selden. This word, when 
pronounced and repeated in a certain form and 
a certain number of times, was supposed to have 
the power of curing fevers and preventing many 
diseases. It was figured on amulets and worn 
Buspended around the neck. 



3 X 1 X 2 1 X 

X 1 X 3 1 X 

T X D 1 X 

X 2 1 X 

2 I X 

1 X 


ABRACALAN, A cabalistic term to which the 
Jews attributed the same virtue as to the word 

ABRASAX, Abrabax. 

ABRA'SION, Abra'sio, Aposyr'ma, Apoxys'- 
mus, from abradere, (ab and radere,) 'to rasp.' 
A superficial excoriation, with loss of substance, 
under the form of small shreds, in the mucous 
membrane of the intestines, — (F.) Raclures des 
Boyaux. Also, an ulceration of the skin, pos- 
sessing similar characters. According to Vicq 
d'Azyr, the word has been used for the absorp- 
tion of the molecules composing the various 

ABRATHAN, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABRAXAS, Abrabax. 

ABREVIAT10N, Abbreviation. 

ABRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 

ABROSIA, Abstinence. 

ABROTANUM, Artemisia abrotanum — a. 

Cathsum, Artemisia abrotanum — a. Mas, Arte- 
misia abrotanum. 

ABROTONI'TES, (otvos, 'wine,' understood.) 
Wine impregnated with Artemisia Abrotanum or 

ABROTONUM, Artemisia Abrotanum. 

ABRUPTIO, Abduction. 

ABRUS PRECATO'RIUS, Mq'uorice Push, 
Med Bean, Love pea. A small ornamental shrub, 
found from Florida to Brazil, as well as in Egypt 
and the West Indies ; Nat. Ord. Leguminosas. 
Sex. Syst. Monadelphia enneandria; having beau- 
tiful scarlet seeds with a black spot. The roots 
and leaves are sweet mucilaginous demulcents. 
The seeds of the American kind are considered 
to be purgative and poisonous. 

ABSCESS, from abscedo, (abs, and cedere,) 'I 
depart,' or 'separate from.' Absces'sus, Absces'- 
sio, Aphiste'sis, Aposte'ma, Ecpye'ma, Ecpye'sis, 
Reces'sus, Impos'thume. (F.)Abce's, Depot. A col- 
lection of pus in a cavity, the result of a morbid 
process. See Pyogenia, and Suppuration. 

The French have various distinctive terms for 

which follows violent inflammation. 

LEUX, one which is the result of chronic or 
scrofulous inflammation. 

sique, a symptomatic abscess; one which occurs 
in a part at a distance from the inflammation by 
which it is occasioned: e.g. a lumbar abscess; 
in which the inflammation may be in the lumbar 
vertebrae, whilst the pus exhibits itself at the 

Abscess, Metastat'ic, Absces'sus metastat'- 
icus, (F.) Abces metastatique ; A. consecutif, an 
abscess, which forms suddenly, and sometimes 
without any precursory signs of inflammation, in 
a part of the body remote from one in a state 
of suppuration, and without presenting a suffi- 
cient reason for its development in the place 
which it occupies. It is a consequence of phle- 

Abscess, Perforating op the Lung, see 
Lung, perforating abscess of the — a. Psoas, Lum- 
bar abscess — a. Retropharyngeal, see Retropha- 

Abscessds Capitis Sanguineus Neonatorum, 
Cephalaematoma — a. Cerebri, Encephalopyosis — 
a. Gangraenescens, Anthrax — a. Gangraenosus, 
Anthrax — a. Lacteus, Mastodynia apostematosa 
— a. Lumborum, Lumbar abscess — a. Mammae, 
Mastodynia apostematosa — a. Metastaticus, Ab- 
scess, metastatic — a. Nucleatus, Furunculus — a. 
Oculi, Hypopyon — a. Pectoris, Empyema — a. 
Pulmonum, Pneumapostema — a. Renalis, Ne- 
phrapostasis — a. Spirituosus, Aneurism- — a. Tho- 
racis, Empyema — a. Urinosus, Urapostema. 


ABSCIS'SION, Abscis'io, Abscis'sio, from ob- 
scidere or abscindere, 'to cut off,' Apoc.'ope, 
Apothrau'sis, Diae'ope. Excision or extirpation 
of a part, especially of a soft part. — Fabricius 

Fracture or injury of soft parts, with loss of 
substance. — Hippocrates. 

Diminution, or loss of voice. — Celsus. 

Sudden and premature termination of a dis- 
ease. — Galen. 


see Murmur, respiratory. 

ABSTNTHI'TES, a^vSirv;, Apsintln'tes,Wm* 
impregnated with Absinthium or Wormwood.— 


ABSINTHIUM, (Ph. U. S.,) Artemisia ab- 
ginthiuni — a. Marinum, Artemisia maritima — a. 
Maritimum, Artemisia maritima/ — a. Ponticum, 
Artemisia pontica — a. Romaoum, Artemisia pon- 
tiea — a. Santonicum, Artemisia santonica — a. 
Vulgare, Artemisia absinthium. 

A BSORBANT, Absorbent. 

ABSOR'BENT, Absor'bens, from absorbere, (ab 
ami sorbere,) 'to drink, to suck up.' (F.) Ab- 
sorbent. That which absorbs. 

Absorbent System is the collection of vessels, 
Vasa absorben'tia seu resorben'tia, and glands, 
•which concur in the exercise of absorption. 

A medicine used for absorbing acidity in the 
stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, <fec. In- 
vertens, Resor'bens, Sat'urans. 

Also, any substance, such as cobweb, sponge, 
&c, which, when applied to a bleeding surface, 
retains the blood, and forms with it a solid and 
adhesive compound, which arrests the hemor- 

ABSORPTIO, Absorption — a. Sanguinis, 

ABSORP'TION, Resorp'tio, Inhala'tio, Im- 
bibi"tio, Absorp'tio, Anar'rhophe, Anarrophe'sis, 
Catapino'sis, Rhoebde'sis, Catarrhophe'sis, Ga- 
tar'rhophe ; same etymon. The function of ab- 
sorbent vessels, by virtue of which they take up 
substances from without or within the body. Two 
great divisions have been made of this function. 
J. External absorption, or the absorption of com- 
position, which obtains from without the organs 
the materials intended for their composition ; 
and, 2. Internal absorption, or the absorption of 
decomposition, which takes up from the organs 
the materials that have to be replaced by the 

By external absorption is meant not only that 
which takes place at the external surface of the 
body, but also that of the mucous membranes of 
the digestive and respiratory passages. Hence, 
again, the division of external absorption into cu- 
taneous — resorp'tio cuta'nea seu cutis, inhala'tio 
cutis, — intestinal or digestive, and pulmonary or 
r expiratory. 

Internal absorption is also subdivided into, 

1, Molecular or interstitial, nutritive, organic, or 
decomposing, which takes up from each organ the 
materials that constitute it, so that the decompo- 
sition is always in equilibrio with the deposition. 

2. The absorption of recrementitial secreted fluids, 
such as the fluid of serous membranes, synovia, 
&c. As these are constantly exhaled on surfaces 
which have no external outlet, they would aug- 
ment indefinitely, if absorption did not remove 
them in the same proportion as that in which they 
are deposited. 3. The absorption of a part of the 
exrrementitial fluids, as they pass over the excre- 
tory passages. 

Absorption does not effect the decomposition of 
the body immediately. It merely prepares the 
fluid which has to be eliminated by the secretory 

The great agents of external absorption are the 
veins and chyliferous vessels; of internal absorp- 
tion, probably the lymphatics. In the chylife- 
rous vessels and lymphatics the fluid is always 
found to possess the same general properties. 
In them, therefore, an action of elaboration or 
selection must have taken place. The veins, on 
the other hand, seem to exert no selection. Any 
fluid, possessing the necessary tenuity, passes 
through the coats of the vessel readily by imbibi- 
tion, and proceeds along with the torrent of the 
circulation. Watery fluids in this manner enter 
l_h* blood when they are taken into the stomach. 
Substances that require digestion, on the other 


band, must pass through the chyliferous vessels 
and thoracic duct. 

Absorption op Composition, see Absorption— - 
a. Cutaneous, see Absorption — a. of Decomposi- 
tion, see Absorption — a. Digestive, see Absorp- 
tion — a. External, see Absorption — a. of Exere- 
mentitial Secreted Fluids, see Absorption — a. 
Internal, see Absorption — a. Intestinal, see Ab- 
sorption — a. Interstitial, see Absorption — a. Mole- 
cular, see Absorption — a. Nutritive, see Absorption 
— a. Organic, see Absorption — a. Pulmonary, see 
Absorption — a. of Recrementitial Secreted Fluids, 
see Absorption — a. Respiratory, see Absorption. 
ABSTE3IE, Abstemious. 

ABSTE'MIOUS, Abste'mius, Aoi'nos, from abs, 
'without,' and temetum, 'wine.' (F.) Absteme. 
Used by the ancient writers, as well as by the 
French, in the sense only of its roots; one who 
abstains from wine or fermented liquors in ge- 
ABSTERGENTIA, Detergents. 
ABSTERSIVA, Detergents. 
ABSTERSORIA, Detergents. 
AB'STINENCE, Abstinen'tia, from abs, 'from,' 
and tenere, 'to hold,' Abros'ia, Asit'ia, Liman'- 
chia, Limocton'ia, Fasting. Privation, usually 
voluntary, as when we speak of abstinence from 
pleasure, abstinence from drink, <fec. It is more 
particularly used to signify voluntary privation of 
certain articles of food. Fasting is a useful re- 
medial agent in certain diseases, particularly in 
those of an inflammatory character. 

ABSUS, a kind of cassia — C. Absus — which 
grows in Egypt and in India, the seeds of which, 
pulverized and mixed with powdered sugar have 
been employed, in form of a dry collyrium, in the 
endemic ophthalmia of Egypt. 

ABU'LIA; from a, 'privative,' and/?ouA>7, 'will.' 
Loss of the will, or of volition. 

ABU'LICUS; same etymon. One who has lost 
the power of will or of volition. 
ABUS BE SOI-MEME, Masturbation. 
ABUTA, Pareira brava. 

ABU'TILON CORDA'TUM, Sida abutilon, 
Yellow mallow. An indigenous plant, common 
from Canada to Mexico, which resembles common 
mallow in its medical virtues, being mucilaginous 
and demulcent. 

ABVACUA'TIO, an excessive or colliquative 
evacuation of any kind. 

ACACIA, (Ph. U.S.) Acacia* gummi— a. Cate- 
chu, Catechu— a. False, Robinia pseudo-acaeia— 
a. Germamca, see Prunus spiuosa— a. Giraffa?, see 
Accaciae gummi— a. Horrida, see Acacise gummi 
—a. Indica, Tamarindus— a, Nilotica, see Acacia) 
gummi— a. Nostras, see Prunus spinosa— a. Sene- 
gal, seeAcaciae gummi— a. Vera, see Acacia? o-um- 
mi 7^; ^ylonica Hapmatoxylon Campechianum. 
ACACIA GUMMI, Aca'cia, from a K r,, 'a 

is in irregular pieces, colourless or of a pale'vel 
low colour, hard, brittle, of a shining fracturo" 
transparent, soluble in water, and insoluble in 
alcohol, s. g. 1-4317. 

_ It is mucilaginous; but is rarely used, excpr.t 
in pharmacy. Sometimes it is administered alo£» 
as a demulcent. >"one 

Acacia Horrida and A. Giraffes, of South Af I 
ca, yield a good gum. «n- 

AUAJOU, Anacardium occidentale. 




Acajtjba Officinalis, Anacardium occiden- 

Acal'ypha Virgin'ica, Three-seeded mer'cury. 
Order, Euphorbiaceae, indigenous, flowering in 
August, is said to have expectorant and diuretic 

ACAM'ATUS, from a, priv., and Kauvu, 'I la- 
bour.' This word has been sometimes used for 
a good constitution of the body. According to 
Galeu, it means that position in which a limb is 
intermediate between flexion and extension ; a 
position which may be long maintained without 

ACAMPSIA, Contractu™. 

ACANOS, Onopordium acanthium. 

Acanos Spina, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHA, Vertebral column. Also, Spinous 
process of a vertebra. 

ACANTHAB'OLUS, Acan'thnlus, Vohel'la, 
from uKavSa, 'a spine,' and /3uAAu>, 'I cast out.' 
A kind of forceps for removing extraneous sub- 
stances from wounds. — Paulus of iEgina, Fabri- 
cius ab Aquapendente, Scultetus, &c. 


ACANTHE FAUSSE, Heracleum spondy- 

ACANTHIUM, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHULUS, Acauthabolos. 

ACANTHUS MOLLIS, same etymon as Aca- 
cia, Melamphyl'lum, Branca ursi'na seu vera, 
Brankur'sine, Bear's Breech. (F.) Pied d'ours. 
This plant is mucilaginous like Althaea, and is 
used as a demulcent. 

ACAPATLI, Piper longum. 

ACAR'DIA, from a, priv., and xapSia, 'the 
heart.' The state of a foetus without a heart. 

ACARDIOTROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 

AC'ARICIDE, from acarus, and casdere, 'to 
kill.' A destroyer of acari, — as of the acarus 

ACARICOBA. The Brazilian name for Hy- 
drocot'yle umbella' turn, used by the Indians as 
an aromatic, alexipharmic, and emetic. 

ACARON, Myrica gale. 

ACARP'iE, from a, 'privative,' and Kapiros, 
'fruit.' A division of the family of cutaneous 
diseases by Fuchs, in which there is no "fruit," 
(Germ. Frucht,) or production from the cutane- 
ous surface — tubercles, vesicles or pustules. 
Lentigo, Chloasma, Argyria, and Pityriasis be- 
long to it. 

ACARUS, from a, privative, and xapng, 'di- 
visible.' A minute insect, one species of which 
has been noticed by several observers, in the 
itch. The Acarus Seabiei, see Psora. 

Acarus Ciro, see Psora — a. Comedonum, 
Acarus Folliculorum. 

Ac'arus Cros'sei. An insect supposed by 
Mr. Crosse, of England, to have been developed 
in a solution of silicate of potassa when submitted 
to slow galvanic action, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing crystals of silex. It did not, however, prove 
to be a new formation. 

Acarus Folliculo'rum, Entozo'on Folliculo'- 
rum, A. Oomedo'num, De'modex foil! eulo' rum, 
Simo' nea folliculo' rum, Steatozo'on folliculo'rum, 
Macrogas'ter plat'ypus. An articulated animal- 
cule, discovered in the sebaceous substance of the 
cutaneous follicles. According to Professor Owen, 
it belongs to the Arachnida. 

Acarus Scabiei, Acarus, see Psora. 

ACATALEP'SlA, from a, privative, and Kara- 
Xauftavu), 'I comprehend.' Uncertainty in dia- 
gnosis. Its opposite is Catalepsia. — Galen. 

ACATAP'OSIS, from a privative, and K ara- 
ffoffif, 'deglutition.' Incapacity of swallowing. 
Vogel has given this name to difficulty of deglu- 

ACATASTAT'IC, Acatastat'icus, from a, priv., 
and KaSiarntii, 'to determine.' An epithet given 
to fevers, &c, when irregular in their periods or 
symptoms. — Hippocrates. 

ACATHAB/SIA, from a, priv., and KaSaiptfa, 
'I purge;' Sordes, Impurities. Omission of a pur- 
gative. — Foesius. 

ACATSJAVAL'LI, a Malabar plant, which is 
astringent and aromatic. A bath of it is used iu 
that country in cases of hemicrania. It is sup- 
posed to be the Gassytha ftliformis of Linnaeus. 

ACAWERIA, Ophioxylum serpentinum. 


ACOELERATEUR, Accelerator urin*. 


Accelerator Uri'n/e, Bti/bo-cavemo'sus, Bul- 
bo-uretral — (Ch.) Ejacula'tor Semi'nis, Bulbo- 
syiidcsmo-caverneiix. (F.) Accelerateur, from ad 
and cefer, 'quick.' A muscle of the penis, which 
arises, fleshy, from the sphincter ani and mem- 
branous part of the urethra, and tendinous from 
the crus and beginning of the corpus cavernosum 
penis. In its course it forms a thin, fleshy layer, 
the inferior fibres of which run more transversely 
than the superior, which descend in an oblique 
direction ; the muscles of both sides completely 
enclosing the bulb of the urethra. It is inserted 
into its fellow by a tendinous line running longi- 
tudinally on the middle of the bulb. Its use is to 
propel the urine or semen forwards. 

ACCENT, Sonus vocis, from ad and canere, 
cantum, to sing. Inflection or modification of the 
voice, which consists in raising or dropping it on 
certain syllables. 

The accent exhibits various alterations in dis- 

AGCES, Paroxysm. 

ACCES'SION. Acces'sio, from accedo, (ad and 
cedere,) 'I approach.' The invasion, approach, 
or commencement of a disease. 

A GOESSOIRE, Accessory — a. du long Flechis- 
seur commun des orteils: see Flexor longus digi- 
torum pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — 
a. de I Obturateur interne, Ischio-trochanterianus 
— a. du pied d' Hippocampe : see Cornu ammonis 
— a. du Sacro-lombaire : see Sacro-lumbalis. 

TORUM PEDIS; see Flexor longus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — a. Pedis 
hippocampi; — see Cornu ammonis. 

ACCESSORY, Accesso'rius, (F.) Accessoire, 
Annexe, same etymon. A consequence or de- 
pendence on any thing; as accessory ligament, 
muscle, nerve, &c. 

Accessory of the Parot'id is a name given 
by Hallcr to a small gland, which accompanies 
tbe parotid duct, and is commonly a mere pro- 
longation of the parotid itself. See Parotid. 

Accessory Sciences to Medicine are those 
which do not relate directly to the science of 
man in a state of health or disease; as physics, 
chemistry, &c. 

Accessory of the Par Vagum, Spinal nerve. 

The term accessory is also given to several 

ACCESSUS, Coition. 

ACCIDENS, Symptoma — a. Oonsecutifs, Con- 
secutive phenomena. 

ACCIDENT, Ac'cidens, fromaccidere, (arfand 
cadere,) 'to happen.' A casualty; an unforeseen 
event. The French use the term in nearly the 
same sense as symptom. It means also an unex- 
pected symptom. 

ACCIDEN'TAL, AdvenW'tious. That which 
happens unexpectedly. 

The French give the name Tissns acciaenteU, 
to those adventitious textures, that aro th# result 
of a morbid process. 




ACCIP'ITER, Hi'erax, \cpa^, 'the hawk,' from 
accipere (ad and capio,) 'to take.' Menec'ratis 
Accip'iter. (F.) Epervier. A bandage applied 
over the nose, so called from its likeness to the 
claw of a hawk. 

ACCLI'MATED, Clima'ti assue'tus, (from ad 
and clivia.) A word of recent introduction from 
the French, which means 'accustomed to a cli- 

ACGLTMA TEMENT, Acclimation. 

ACCLIMATION, Seasoning. (F.) Acclimate- 
ment. The act of becoming acclimated, or accus- 
tomed to a climate. 

The constitution of a person, who goes to live 
in another and a very different climate, usually 
experiences changes, which are frequently of an 
unfavourable character, and the study of which 
is of considerable importance in medicine. 

ACCOM'PANIMENT, Adjun'ction. (F.) Ac- 
compagncment, (compagnon, 'an associate.') That 
which is joined to any thing. 

Accompaniment to the cataract is a whitish, 
viscid substance, which sometimes surrounds the 
opake crystalline, and remains after the operation 
for cataract, causing a secondary cataract. 

ACCOUCHEE, Puerpera. 

ACCOUCHEMENT, Parturition— a. Labori- 
ous, Dystocia — a. Contre nature, see Presentation, 
preternatural — a. Laborieux, Laborious labour. 

ACCOUCHEUR, (F.) Adju'tor Partus, Ob- 
etet'ricans, Obstetri" cius, Maieu'ter, Maieu'tes. 
He who practises the art of midwifery. A physi- 
cian-Accoucheur, a Surgeon-Accoucheur, a Man- 
midwife, &c. 




ACCRE'TION, Accre'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
creecere, 'to increase." Augmentation; also, in- 
crease by juxtaposition. 


ACCUSATIO, Indication. 

ACE'DIA, Incu'ria, from a, privative, and 
Krjdoi, 'care.' Want of care, neglect. Also, fa- 
tigue. — Hippocrates. 

ACELLA, Axilla. 

ACENINOSUS, Curative. 

ACEOGNOSIA, Pharmacognosia. 

ACEOLOGIA, Materia Medica. 

ACEPHALIA, see Acephalous. 

ACEPH'ALOBRACHUS, from a, privative, 
KtfaXr), 'head,' and j3pa^iu>v, 'arm.' A foetus 
without head or arms. 

ACEPHALOCHI'RUS, from a, privative, K c- 
iia\ri, 'head,' and %up, 'hand.' A foetus without 
head or hands. 

ACEPHALOCYST, Acephalocys'tis, from a, 
privative, Kt<pa\ri, 'head,' and kv<ttis, 'bladder.' 
A hydatiform vesicle, without head or visible 
organs, ranked amongst the Entozoa, although 
possessed of few animated characteristics. In no 
organ of the body are acephalocysts so frequently 
found as in the liver. Generally it is the 'mul- 
tiple acephalocyst,' A. socia'lin seu prolif'era, 
which is met with. At times, however, it is the 
'solitary acephalocyst,' A. eremi'ta seu ster'ilis. 

The acephalocystis cndog"ena has a firm coat, 
and is composed of different layers, which have 
numbers of smaller hydatids within them, and 
are thrown off from the interior of the parent 
cyst. This species has hence been termed en- 
dogena, to distinguish it from the A. exog"ena 
of ruminant animals, in which the young vesicles 
are developed from the exterior of the parent 
vesicle. — See Hydatid. 

ACEPHALOGAS'TER, Athoracoceph'alus, 
from a privative, K c<pa.\n, 'head,' and yatrrt,p, 'the 
belly.' A name given to monsters devoid of head, 

chest, and abdomen ; or to those which have an 
abdomen, but no chest or head. 

ACEPHALOS'TOMA, from a privative, >cc<pa*v, 
' head,' and aroaa, ' mouth.' An acephalous foetus, 
at the upper part of which there is an opening 
resembling a mouth. 

ACEPHALOTHO'RUS, from a privative, 
KcfaXr,, 'head,' and Swpaf. ' chest,' Apectoceph altts. 
A monster devoid of head or chest. 

ACEPH'ALOUS, from a privative, and Ke<paM, 
'head.' A monster born devoid of head. The 
condition is called Acepha'lia. 
ACER, Acrid. 

Acer Palmifolium, A. Saccharinum. 
Acer Sacchari'num, A. palm ifo' Hum. 3taple, 
Sugar Maple. (F.) Erable. This tree contains 
a large amount of sweet sap, whence a consider- 
able quantity of sugar may be extracted. When 
purified, this sugar can scarcely be distinguished 
from that obtained from the cane. — See Saccha- 

Acera'tes Longifo'lia, Long-leaved green 
Milkweed; Order, Asclepiadaceae ; indigenous, 
flowering in June and July ; has the properties 
of the order. See Asclepias. 

ACERATO'SIS, from a privative, and rtpaj, 
'horn.' Defective development of the corneous 

ACERB', Acer'bus, Stryphnos, from acer, 
'sharp.' A savour, or taste, compounded of the 
acid, bitter, and astringent; such as is met with 
in unripe fruits, &c. 

ACER'CUS, from a privative, and KtpKog, 'a 
tail.' A monster devoid of tail. — Gurlt. 

ACE'RIDES, Acero'des, from a privative, and 
xqpos, ' wax.' Plasters devoid of wax. — Galen. 

ACERODES, Acerides. 

ACERO'SUS, Achyro'des, Pitht/ri' nits, from 
a-^vpov, ' chaff.' Furfura' ceous. An epithet used 
by Hippocrates, for the coarsest bread, made of 
flour not separated from the chaff. — Foesius. 

— a. Glandulus Pinealis, see Pineal Gland. 

ACES'CENCY, Acescen'tia, from acescere, 'to 
grow sour,' (a*ty, 'a point,' acer, 'sharp.') A dis- 
position to acidity. The humourists believed that 
the animal humours are susceptible of this change. 

ACESIA, Cure. 

ACESIS, Curation, Cure, Medicament. 

ACESMA, Medicament. 

ACESMIUS, Curable. 




ACESTER, Physician. 

ACESTIS, Medicament 

ACESTOR, Physician. 

ACESTORIA, Medicine. 

ACESTORIS, Midwife. 

ACESTOS, Curable. 

ACESTRA, Needle. 

ACESTRIA, Midwife. 

ACESTRIS, Midwife. 

ACESTRUM, Medicament. 



ACETAB'ULUM, from acetnm, 'vineo-ar'be 
cause it resembles the old vinegar vessel ' oxv 
baph'ion. A measure capable of conteinin'o- \C 
eighth part of a modern pint. Athenseus Galen 
See Cotyloid. According to Castelli, the lobes or 
cotyledons of the placentae of ruminating animnl. 
have been so called. ° <""mai3 

Acetabulum, Cotyle, Cotyloid— a. Humeri se « 
Glenoid— a. Marinum, Umbilicus marinus ' 

ACETA'RIA, same etymon. A salad or 
pickle. w 

ACETAS, Acetate. 




ACETATE, Ace'taa. A salt formed by the 
union of the acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, 
or metallic base. The acetates chiefly used in 
medicine are the acetates of ammonia, lead, 
potash, and zinc. 

ACE'TICA, Ace'ta Medica'ta. (F.) Yinaigres 
Medicinaux. Pharmaceutical preparations of 

ACE'TICUM AC'IDUM, Acidum Ace'ticum 
for' tius, A. A. forte, A. Ace'ticum purum, Ace' turn 
radica'le, Oxos, Ace'tic Acid, Strong Ace'tous 
Acid, Acidum Aceto'aum forte, Rad'iccd Vin'egar. 
Spir'itus Ven'eris (when made from verdigris,) 
Spirit of Verdigris. Concentrated acetic acid, 
prepared by decomposing an acetate and receiv- 
ing the acetic acid by distillation, has a very 
pungent and grateful odour, and an acid and 
acrid taste. Its s. g. is about 1.046, and it is 
very volatile. 

It is stimulant, rubefacient, and eseharotic, and 
is applied to the nostrils in syncope, asphyxia, 
headache, <fec. It destroys warts. 

An Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar, Ac" idum Ace'- 
ticum Oamphora'tum, A. aceto' sum camphora' turn, 
is formed of this strong acid, ^vj, Camphor, ^ss, 
01. Caryoph. gtt. xv. 

A strong Acetic Acid was ordered by the Lon- 
don pharmacopoeia prepared from wood. It was 
called Vinegar of wood, Improved distilled Vine- 
gar, Pyrolig'neous Acid, Ace' turn Ligno'rum, and 
its strength was such, that 87 gr. of crystallized 
Bubcarbonate of soda should saturate 100 grains 
of the acid. 

Ac"idum Ace'ticum Dilu'tum, A. A. ten'ne, Ace'- 
tum destilla 'turn, Acidum ace'ticum, Acidum aceto'- 
sinn d est ilia' turn, Acidum ace'ticum debil'ius, l)is- 
til'led vin'egar, (F.) Acide Acetique faible, Vi- 
naigre distille, is prepared by distilling vinegar, 
until seven-eighths have passed over. An Aci- 
dum aceticum dilutum, Diluted acetic acid, is 
made by mixing half a pint of the strong acetic 
acid with live pints of distilled water. — Ph. U. S. 
Its properties are like those of vinegar. 

Aceticum Martiale, Ferri Acetas. 

ACETONE, from acetum, 'vinegar.' Spir'itus 
pyro-ace'ticics ligno'sus, Pyro-ace'tic spirit, Pyro- 
ace'tic, Ether, Mesit'ic Al'cohol, Bihydrate of 
Mesit'ylene ; erroneously called Naphtha and 
Wood Naphtha. A limpid, colourless liquid, 
having a peculiarly penetrating and slightly em- 
pyreumatic odour. Its density in the liquid state, 
is almost the same as that of alcohol, 0.7921. Its 
taste is disagreeable, and analogous to that of 
peppermint. It is miscible in all proportions 
with water, alcohol, and ether. It may be pre- 
pared by distilling a mixture of two parts of 
crystallized acetate of lead and one part of quick- 
lime in a salt-glaze jar (gray-beard,) the lower 
part of the jar being coated with fire-clay; and 
a bent glass tube, half an inch in diameter, 
adapted to the mouth by a cork, so as to form a 
distillatory apparatus. The jar is supported on 
the mouth of a small furnace, by which the lower 
part only is heated to redness, and the vapours 
are conducted into a Liebig's condenser. The 
product is repeatedly redistilled from quicklime, 
until its boiling point is constant at 132°. 

It has been brought forward as a remedy in 
phthisis pulmonalis; but evidently with un- 
founded pretensions. It is an excitant, and may 
be serviceable in chronic bronchitis. The dose 
is ten to forty drops three times a day, diluted 
with water. 

ACETOSA ALPENA, Rumex alpinus — a. 
Nostras, Rumex acetosa — a. Pratensis, Rumex 
acetosa — a. Romana, Rumex seutatus — a. Ro- 
tundifolia, Rumex seutatus — a. Scutata, Rumex 
icutatus — a. Vulgaris, Rumex acetosa. 

ACETOSELLA, Oxalis acetosella. 

ACE'TUM, o$vs, Ojcys, Ace'tum Vini, A. Bri- 
tan'nicum, Common Vinegar, Acidum aceto'sum, 
A' legar, Ace'tum Cerevis'ice, (F.) Vinaigre ; from 
aKif, ' a point,' acer, ' sharp.' A liquor obtained 
by the acetous fermentation. Vinegar has a pun- 
gent odour, and a pleasant acid taste. One fluid 
ounce of the Acetum of the United States Phar- 
macopoeia is saturated by about 35 grains of 
crystallized bicarbonate of soda. It is refrigerant 
in fevers; antiseptic, and anti-narcotic; and ex- 
ternally is stimulant and discutient. 

Vinegar Whey is made by stirring a small 
wineglassful of vinegar, sweetened with a dessert 
spoonful of sugar, in a pint of milk ; boiling for 
fifteen minutes, and straining. Like tamarind 
whey it is an agreeable drink in febrile affections. 

Ace'tum Aromat'icum, Acidum Ace'ticum Aro- 
mat'icum, Ace'tum Theriaca'le, A. quatuor furum, 
Thieves' Vinegar, Vinegar of the four Thieves^ 
Marseilles Vinegar, (F.) Vinaigre Aromatique^ 
V. des quatre voleurs, (Rorismarin. caevm. sice, 
Fol. Salvia sing. ^j. Larand. for. sice. giv. Ca- 
ryoph. cont. gss. Acid. Acet. Oij. Macerate 7 days, 
and filter. — Ph. E.) Odour, pungent and aroma- 
tic. Used as a perfume. 

Acetum Britannicum, Acetum. 

Ace'tum Canthar'idis, Vinegar of Cantha- 
rides, (Oantharid. in pulv. £iij. Acid. acet. f 5v., 
Acid, pyrolign. f^xv: Euphorh. in pulv. crass, 
^ss. Mix the acids; add the powders; macerate 
for seven days ; strain ; express strongly, and 
filter the liquor. — Ph. E. The London College 
macerates oantharid. 3u in acid. acet. Oj. for 
eight days; expresses and strains.) It is used 
as a prompt vesicant. 

Ace'tum Col'chici, Vinegar of meadow saffron. 
(Colchic. rad. contus. ^ij ; Acid, acetic, dilut. seu 
Acet. destillat. Oij ; Ph. IT. S. 1851. It may also 
be made by displacement.) It is used as a diu- 
retic, and also in gout. Dose f ^ss. to giss. 

Acetum Destillatum ; see Aceticum acidum 
— a. Lignorum : see Aceticum acidum — a. Mul- 
sum dulce, Oxyglycus — a. Opii, Gutta3 Nigras — 
a. Quatuor furum, Acetum Aromaticum — a. Ra- 
dicale, Aceticum Acidum — a. Rosatum Oxyrrho. 
din on. 

Acetum Scill^E, Acidum Ace'ticum Scillit'- 
icum. Vinegar of Squills, (F.) Vinaigre scilli- 
tique, (Scillm contus. ^iv; Acet. destillat. Oij; 
Ph. U. S. It may also be made by displace- 
ment.) Diuretic, expectorant, and emetic. Dose 
f ^ss to £ij as a diuretic and expectorant. 

Acetum Theriacale, Acetum aromaticum. 

ACEYTE DE SAL. A remedy for broneho- 
cele used in S. America. Roulin found it to con- 
tain a portion of iodine. 

ACHACANA. A species of cactus, in the pro- 
vince of Potosi in Peru. Its root is thick and 
fleshy, and of a conical shape. It is a good edi- 
ble, and is sold in the markets of the country. 

ACHANACA. A' plant of the kingdom of 
Mely in Africa. It is used by the natives as an 

ACHAOVAN, a species of Egyptian chamo- 
mile. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ACHAOVAN-ABIAT. The Egyptian name 
of Cineraria maritima, used in female diseases. 

ACHAR, Atchar. 

ACHE, Apium graveolens — a. des Montagnes, 
Ligusticum levisticum. 

ACIIEI'LIA, Achi'lia, from a, priv., and XfiXoy, 
'lip.' A malformation, consisting in a deficiency 
of a lip or lips. 

A''|[EI'LUS, Achi'lus, same etymon. One 
who is without lips. 

ACHEIR, Achir, De'manus, from a, privative, 
and %up, 'hand.' One d( Void of hands. — Galon. 




ACITET'IUA, Aehi'ria: same etymon. The 
state of being devoid of hands. 

ACHEROIS, Populua. 

ACHIA, Ackiar. A name given in InHia to 
the pickled shoots cf the bamboo. 

Aohia, Atchar. 

ACHIA?., Aohia. 

ACHIC'OLUM, AehWohu, Hidrote'r'«->, Su- 
da'riam, Fornix, Tholus, Sudato'rium. The 
sweating-room in the ancient bagnios. 

ACHILLA, Acheilia. 

ACHILLE'A AGE'RATUM, A. Vi*e*!m, Bal- 
sami'ta fiemiu'ea, Eupato'rium mes'ues, Age'ra- 
tum, Cot' t us horto'rum minor, Maudlin, Maudlin 
Tanseif ; (F.) Achillee Visqueuse ; Nat. Ord. 
Composite ; Sub. Ord. Anthemidea? ; Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesia Polygamia superflua, — has the same 
properties as tansey, bitter and aromatic, and is 
used in like affections. 

Achille'a Atra'ta, Herba Gen'ipi veri, (F.) 
Aclii//i'<i Noire, has similar virtues. 

Achille'a Millefolium, Achille'a Myrio- 
phyl'lon, Chrgsoe'oma, Millefo'lium, QhiliophyV- 
lon, Lumbue Ven'cris, Common Yarrow or Mil- 
foil. (F.) Millefeuille. The leaves and flowers 
have an aromatic smell, and a rough, bitterish, 
somewhat pungent taste. They have been used 
in dyspepsia, flatulence, <fec. An extract of the 
plant, made with proof spirit, has been called 
Achille'i'num : and is used by the Italians in in- 
termittent fever. 

Achille'a Ptar'mica, Pseudo-py'reihrum, 

(F.) Herbe a eternuer. The roots and flowers 
have a hot, biting taste, approaching that of py- 
rethruui. Their principal use is as a masticatory 
ami sialogogue. 

Achillea Viscosa, A. Ageratum. 

ACHILLEE NOIRE, Achillea atrata — a. 
Visqueuse, Achillea ageratum. 

ACIIILLEINUM, see Achillea Millefolium. 

ACHILLE'IS. A beautiful species of barley, 
mentioned by Theophrastus and Galen, called 
after Achilles, a labourer. The decoction was 
used in fevers and jaundice. — Hippocrates. 

ACHIL'LIS TENDO, Funis Hippoc'ratis, 
Corda seu Chorda HlPPOC'RATIS, Corda magna, 
Nervus latus, (F.) Tendon d'Achille. The strong 
tendon of the gastrocnemii muscles above the 
heel : so called, because it was the only vulnera- 
ble part of Achilles, or because of its strength. 
See Tendon. 

ACHILUS, Acheilus. 
. ACHIMBASSI. An archiater or chief of phy- 
sicians. A name given, at Grand Cairo, to a 
magistrate who licenses physicians. 

ACHIR, Aeheir. 

ACHIRIA, Acheiria. 

ACHITOLUS, Achicolum. 

ACIILYS, Caligo. 

ACHMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 

ACHNE. Lint. See Linteum. Also, small 
mucous flocculi seen in front of the cornea.— 

ACHOL'IA, from a, privative, and voXn, 'bile ' 
Deficiency or want of bile. 

ACH'OLUS : same etymon. One deficient in 

ACHOR, Porrigo larvalis. 

ACHO'RES. A term often employed by the 
ancients to designate both crusta lac'tea, and 
small superficial ulcerations on the skin of the 
face and head. See Porrigo Larvalis 

Achores Capitis, Porrigo scutulata. 

tosa. h 

ACHORIS'TUS, from a, priv., and X' P'Z°>f '* 
separate.' Any sign which necessarily accompa- 
nies a state of health or disease. 

ACHOUROU. The Caraib name for a species 
of myrtle used in dropsy. 

ACHRAS AUSTRALIS, Sapota— a. Sapota, 
Sapota — a. Zapota, Sapota. 

ACHROI, Achromatis'ti, Achro'mati, Achro mi, 
from a, privative, and x?"!" 1 ' ' colour -' Pale in 
viduals.— Hippocrates. It is nearly synonymous 
with XcKpai/iot, leiphce'mia, persons without colour; 

ACHROMASIA, Decoloration. 

AC H ROM AT I, Achroi. 

ACHROMAT'IC, Achromat'icus ; same etymon. 
A lens, so constructed as to correct the aberration 
of refrangibility of common lenses, is so termed. 
The Crystalline is an achromatic lens. 


A C H R M A TOPSIA, Chromatopseudop'sia, 
Ohromatometablep'sta, Dyaehr&matop' sia, Para- 
chro'ma, Parora'sis, Visits de' color, Colour blind- 
ness, Idiop'tcy, Dal'tonism, from a, privative, xpu>- 
fia, 'colour,' and ottto^oi, 'I see.' Incapability of 
distinguishing colours; a defect situate in the ce- 
rebral part of the visual organ. Persons so cir- 
cumstanced have been termed by Mr. Whewell, 
Idiopts. See Acyanoblepsia and Anerythropsia. 

ACHROMI, Achroi. 

ACHYLO'SIS, from a, privative, and ^uXoy, 
'juice, chyle.' Defective chylosis or formation 
of chyle. 

ACHYMO'SIS, from a, privative, and ^u/ioj, 
'juice, chyme.' Defective chymification. 

ACHYRODES, Acerosus. 

ACHYRON, Furfur. 

A'CIA, from amq, a point. A word used by 
Celsus, which has puzzled commentators, — some 
believing it to have meant a needle ; others the 
thread; and others, again, the kind of suture. 
" Acia mollis, non nimis torta." — Celsus, Galen. 
(Chiffiet thinks it meant the thread. — Antwerp, 

ACID, Ac"idus, Oxys. (F.) Acide, Aigre, from 
axe?, 'a point;' sharp; sour; especially as ap- 
plied to odorous or sapid substances. The French 
also use the term aigre, when referring to the 
voice, in the sense of sharp and shrill: — as uns 
voix aigre, vox aspera. 

Acid, Acetic, Aceticum acidum — a. Acetic, 
dilute, see Aceticum acidum. 

Acid, Acetous, Strong, Aceticum acidum 
— a. Aerial, Carbonic acid — a. Antimonious, 
Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. Arsenious, Arse- 
nicum album— a. Auric, see Gold— a. A:/ .tie. Ni- 
tric acid — a. Benzoic, Benjamin, flowers of a. 

Boric, Boracic acid— a. Calcareous, Carbonic acid 
— a. Carbonaceous, Carbonic acid — a. Carbonous 
Oxalic acid— a. Chromic, see Chromic acid— a! 
Citric, Citric acid— a. Cyanhydric, Hydrocyanic 
acid— a. Cyanohydric, Hydrocyanic acid— a. 
Gastric, Gastric juice. 

Acid, Gallic, Ac"idum Gall'icum. (F.) Acid* 
Gall, que. This acid is found in most of the astrin- 
gent plants that contain tannic acid of the kind 
obtained from galls. It is in delicate silky nee 
dies, usually somewhat yellowish, inodorous, and 
of a harsh, somewhat astringent taste. It dis 
solves in one hundred parts of cold and three 
parts of boiling water. It is very soluble in alco 
hoi, and but slightly so in ether. 

It has been highly extolled in internal hemor 
rhage, especially from the urinary organs and 
uterus. Dose from ten to twenty grains. 

The last Pharmacopoeia of the United States 
(1851) directs it to be made by exposing a th 
paste of powdered galls and distilled voter for 
month, adding the water from time to time to pre* 




serve the consistence ; expressing the paste ; boil- 
ing the residue in distilled water; filtering through 
animal charcoal, and crystallizing. 

Acid, Hippu'ric, Ac"idwm Hippu'rieum, Uro- 
ben'zoio acid. An acid found in the urine of gra- 
minivorous animals. It is contained in human 
urine, especially after benzoic acid has been taken. 
See Hipyuria. 

Acid, Hydriod'ic, Ac"idum Rydriod'icum. 
This acid is made by mixing solutions of iodide 
of potassium and tartaric acid; filtering the liquor 
to separate the bitartrate of potassa, and adding 
water to make the resulting hydriodic acid of de- 
finite strength. 

It has been used in the same cases as the pre- 
parations of iodine in general, but is rarely em- 

Acid, Hydrochloronitric, Nitro-muriatic acid 
— a. Hydrocyanic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
cyanic, dilute, see Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
sulphuric, Hydrogen, sulphuretted— a. Hydrothi- 
onic, Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. Igasuric : see 
Jatropha curcas. 

Acid, Iodic, Ac"idum lod'icum, (F.) Acide 
Jodique. This is obtained by boiling iodine 
with nitric acid; or by decomposing iodate of 
baryta by dilute sulphuric acid. It is a white, 
transparent solid, slightly deliquescent, and very 
soluble in water. It has been given with sulphate 
of quinia in hoarseness, scrofula, incipient phthisis, 
chronic inflammation, syphilis, <&c. Dose three to 
six grains, or more. 

Acid op Lemons, Citric acid — a. Lithic, Uric 
acid — a. Dephlogisticated marine, Chlorine — 
a. Mephitic, Carbonic acid — a. of Milk, Lactic 
acid — a. Muriatic, see Muriaticum acidum — a. 
Muriatic, dilute, Muriaticum acidum — a. Ni- 
tric, see Nitric acid — a. Nitric, dilute, see Nitric 
Acid— a. Nitro-hydrochloric, Nitro-muriatic acid 
— a. Nitro-Muriatic, see Nitro-Muriatic Acid — a. 
Nitrous, dephlogisticated, Nitric acid — a. Oxysep- 
tonic, Nitric acid — a. Polygalic : see Polygala se- 
nega — a. Prussic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyrolig- 
neous : see Aceticum acidum — a. Pyrolignic, Py- 
roligneous acid — a. of Sorrel, Oxalic acid — a. of 
Sugar, Oxalic acid — a. Sulphuric, see Sulphuric 
acid — a. Tannic, Tannin — a. Uric, Uric acid — a. 
Urobenzoic, A. Hippuric — a. Urous, Uric oxide — 
a. Urylic. Uric acid — a. Chromique, Chromic acid. 

acidum — a. Boracique, Boracic acid — a. Chro- 
mique, Chromic acid — a. Gallique, Acid, gallic 
— a. Hydrocyanique, Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
Hydrosulfurique, Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. 
Jodique, Acid, iodic — a. Lactique, Lactic acid — 
a. Ndtrique, Nitric acid — a. Phoephorique, Phos- 
phoric acid — a. Prussique, Hydrocyanic acid — a. 
gidfureux, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulfurique, Sul- 
phuric acid— a. Sulfurique delay e, Sulphuricum 
acidum dilutum — a. Tannique, Tannin. 

ACIDITATTO, Acidities. 

ACID'ITIES, Aco'res, Acidita'tio, Ac"idum 
morbo'sum, Ae"idum prima' rum via'rum, Oxytes, 
Sordes ac'' 'idee. (F.) Aigreurs. Sourness of tho 
Stomach, the result of indigestion, indicated by 
acid eructations, ifec. The affection is very com- 
mon in children, and must be obviated by absorb- 
ents, as magnesia, chalk, &c, and by regulated 

ACIDOLOG'TA, from a»cif, 'a point, a sharp 
instrument,' and \oyog, 'a description.' A de- 
scription of surgical instruments. 

ACIDOM'ETER, (F.) Acidometre, Pise-acide, 
from acid, and utrpov, measure. A hydrometer 
for determining the density of acids. 

ACIDS, Ac"ida, Aco'res, are liquid, solid, or 
gaseous bodies, possessed of a sour, more or less 
caustic taste, and the principal character of which 

is the capability of saturating, wholly or in part, 
the alkaline properties of bases. 
_ Acids, in general, are refrigerent and antisep- 
tic. Their particular uses are pointed out under 
the individual articles. 

To ACID'ULATE. (F.) Aiguiser, Aciduler. 
To render acidulous, or slightly acid. 

ACID'ULOUS, Acid' ulna, Oxo'des, OxoVdes. 
(F.) Acidule, Aigrelet. Substances are so called 
which possess a sourish taste, as tamarinds, cream 
of tartar, Ac. 

Acidulous Fruits. Oranges, gooseberries, &c. 

Acidulous Waters, Aquce Acidula. Mineral 
waters containing carbonic acid gas sufficient to 
render them sourish. See Waters, mineral. 

Acidulous Water, Simple, Aqua Ac"idi Car- 
bon' ici, (Ph. U. S.) Aqua a'eris fixi, Aqua acid'- 
ula simplex, Liquor seu Aqua Sodm effcrves'cens, 
Aqua Carbona'tis Sodce acid'tda, Soda water, Mi- 
neral water, (F.) Eau Acidule simple, is water 
impregnated with fixed air. 

Water, so impregnated, is cooling, and slightly 
stimulating. It is used beneficially in dyspepsia, 
and in cases of vomiting, &c. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM, Aceticum acidum— a, 
Aceticum aromaticum, Acetum aromaticum — a. 
Aceticum camphoratum : see Aceticum acidum — • 
a. Aceticum dilutum : see Aceticum Acidum — a. 
Aceticum empyreumaticum, Pyroligneous acid — 
a. Aceticum Scilliticum, Acetum scillie — a. Ace- 
tosellaa, Oxalic acid — a. Acetosum, Acetum — a. 
Allantoicum, Allantoic acid — a. Amnicum, Am- 
niotic acid — a. Arsenicosum, Arsenious acid — a. 
Arseniosum, (Ph. U. S.) Arsenious acid — a. Azo- 
ticum, Nitric Acid — a. Benzoicum, Benjamin, 
Flowers of — a. Boracicum, Boracic acid — a. Bo- 
russicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Carbonicum, 
Carbonic acid — a. Citricum, Citric acid — a. Oal- 
licum, Acid, gallic — a. Hydriodicum, Acid hydri- 
odic — a. Hydrocarbonicum, Oxalic acid — a. Hy- 
drochloricum, Muriaticum acidum — a. Hydrocy- 
anicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydrocyanicum 
dilutum, see Hydrocyanic Acid — a. Hydrothioni- 
cum liquidum, see Hydrosulphuretted water — a. 
Iodicum, Acid, iodic — a. Jatrophieum, see Jatro- 
pha curcas — a. Lacticum, Lactic acid — a. Ligne- 
um, Pyroligneous acid — a. Ligni pyro-oleosum, 
Pyroligneous acid — a. Lithicum, Uric acid — a, 
Marinum concentratum, Muriaticum acidum — a. 
Morbosum, Acidities — a. Muriaticum, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Muriaticum dilutum, Muriaticacid — a. 
Muriaticum nitroso-oxygenatum, Nitro-muriatio 
acid — a. Nitri, Nitric acid — a. Nitricum, Nitrio 
acid — a. Nitricum dilutum, Nitric acid — a. Nitro- 
Muriaticum, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Oxalinum, 
Oxalic acid — a. Phosphoricum, Phosphoric acid 
— a. Primarum viarum, Acidities — a. Prussicum, 
Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyro-aceticum, Pyroligne- 
ous acid — a. Pyrolignosum, Pyroligneous acid — 
a. Pyroxylicum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Querci- 
tannicum, Tannin — a. Sacchari, Oxalic acid — a. 
Saccharinum, Oxalic acid — a, Salis, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Salis culinaris, Muriaticum acidum — • 
a. Salis marini, Muriaticum acidum — a. Septicum, 
Nitric acid — a. Succinicum, Succinic acid — a. Sul- 
phuricum, Sulphuric acid — a. Sulphuricum alcoo- 
Iisatum, Elixir acidum Halleri— a. Sulphuricum 
aromaticum, Sulphuric acid, aromatic — a. Sul- 
phuricum dilutum, Sulphuric acid, diluted — a. 
Sulphuris volatile, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulphu- 
rosieum, Sulphurous acid — a. Tannicum, Tannin 
— a. Tartar! essentiale, Tartaric acid — a. Tartari- 
cum, Tartaric acid — a. Tartarosum, Tartaric acid 
— a. Uricum, Uric acid — a. Urolithicum, Urio 
acid — a. Vitriolicum, Sulphuric acid — a. Vitrioli- 
cum aromaticum, Sulphuricum acidum aromati- 
cum — a. Vitriolicum alcohole aromaticum, Sul- 
phuricum acidum aromaticum — a. Vitriolicum 




vinosum, Elixir acidum Halleri— a. Zooticum, 
Hydrocyanic acid— a. Zootinicum, Hydrocyanic 

ACIDURGIA, Surgery (operative.) 

ACIER, Chalybs. 

ACIES, Chalybs— a. Digitorum manus, Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Diurna, Hemeralopia. 

ACINE'SIA, Acine'sis, Akine'sia, Immobil'i- 
ias, Quies, Rcquies, Requie'tio, Esych'ia, Erem'ia, 
from a, privative, and kutjvis, motion,' kivcid, 'I 
move.' Rest. Immobility. Also, the interval 
between the systole and diastole of the heart — 

Under the term Acineses, Remberg includes 
the paralytic neuroses, or those that are charac- 
terized by defect of motive power. 

ACINI OF MALPIGHI, Corpora Malpighia^a. 


ACINUS, Ac"inus glandulo'sus, from ac" inus, 
' a grape-stone.' A glandiform corpuscle or gra- 
nulation, in which secretion was supposed to take 
place, and the excretory radicle to arise. Acini 
are the glob'uli arteria'rum ter'mini of Nichols. 
The term ac"ini glandulo'si has also been given 
to glands, which, like the pancreas, are arranged 
as it were in clusters. See Lobule. 

ACIPENSER, see Ichthyocolla. 

ACIURGIA, Surgery, (operative.) 


ACMAS'TICUS, from aKurj, 'the top,' and mau), 
1 1 remain.' A fever which preserves an equal 
degree of intensity throughout its course. It is 
also called Homot' onos. The Greeks gave it the 
name of Epacmas' ticos, and Syn'ochos, when it 
went on increasing, — and Paracmas' ticos, when 
it decreased. — Galen. 

ACME, Vigor, Cor'yphe, Culmina'tio, Status, 
F<mtig"ium. The period of a disease at which 
the symptoms are most violent. Arche, A.pxi> * s 
'the commencement;' anab'asis, ava(3aais, 'the 
period of increase;' and acme, aKuti, 'the height.' 

ACMELLA, Spilanthus acmella — a. Mauriti- 
ana, Spilanthus acmella. 

ACMON, Incus. 

ACNE, Acna, Ion'thus varus, Varus, Psydra'cia 
Acne, Stone Pock, Whelk, Bubucle, (F.) Dartre 
pustuleuse disscminie. A small pimple or tuber- 
cle on the face. — Gorraaus. Foe'sius thinks the 
word ought to be Acme ; and, according to Cas- 
eius, it is, at all events, derived from aKurj, 'vi- 
gour;' the disease affecting those in the vigour 
of life, especially. 

Willan and Bateman have adopted the term in 
their Nosology of cutaneous diseases, and placed 
it in the Order, Tubercula. Acne, with them, is 
an eruption of distinct, hard, inflamed tubercles, 
sometimes continuing for a considerable length 
of time, and sometimes suppurating slowly and 
partially. They usually appear on the forehead, 
temples and chin, and are common to both sexes; 
but the most severe forms are seen in young men. 
They require but little management, and consist 
of four varieties ; Acne indura'ta, A. simplex, 
{Haplodcne,) A. puncta'ta {Ion'thus varus punc- 
ta'tus, Punctce muco'sie, Comedo 'ties or Mdhgot 
Pimple,) and A. rosa'cea. — See Gutta Rosea.' 

Acne Rosacea, Gutta rosea — a. of the Throat, 
Pharyngitis, follicular. 

ACNES'TIS, from a, privative, and xvaeiv, 'to 
scratch.' The part of the spine which extends, 
in quadrupeds, from between the shoulders to the 
loins. According to Pollux, the middle of the 
loins. The vertebral column. 

ACNESTOS, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ACOE, Audition, Ear. 

ACCE'LIOS. from a, privative, and Kotha, tielly.' 
Devoid of belly. One who is so emaciated as "to 
appear to have no belly. — Galen. 

ACOEMETER, Acoumeter. 

ACOEMETRUM, Acoumeter. 


ACOESIS, Audition. 

ACOGNOSIA, Pharmacognosia. 

ACOLASIA, Intemperance. 

ACOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ACONE, Mortar. 

cammarum — a. Salutaire, Aconitum anthora. 

ACONITA, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITE, Aconitum— a. Folia, see Aconitum 
— a. Radix, see Aconitum. 

ACONITI FOLIA, see Aconitum — a. Radix, 
see Aconitum. 

ACONITIA, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITIN, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITINE, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONITIUM, see Aconitum napellus. 

ACONI'TUM, from Ac'one, a place in Bithy- 
nia, where it is common. Cynoc'tonon, Parda- 
lian'ches, Par dalian' chum, Oanici'da, Ac'onite, 
Wolfsbane, Monkshood. Nat. Ord. Ranuncula- 
cese. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Trigynia. 

Aconitum, Aconite, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, 1842, is the leaves of Aconi- 
tum napellus, and A. paniculatum. In the last 
edition, 1851, Aconiti folia is the officinal name 
for the leaves ; Aconiti radix for that of the root. 

Aconi'tum An'thora, Aconi'tum Salutif'erum, 
seu nemoro'sum seu Candol'lei seu Jacquini seu 
eul'ophum seu anthoro'ideum, An'thora vulga'ris, 
An'thora, Antith'ora, Sal'utary Monkshood, 
Wholesome Wolfsbane, Yellow helmet fioicer. 
(F.) Aconit salutaire. The root of this variety, 
as of all the rest, is poisonous. It is used as a 
cathartic and anthelmintic. Dose Qss to Qj. 

Aconitum Anthoroideum, A. anthora. 

Aconi'tum Cam'marum, A. panicula'tum, A. 
macran'thum, A. Kusnezo'vii, (F.) Aconit ct 
grands fleurs, resembles Aconitum Napellus in 

Aconitum Candollei, A. anthora — a. Eulo- 
phum, A. anthora — a. Jacquini, A. anthora — a. 
Kusnezovii, A. cammarum — a. Macranthum, A. 

Aconi'tum Napel'lus, Napel'lus vents, Aco- 
ni'tum, Common Monkshead or Wolfsbane, A. Ne- 
omonta'num. (F.) Chaperon de Maine. The leaves 
are narcotic, sudorific, and deobstruent (?) They 
have been used in chronic rheumatism, scrofula, 
scirrhus, paralysis, amaurosis, <tc. The active 
principle is called Aconit'ia, Aconiti'na, Aconi'ta, 
Aconit'ium or Aconitine. A form for its prepara- 
tion is contained in the Ph. U. S. (1851.) It is 
made by treating an alcoholic extract of the root 
with dilute sulphuric acid; precipitating by solu- 
tion of ammonia; dissolving the precipitate in 
dilute sulphuric acid; treating with animal char- 
coal; again precipitating with solution of ammo- 
nia; washing with water, and drying. It re- 
quires 150 parts of cold and 50 of boiling water 
to dissolve it, but is readily dissolved by alcohol 
and ether. It neutralizes the acids, and forms 
with them uncrystallizable salts. It has been 
used internally, and especially applied exter- 
nally, in neuralgic cases, iatraleptically and en- 
dermieally. Dose of Aconitum, gr. j. to gr. iij. 

Aconitum Nemorosum, A. anthora — a. Neo- 
montanum, A. napellus — a. Paniculatum, A. cam- 
marum — a. Racemosum, Actaea spicata — a. Salu- 
tiferum, A. anthora. 

ACONU'SI, Acoen'osi, Acobn'osi, from oko?) 
'audition.' and vovoos, 'disease.' Morbi au'rium 
ct audi' tils. Diseases of the ears and audition 

ACOONOSI, Aconusi. 

ACOPIS. Same etymon as the next. Pliny 




gives this name to a precious stone, which was 
boiled in oil and used against weariness. 

ACOPON, from a, privative, and xo-nos, 'weari- 
ness.' A remedy against weariness — Foesius, Gor- 
rseus, &c. Ac'opum, — Celsus, Pliny. SeeAnagyris. 

ACOPRIA, Constipation. 

ACOPROSIS, Constipation. 

ACOR BENZOINUS, Benjamin— a. Boraci- 
cus, Boracic acid — a. Succineus, Succinic acid — 
a. Sulphuris, Sulphuric acid— a. Tartaricus, Tar- 
taric acid. 

AGO RE BAT ARE, Iris pseudacorus — a. 
Faux, Iris pseudacorus — a. Odorant, Acorus 

ACORES, Acids, and Acidities. 

ACOR'IA, from a, privative, and xoptoi, 'I sa- 
tiate.' An inordinate or canine appetite. — Hip- 

ACORI'TES. A wine made of Acorus.— Dios- 

ACOR'MUS, from a, privative, and nopfios, 
' trunk.' A monster devoid of a trunk. — Gurlt. 

ACORN, JUPITER'S, Fagus castanea— a. 
Oily, Guilandina moringa — a. Sardinian, Fagus 

ACORNS. See Quercus alba. 

ACORUS ADULTERINUS, Iris pseudacorus. 

Ac'ORUS CAL'AMUS. A. Verus, Cal'amvs Aro- 
mat'icus, C. Odora'tus, Cal'amus vulga'ris, Typha 
Aromat'ica, Acorus Brazilien'sis, Clava Rugo'sa, 
Sweetfag or Ac'orus, Flagroot, Sweet cane, Myrtle 
Flag, Sweet grass, Sweet root, Sweet rush. (F.) 
J one roseau ou Canne aromatique, Acore odorant. 
Nat. Ord. Aroideae ; Acoraeese. (Lindley.) Sex. 
Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. The rhizoma — Cal'- 
amus (Ph. U. S.) — is stomachic and carminative, 
but is rarely used. It is regarded as a good ad- 
juvant to bark in quinia and intermittents. 

Ac'orus Palustris, Iris pseudacorus — a. Vul- 
garis, Iris pseudacorus. 

ACOS, Medicament. 

ACOS'MIA, from a, privative, and koouos, 'or- 
der, ornament,' Disorder, irregularity in the 
critical days, according to Galen, who uses the 
word Koajxog for regularity in those days. Others, 
and particularly Pollux, call bald persons aKoapoi, 
because they are deprived of one of their most 
beautiful ornaments. 

ACOUM'ETER, Acoubm'eter, Acoem'eter, Aco- 
Sm'etrum, Acu' meter, Acusim'eter, (F.) Acoumetre, 
from aicovu), ' I hear,' and uerpov, ' measure.' An 
instrument designed by M. Itard for measuring 
the degree of hearing. 

ACOUMETRE. Acoumeter. 

ACOUOPHO'NIA, Copho'nia; from okovu), 
'I hear,' and <p<ovrt, 'voice,' "Auscultatory Per- 
cys' sion." A mode of auscultation, in which the 
observer places his ear on the chest, and analyzes 
the sound produced by percussion. — Donn6. 

ACOUS'MA, an imaginary noise. Depraved 
sense of hearing. 

ACOUS'TIC, Acus'ticus. That which belongs 
to the ear; as Acoustic nerve, Acoustic trumpet. 

Acoustic Medicine is one used in diseased au- 

Acotjs'tics, Acus'tica. (F.) Acoustique. The 
part of physics which treats of the theory of 
sounds. It is also called Phonics. 

A CO USTIQ UE, Acoustics. 

ACQUA BINELLI, Aqua Binellii— a. Broc- 
chieri, Aqua Brocchierii — a. Monterossi, Aqua 
Binellii — a. di Napoli, Liquor arsenicalis — a. 
della Toffana, Liquor arsenicalis. 

ACQUETTA, Liquor Arsenicalis. 

thermal sulphureous springs are in Piemont. 
Their temperature is 167° Fahr., and they con- 
tain sulphohydric acid and chloride of sodium. 

ACQUIRED DISEASES, Morhi acquisi'li, 
M. adventi'tii, M. epicte'ti. Adventitious diseases. 
(F.) Maladies acquises. Diseases, which occur 
after birth, and which are not dependent upon 
hereditary predisposition. 

ACRAI'PALA, from a, privative, and icpanta\n, 
' drunkenness.' Remedies against the effects of 
a debauch. — Gorraaus. 

ACRA'LEA, from aKpos, 'extremity.' The 
extreme parts of the body, as the head, hands, 
feet, nose, ears, &c. — Hippocrates and Galen. 
See Acrea. 

ACRA'NIA, from a, privative, and icpaviov, 'the 
cranium.' Want of cranium, wholly or in part. 

ACRA'SIA, from a, privative, or 'bad,' and 
Kpaats, ' mixture.' Intemperance. Excess of any 
kind. — Hippocrates. 

It has been employed to denote debility, syno- 
nymously with Acratia; but this may have been 
a typographical inaccuracy. 

ACRATI'A, from a, privative, and Kparof, 
'strength.' Impotence; weakness, fainting. 

ACRATIS'MA, from a, privative, and Ktpav- 
vvui, ' to mix.' A breakfast, consisting of bread 
steeped in wine, not mixed with water. — Galen, 

ACRATOM'ELI, from axpard, 'pure wine/ 
and uc\i, 'honey.' Wine mixed with honey. 

ACRATOPE'G^E, AJcratope'gce, from a, priva- 
tive, and Kparos, 'strength,' and -rrqyri, 'a spring.' 
Mineral waters having no marked chemical qua- 

ACRATOPOS'IA, from Acratum, and wocis, 
' drink.' The drinking of pure or unmixed wine. 

A'CRATUM, axparov, from a, privative, and 
Kparos, 'strength.' Unmixed wine, — Acratum 
vinum, Vinum merum. 

ACRATURE'SIS, from Acratia, 'weakness,' 
and ovpov, 'urine.' Inability to void the urine 
from paralysis of the bladder. 

ACRE. The extremity or tip of the nose. 

A'CREA, Acroteria, from axpos, 'the summit.' 
The extreme parts of the body, as the feet, hands, 
ears, <fec. 

Also the extreme parts of animals that are used 
as food. Acrocolia. 

ACRID, from a/cpos, 'a point or summit,' or 
from axis, 'a point,' Acer. An epithet for sub- 
stances which occasion a disagreeable sense of 
irritation or of constriction at the top of tho 

Acrid heat, (F.) Chaleur acre, is one that causes 
a hot tingling sensation at the extremities of the 

Acrid Poison, See Poison. 

Acrids, in Pathology, are certain imaginary 
substances, supposed by the humourists to exist 
in the humours, and to cause various diseases. 
See Acrimony. 

ACRIDOPH'AGI, from aKpi;, 'a locust,' and 
<payia, ' I eat.' Locust-eaters. Acridophagous 
tribes are said to exist in Africa. — Strabo. 

ACRIMONY, Acu'itas, Acrimo'nia, from acer, 
' acrid,' axis, 'a point.' Acrimony of the humours. 
An imaginary acrid change of the blood, lymph, 
&c, which, by the humourists, was conceived to 
cause many diseases. 

ACRIN'IA, from a, privative, and Kpivo>, 'I 
separate.' A diminution in the quantity, or a 
total suspension, of the secretions. 

ACRIS, a sharp bony prominence. Also, the 

ACRI'SIA, Acri'sis, from a, privative, and 
/cpio-if, 'judgment.' A condition of disease, in 
which no judgment can be formed ; or in which 
an unfavourable opinion must be given. — Hipp 
and Galen. 

ACRISIS, Acrisia. 




ACRIT'ICAL, Ac'ritos, from a, privative, and 
ro«7if, 'judgment.' That which takes place with- 
out any crisis, or which does not foretell a crisis; 
as a critical symptom, abscess, &C. 

ACRITOS, A critical. 

AORIVIOLA, Tropaeolum majus. 

ACROAMA, Audition. 

ACROASIS, Audition. 

ACROBYS'TIA, Acropos'thia, from aicpos,' top,' 
and (lvu>, ' I cover.' The extremity of the prepuce. 
— Hippocrates. Rufus. 

ACROCIIEIR', Acrochir', Acrocheir'on, from 
aKpos, 'extremity,' and x e 'P> ' *- ne nan d-' The 
forearm and hand. Gorroeus. Also, the hand. 

ACROCHOR'DON, from axpos, 'extremity/ 
and x°9&'h ' a string.' A tumour which hangs by 
a pedicle. A kind of hard wart, Verru'ca pens' - 
His. — Aetius, Celsus. 

ACROCHORIS'MUS, from aicpo;, 'extremity/ 
and ^optuoi, ' I dance.' A kind of dance, with 
the ancients, in which the arms and legs were 
violently agitated. 


ACROCOLIUM, Acromion. 

ACROD'RYA, from aicpo;, 'extremity/ and 
ipvg, ' a tree.' Autumnal fruits, as nuts, ap- 
ples, &c. 

ACRODYN'IA, Erythe'ma acrod'ynum, E. 
acrodyn'ia, (P.) Acrodynie, from aiepos, 'extre- 
mity/ and oSwrj, 'pain.' A painful affection of 
the wrists and ankles especially, which appeared 
in Paris as an epidemic, in 1828 and 1829. It 
was supposed by some to be rheumatic, by others 
to be owing to spinal irritation. 

ACROLENION, Olecranon. 


ACROMIA. Acromion. 

ACRO'MIAL, Acromia'lis. Relating to the 

Acromial Ar'tebt, External Scap'ular, A. 
Arte'ria Thorae"ica humera'lis, Artere troisieme 
des Tkoraciques, — (Ch.) A. Thoracique nume- 
rate, arises from the anterior part of the axillary 
artery, opposite the upper edge of the pectoralis 
minor. It divides into two branches : one, supe- 
rior ; the other, inferior, — the branches of which 
are distributed to the subclavius, serratus major 
anticus, first intercostal, deltoid, and pectoralis 
major muscles, as well as to the shoulder joint, 
Ac. They anastomose with the superior scapu- 
lar, thoracic, and circumflex arteries. 

Acromial Nerves, Nervi acromia'les. 
Branches of the fourth cervical nerve, which are 
distributed to the acromial region. 

Acromial Vein has the same arrangement 
as the artery. 

the acromion and coracoid process. 

The triangular ligament between the acromion 
and coracoid process of the scapula is so called. 

ACRO'MION, Acro'mium, Acro'mia, Acro'mis, 
from anpos, 'the top/ and ofio;, 'the shoulder.' 
Os Acro'mii, Hv'merus summus, Annus summits, 
Mucro htt'meri, Rostrum porci'num, Caput Scap'- 
vlce, Acroco'liiM. The process which terminates 
the spine of the scapula, and is articulated with 
the clavicle. 

ACROMIS. Acromion. 
ACROMPHALIUM, Acromphalon. 

ACROM'PHALON, Acrompha'linm, from 
a»po?, 'the top/ and op«pa\os, 'the navel.' The 
extremity of the umbilical cord, which remains 
attached to the foetus after birth. 
ACROMYLE, Patella. 
ACKu-NARCOTIC, See Poison. 
A'CRONYX, from a/cpos, 'the summit/ and 
»w;f, ' the nail.' Growing in of the nail. 
ACROPARAL'YSIS, from o/cpoj, 'extremity/ 

and irapaXvcts, 'palsy;' Paral'ysis extremita'tuni. 
Palsy of the extremities. Fuchs. 

ACROPOSTHIA, Aerobyetia. 

ACROPSI'LON, from axpo;, 'extremity/ ai»4 
\pt\oi, 'naked.' The extremity of the glans penie.. 

ACRORIA, Vertex. 

ACRORRHEU'MA, RJieumatis'mus extremitaf 
turn, fromaKpoy, 'extremity/ and ptv^a, 'defluxioK 
rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the extremities. 

ACROS, axpog, 'extremity, top.' The strengtk 
of the Athlete, and of diseases ; the prominences 
of bones : the extremities of the fingers, <fec. Sea 
Acrocheir, Acromion, <tc. 

ACROTERIA, Acrea. See Extremity. 

ACROTERIASIS, Acroteriasmus. 

ACROTERIAS'MUS, Acroteri 1 asis, from aicpo- 
rripta, ' the extremities / hence aKportipta^etv, ' to 
mutilate.' Amputation of the extremities. 

ACROTHYM'ION, from aicpos, 'top/ and 
Svpov, ' thyme.' A kind of conical, rugous, bloody 
wart, compared by Celsus to the flower of thyme. 

ACROT'ICA, from axpo;, ' summit.' Disease} 
affecting the excernent functions of the external 
surface of the body. 

Pravity of the fluids or emunctories that open 
on the external surface ; without fever or other 
internal affection as a necessary accompaniment 

The 3d order of the class Eccrit'ica of Good. 

ACROTISMUS, Asphyxia. 

ACT, Actus, from actum, past participle of 
ay ere, ' to do/ ' a thing done.' The effective ex- 
ercise of a power or faculty. The action of an 
agent. Acte is used by the French, to signify 
the public discussion, which occurs in supporting 
a thesis : — thus, soutenir un Acte aux Ecotes da 
Medccine, is, 'to defend a Thesis in the Schools 
of Medicine.' 

ACT^E'A CIMICIF'UGA, A. racemo'sa. 

ActjE'a Racemo'sa, A. Cimicif'vga, Cimi* 
cif'uga, (Ph. U. S.) 0. racemo'sa, Macro'tryi 
racemo'sa, Bot'rophis Serpenta'ria (?) Serpcn- 
ta'ria nigra, Black snakeroot, Richweed, Co- 
hosh, Squaw root, Rattleweed, Black Cohosh. 
(F.) Actee d grappes, Serpentaire noire. Nat. 
Oral. Ranunculacete. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Pen- 
tagynia. A common plant in the United States. 
The root is astringent; and, according to Barton, 
has been successfully used, in the form of decoc- 
tion, as a gargle in putrid sore throat. A decoc- 
tion of the root cures the itch. It is acro-narco- 
tic, and has been used in rheumatism, acute and 
chronic ; chorea, <fec. 

Act\e'a Spica'ta, Christophoria'na spica'ta, 
Aconi'tum racemo'sum, Bancberry, Herb Chris'- 
topher. (F.) Herbe St. Christophe. A perennial 
herbaceous European plant, the root of which 
resembles that of the black hellebore. The root 
is cathartic, and sometimes emetic, and in over- 
doses may produce dangerous consequences. 

Actm'a America'na, of which there are two 
varieties, A. alba and A. rubra, — white and red 
cohosh, is indigenous in the United States. It 
has the same properties as A. spicata. 
ACTE, Sambucus. 
ACTE, Act. 

ACTEE ,1 GRAPPES, Actaa raccmosa. 

ACT IF, Active. 

ACTIO, Action, Function. 

ACTION, Ac'tio, Opera'tio, Energi'a, Praxis • 
from agere, actum, 'to act/ Mode 'in which one 
object influences another. 

The animal anions are those that occur in the 
annual body: the vital, those that are essential 
to life : the physiological, those of a healthy cha- 
racter: the pathological, or morbific, those that 
occur in disease, &c. The ancients divided the 
physiological actions into vital, animal, natural 
sexual, particular, general, <fcc. See Function. 




ACTIVE, same etymon. Bras' ticus, Acti'vus, 
Sthen'icus, Hypcrsthen'icus. (F.) Actif. This 
adjective is used, in Pathology, to convey the 
idea of superabundant energy or strength. Active 
symptoms, e. g. are those of excitement. In The- 
rapeutics, it signifies energetic: — as, an active 
treatment. The French use t"he expression Me- 
decine agissante, in contradistinction to Medecine 
expectants. In Physiology, active has a similar 
signification, many of the functions being divided 
into active and passive. 

ACTON. A village near London, at which 
there is a purgative mineral spring, like that at 

ACTUAL. Same etymon as active. That 
which acts immediately. A term usually re- 
stricted to the red-hot iron, or to heat in any 
form : in contradistinction to the potential or vir- 
tual, which is applied to caustics or escharotics. 

ACTUA'RIUS. Originally a title of dignity 
given to the Byzantine physicians. 


ACUITAS, Acrimony. 


ACUMETER, Acoumeter. 

A'CUPUNCTURE, Acupunctu'ra, from acus, 
' a needle,' and punctura, ' a puncture.' A sur- 
gical operation, much in use amongst the Chinese 
and Japanese, which consists in puncturing parts 
with a very fine needle. It has been employed, 
of late years, in obstinate rheumatic affections, 
Ac, and apparently with success. Acupuncture 
is likewise a mode of infanticide in some coun- 
tries ; the needle being forced into the brain 
through the fontanelles, or into the 6pinal mar- 
row, &c. 

ACURGIA, Surgery (operative.) 

ACUS, Needle — a. Capitata, Pin — a. Invagi- 
nata, see Needle — a. Ophthalmica, see Needle — 
a. Paracentica, Trocar — a. Paracentetica, Trocar 
— a. Triquetral vulgaris, Trocar — a. Veneris, 
Ervngium campestre. 

ACUSIMETER, Acoumeter. 

ACUSIS, Audition. 

ACUSTICA, Acoustics. 

ACUSTICUS, Auditory. 

ACUTE, Acu'tus, Oxys, o£vs, (aKis, 'a point.') 
(F.) Aigu. A disease which, with a certain de- 
gree of severity, has a rapid progress, and short 
duration, is said to be "acute." — Oxynose'ma, 
Oxyn'osos, Oxynu'sos. 

Diseases were formerly subdivided into Morhi 
acutis'simi, very acute, or those which last only 
three or four days : 31. subacutis'simi, which con- 
tinue seven days : and M. subacu'ti, or those 
which last from twenty to forty days. 

The antithesis to acute is chronic. Acute, when 
applied to pain, sound, cries, <tc, means sharp. 

ACUTENACULUM, Porte-aiguille. 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA, from a, privative, kvovos, 
'blue,' and /JAe™, 'I see.' Defective vision, 
which consists in incapability of distinguishing 
blue. — Gothe. See Achromatopsia. 

ACYESIS, Sterilitas. 

ACYRUS, Arnica montana. 

ACYTERIUS, Abortive. 

ADACA. The Sphasran'thus In'dicus, a Mala- 
bar plant, which is acrid and aromatic. 

ADAC'RYA, from a, privative, and Saxpvui, ' I 
weep.' Defective secretion of tears. 

ADiEMONIA, Anxiety. 

ADAKO'DIEN. A Malabar plant of the fa- 
mily Apocyneae, used in that country in diseases 
of the eyes. 

AD'ALI, Lip'pia. A Malabar plant, which 
the Orientals regard as an antidote to the bite of 
the naja. 



the teeth. 

ADAMAS, Diamond. 

ADAMI'TA, Adami'tum. A very hard, white 
calculus. — Paracelsus. 

The first word has been used for stone in the 
bladder : the second for lithiasis or the calculous 

ADAM'S APPLE, Pomum Adami. 


ADAPTER, from ad and apto, ' I fit.' A tube 
employed in pharmaceutical operations for length- 
ening the neck of a retort; or in cases where the 
opening of the receiver is not large enough to 
admit the beak of the retort. 

ADAR'CE, Adar'cion, Adar'cis A concretion 
found about the reeds and grass in the marshy 
regions of Galatia, and hiding them, as it were : 
hence the name, from a, privative, and icpKui, 'I 
see.' It was formerly in repute for cleansing the 
skin from freckles, &c. 

ADARIGO, Orpiment. 

ADARNECH, Orpiment. 


The superficial artery of the abdomen, — a branch 
of the crural or femoral, which arises at the 
lower part of Poupart's ligament and ascend3 
towards the umbilicus, being distributed to the 

AD DAD. A Numidian plant; bitter and 

ADDEPHAG"IA, Adephag'Ha, from aSivv, 
'much,' and iflayciv, 'to eat.' Voraciousness. 
Galen and Hoffman have given this name to vo- 
racious appetite in children affected with worms. 
Sauvages refers it to Bulimia. Also, the goddess 
of gluttony. 

ADDER'S TONGUE, Ophioglossum vulgatum. 

ADDITAMEN'TUM. A term once used sy- 
nonymously with Epiphysis. It is now restricted 
to the prolongation of two cranial sutures, the 
lamboidal and squamous. 

Additamentum Coli, Appendix vermiformis 
caeci — a. Necatum, Olecranon — a. ad Sacrolum- 
balem, see Sacro-lunibalrs — a. Uncatum ulnae, 
Olecranon — a. Ulnse, Radius. 

ADDUCENS OCULI, Rectus interims oculi. 

ADDUOTEUR BE L'(EIL, Rectus inter- 
nus oculi — a. du Gros orteil, Adductor pollieis 
pedis — a. Premier ou moyen, Adductor longus 
femoris — a. du Ponce, Adductor pollieis manfis 
— a. Second ova petit, Adductor brevis — a. Troi- 
sieme ou grand, Adductor magnus. 

ADDUCTION, Adduc'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
ducere, ' to draw.' Parago'ge. The action by which 
parts are drawn towards the axis of the body. 

The muscles which execute this function are 
called Adduc'tors. 

terior medii digiti pedis — a. Oculi, Rectus inter- 
nus ocuK. 

Adduc'tor Mf.tacar'pi min'imi Dig"iti, Me- 
tacar'peus, Car' po-metacar' peus min'imi di : i"iti, 
is situate between the adductor and flexor, next 
to the metacarpal bone. It arises, fleshy, from 
the unciform process of the os unciforme, and 
from the contiguous part of the annular ligament 
of the wrist, and is inserted, tendinous and fleshy, 
into the fore-part of the metacarpal bone of the 
little finger, from its base to its head. 

Adduc'tor Pol'licis ManAs, A. PoVUcis, A. 
ad min'imnm dig"itum, Metacar' 'po-phalon' 'geus 
pol'licis — (Ch.) (F.) Adducteur du ponce. A 
muscle which arises, fleshy, from almost the 
whole length of the metacarpal bone of the mid- 
dle finger, and is inserted into the inner part of 
the root of the first bone of the thumb. 



Addtto'tor Pol'ltcis Pkdis. Anfith'enar, Me- 
tatar'ao-sithithalaii'yeuit poUicia. — (Gh.) Tarso- 
metatarsi-phalangien du pouee. (P.) Addueteur 
da groa orteil. Arises by a long, thin tendon, 
from the under part of the os calcis, from the os 
cuboides, os cuneiforme externum, and from the 
root of the metatarsal bone of the second toe. It 
is divided into two fleshy portions, and is inserted 
into the external sesamoid bone, and root of the 
metatarsal bone of the great toe. 

Bichat has given the general name, Adduc - 
tora, to those of the interosseous muscles of the 
hand or foot, which perform the action of ad- 

Adductor Tertii Digiti Pedis, Prior tertn 
digiti pedis. 

Adductors op the thigh. These are three 
in number, which have, by some anatomists, been 
united into one muscle — the Triceps Adduc' tor 

1. Adduc' tor longua fem'oria, Adduc' tor fem'- 
oris primus, Triceps minor, Pu' bio-femora' lis — 
(Ch.) (F.) Premier ou moyen addueteur. Arises 
by a strong tendon from the upper and fore part 
of the os pubis and ligament of the symphysis, 
at the inner side of the pectinalis. It runs down- 
wards and outwards, and is inserted by a broad, 
flat tendon, into the middle of the linea aspera. 

2. Adduc' tor brevis, A. fem'oris secun'dus, 
Triceps secun'dus, Sub-pnbio-femora'lis — (Ch.) 
(F.) Second ou petit Addueteur. Arises tendi- 
nous from the os pubis, at the side of its sym- 
physis, below and behind the last muscle. It 
runs obliquely outwards, and is inserted by a 
short, flat tendon into the inner and upper part 
of the linea aspera, from a little below the tro- 
chanter minor to the beginning of the insertion 
of the adductor longus. 

3. Adduc' tor magnus, Adduc' tor fem'oris ter'- 
tius et quartus, Triceps magnus, Is' chio-femora' - 
lis — (Ch.) (F.) Troisieme ou grand addueteur, is 
much larger than either of the others. It arises 
from the ramus of the pubis, from that of the 
ischium, and from the tuber ischii, and is inserted 
into the whole length of the linea aspera. Near 
the lower part of the linea aspera it is pierced 
by a kind of oblique, fibrous canal, through which 
the crural artery and vein pass. 

ADEC. The inner man. — Paracelsus. 

ADECTA, Sedatives. 

ADELIPARIA, Polysarcia. 

ADELODAGAM. A bitter Malabar plant, 
used in asthma, catarrh, and gout. 

ADELPHIA, see Adelphixia. 

ADELPHIX'IA, Adelphixia; from aic\<pog, 
'brother.' Consanguinity of parts in health or 
disease. Frater'nitas, Fratra'tio. Hippocrates 
used the word Adel'phia, for diseases that re- 
semble each other. 

ADELPHIXIS, Sympathy. 

ADEMONIA, Depression, Nostalgia. 

ADEMOSYNE, Depression, Nostalgia. 

ADEN, aSnv, 'a gland;' hence Adenalgia, Ade- 
niform, &c. — see Gland. 

ADENAL'GIA, Adenodyn'ia, from a^v, <a 
gland/ and aXyog, 'pain.' Glandular pain. 

ADENECTOP'IA, from ab„v, 'a gland,' and 
tKToirog, 'removed from its place.' Dislocation of 
a gland. 

ADEXEMPHRAX'IS, from «&,», 'a gland,' 
and tu<p P ufc, 'obstruction.' Glandular obstruc- 

ADEN'IFORM, Adeniform'is, AdenoVdes, 
Adenoid, from Aden, 'a gland/ and Forma, 'form 
or reaemblance/ Glan'diform, or resembling a 



ADENI'TIS, from aSvv, 'a gland/ and Hit, a 
termination denoting inflammation. Phlegmn'sia 
adeno'aa seu glandulo'sa. Glandular inflamma- 

Adenitis Lymphatica, Lymphadenitis.^ 

Adeni'tis Mesenter'ica, Mesenteric Gangli- 
oni'tis. Inflammation of the mesenteric glands. 

Adenitis Palpebrarum Contagiosa, see Oph- 
thalmia. _ > „ , 


gland/ x c 'P> ' the han( V anr(a > '-"■ la > r nolcl of '' ftnd 
\oyos, 'a description.' The doctrine of curing 
scrofula or the king's evil by the royal touch. 

ADENOCHON'DRIUS, from abnv, 'a gland/ 
and xovfyoS) ' a cartilage.' Relating to gland and 
cartilage, — for example, Arthrophy'ma adeno- 
chon'drium, a tumefaction of the glands and car- 
tilages of joints. 

ADENODYNIA, Adenalgia. 
ADENOG'RAPHY, Adenogra'phia, from aSr,v, 
'a gland/ and ypa<j>u>, 'I describe.' That part of 
anatomy which describes the glands. 
ADENOID, Adeniform. 
ADENOIDES, Adeniform. 
ADENOL'OGY, Adenolog"ia, from a*,vv. 'a 
gland/ and Xoyoj, 'a description/ A treatise on 
the glands. 

ADENOMALA'CIA, from airiv, 'a gland/ and 
uuKaKia, ' softening.' Mollescence or softening of 
a gland. 

ADENO-MENINGEAL, see Fever, adeno- 
ADENONCOSIS, Adenophyma. 
ADE'NO-PHARYN'GEUS, from abr, v , 'a 
gland/ and $apvy£, ' the pharynx.' Some fleshy 
fibres, which pass from the constrictor pharyngis 
inferior to the thyroid gland, have received thia 
name. Their existence is not constant. 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGI'TIS. Same etymon. 
Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx. 
ADENOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia tarsi. 
ADENOPHY'MA, Adenon'cua, Adenonco'sis, 
from a&riv, 'a gland/ and ({.v/ia, 'a swelling/ 
Swelling of a gland, or glandiform ganglion. 
(F.) Glandage. Adenophyma is used by some to 
signify a soft glandular swelling; — Adcnoncua, 
one of a harder character. — Kraus. 
Adenophyma Inguinalis. Bubo. 
ADENOSCIR'RHUS, Adenosclero'sia, from 
abriv, 'a gland/ and axippos, 'induration.' Scir- 
rhous induration of a gland. 
ADENOSCLEROSIS, Adenoscirrhus. 
ADENO'SUS, (Absces'sua.) A hard, glandular 
abscess, which suppurates slowly. — M. A. Seve- 

ADENOT'OMY, Adenotom'ia, from aSnv, ' a 
gland/ and Ttuvut, 'I cut/ Dissection of the 

ADEPHAGIA, Addephagia, Boulimia. 
ADEPS, Adepa Suillua, Oaeyn'givm, J'ingue'do. 
Pig's flare. The fat of the hog. In the Ph. U. S. 
the prepared fat of Sua acrofa, free from saline 

Adeps Anseri'nus, Adepa an'aeria or Goose 
grease, (F.) Graisse d'Oie, is emollient. It has 
been used as an emetic. 

Adeps Cantharidibus Medicattts, Unguen- 
tum lyttae medicatum — a. Cortice Daphnes ^liidli 
medicatus, Unguentum epispasticum de Daphne 
gnidio — a. Humanus, Liquamuniia — a. llydrar- 

gyro medicatus, Unguentum Hydrargyri a. ex 

Hydrargyro mitius dictum cinereum, Unguentum 
oxidi hydrargyri cinereum— a. Hydrargyri muri- 
ate oxygenato medicatus, Unguentum muriatia 
hydrargyri oxygenati medicatum — a. Hydrar<r V ri 
nitrate medicatus, Unguentum hydrargyri nitratia 
—a. Hydrargyri oxido rubro et plumbi aceta me- 




dieitus, Unguentum ophthalmicum — a. Lauro 
medicatus, Unguentum laurinum — a. Ovilli, Se- 
vum — a. Papavere, hyoscyanio, et belladonna 
medicatus, Unguentum populeum — a. Sulfure et 
ammonite muriate medicatus, Unguentum sul- 
phuratuin ad scabiem — a. Sulfure et carbonate 
potassre medicatus, Unguentum sulphuratum al- 
calinum ad scabiem — a. Tartaro stibii medicatus, 
Unguentum antimonii tartarizati — a. Oxido zinci 
medicatus, Unguentum oxidi zinci impuri. 

Adeps Pr^epara'tus, Hog's lard, Barrow's 
grease, Lard, Ax'unge, Axun'gia, Adeps suil'lus 
prmpara'tus, A. prcepara'tus, Axun'gia porci'na, 
(F.) Graisse de Pore, Saindoux, is prepared by 
melting pig's flare, and straining it. This is 
called rendering the lard. Lard is emollient, 
but is chiefly used for forming ointments and 

ADEPT, Alchvmist. 

ADEP'TA MEDICI'NA. Medicine, which 
treated of diseases contracted by celestial opera- 
tions, or communicated from heaven. 

Adepta Philosophia, Alchymy. 

ADFLATUS, Afflatus. 

ADH.ERENTIA, Adherence. 

ADHvRSIO, Adherence. 

ADHATO'DA, Justid'ia adhato'da. The Ma- 
labar Ntit Tree. (F.) Noyer de Ceylon. Used 
in India for expelling the dead foetus in abortion. 
The word is said to convey this meaning in the 

ADHE'RENCE, Adhe'sion, Adhceren'tia, Oon- 
cre'tio, Atre'sia, Pros'physis, Proscolle'sis, Ad- 
ha'sio, from adharere, {ad and hcererc,) 'to stick 
to.' These words are usually employed synonym- 
ously. The French often use adherence for the 
state of union, and adhesion for the act of ad- 

ADHESION, Adherence. 

flammation which terminates by an adhesion 
between inflamed and separated surfaces, and 
which was, at one time, supposed to be necessary 
for such adhesion. 

Adhe'sive is also an epithet for certain plasters 
which stick closely to the skin. 

ADIANTHUM, Adiantum. 

ADIANTUM, A. pedatum. 

Adiantum ^Ethiop'icum. A South African 
plant, Nat. Ord. Filices, an infusion of which is 
sometimes used as an emollient in coughs, and 
in diseases of the chest. 

Adiantum Album, Asplenium ruta muraria — 
a. Aureum, Polytrichum. 

Adian'tum Capil'lus Ven'eris, A. Coriandri- 
fo'liwm, seu Nigrum, Capil'lus Ven'eris, from a, 
privative, and Siaivoi, 'to grow wet,' from the 
leaves not being easily moistened. Maiden hair. 
(F.) Capillaire de Montpellier. A European 
plant, of feeble, aromatic and demulcent pro- 
perties. It is used for forming the Strop de Ca- 
pillaire or Capillaire. 

Adiantum Coriandrifolium, A. Capillus Ve- 

Adiantum Nigrum, A. Capillus Veneris. 

Adian'tum Peda'tum, A. Canaden'se seu Pa- 
tens, Adiantum, Capil'lus Ven'eris Canadensis, 
Ilerba Ven'eris, Fi/i.r Ven'eris, Canada. Maiden- 
[hair, American Maidenhair, Rochfem, Sircetfern, 
(F.) Capillaire du Canada, has the same proper- 
ties. Capillaire was once made from this. See 

Adiantum Rubrum, Asplenium trichomanoides. 

ADIAPHORO'SIS, Adiaphore'sis, from a, pri- 
vative, iia, ' through,' and (jjopos, ' a pore.' Defect 
or suppression of perspiration, Adiapneus'tia. 

ADIAPII'OROUS, Adiaph'orus, Indijf'erens, 

Neutral. A medicine which will neither do harm 
nor good. 

ADIAPNEUSTIA, Adiaphorosis. 
ADIARRHCE'A, from a, privative, and liap- 
petv, 'to flow.' Rotention of any excretion.— 
ADICE, Urtica. 
ADIPEUX, Adipose. 

ADIPOCERA, Adipocire — a. Cetosa, Ceta- 

ADIPOCIRE, Adipoce'ra, from adeps, 'fat,' 
and cera, 'wax.' The base of biliary calculi, 
called also Chol'esterine. Also, a sort of soap, 
formed from animal matter under certain circum- 
stances. (F.) Gras des Cadavres, Gras des Cime- 
tieres. The human body, when it has been for some 
weeks in water, assumes this appearance ; and it 
has been a subject of legal inquiry, what length 
of time is necessary to produce it. This must, 
of course, depend upon various circumstances, as 
climate, season, &c. 


AD'IPOSE, Ad'ipous, Adipo'sus, from adeps, 
'fat.' (F.) Adipeux. That which relates to fat — 
as Adipose membrane, A. vessels, &e. See Fatty. 

Ad'ipose Sarco'ma of Aberne'thy, Emphy'ma 
sarco'ma adipo'sum, is suetty throughout, and 
enclosed in a thin capsule of condensed areolar 
substance, connected by means of minute vessels. 
It is chiefly found on the fore and back parts of 
the trunk. See Sarcoma. 

ADIPOSIS. See Polysarcia. 

Adipo'sis Hepat'ica, Pimclo'sis hepat'ica, 
Fatty liver, Fatty degeneration of the liver, (F.) 
DegenSrescence graisseuse du Foie. Fatty dis- 
ease of the liver. 


ADIPOUS, Fatty. 

ADIP'SIA, Dipso'sis expers. Absence of thirst. 

ADIP'SON, Adip'sum, from a, privative, and 
h^a, ' thirst.' Any substance which relieves 
thirst. Applied to a decoction of barley to which 
oxymel was added. — Hippocrates. 

ADIPSOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

AD'ITUS, 'an entrance,' 'an approach ;' from 
adere, aditum, ' to go to.' Pros' odes. The en- 
trance to a canal or duct, as Aditus ad Aquad ac- 
tum Fallopii. 

Aditus ad Infundibulum, Vulva. 

ADIULIS'TOS, from a, privative, and Jtv\t$o, 
'I strain.' Unstrained wine for pharmaceutical 
purposes. — Gorraeus. 

ADJUNCTUM, Accompaniment. 

ADJUTOR PARTUS, Accoucheur. 

AD'JUVANT, Ad'juvans, from adjuvare, 'to 
aid.' A medicine, introduced into a prescription 
to aid the operation of the principal ingredient 
or basis. Also, whatever assists in the removal 
or prevention of disease. 

ADNASCENTIA, Prosphysis. 

ADNATA (TUNICA,) Conjunctiva. 

ADNEE {MEMBRANE,) Conjunctiva. 
'ADOLES'CENCE, Adolescen'tia, Juven'ttu, 
jEtas bona, Youth; from adolesaere {ad and 
olescere) 'to grow.' (F.) Jcuncsse. The period 
between puberty and that at which the body 
acquires its full development; being, in man, 
between the 14th and 25th years; and, in woman, 
between the 12th and 21st. 

ADOLES'CENS, Ju'venis, Hcbe'tes, hebe'ter, 
Hebe'tor. A youth. A young man in the period 
of adolescence. 

ADO'LIA. A Malabar plant, whose leaves, 
put in oil, form a liniment, used in facilitating 

ADOR, Zea mays. 

ADORION, Daucus :arota. 


ADO TJCISSA X T, Demulcent. 

AD PONDUS OM'NIUM. The weight of the 
whole. In a prescription it means, that any 
particular ingredient shall equal in weight the 
whole of the others. 

A I) R A Q A N T, Traga oantha. 

ADRA RIZA, Aristoloehia elematitis. 

AUROBO'LON, from abpos, '.great,' and /?w A of, 
'mass.' The bdellium of India, which is in larger 
pieces than that of Arabia. 

ADROS, aipos, 'plump and full.' Applied to 
the habit of body, and also to the pulse. — Hippo- 

ADSARIA PALA, Dolichos pruriens. 

A US PI RATIO, Aspiration, Inspiration. 

ADSTANS, Prostate. 


Al'STRICTIO Astriction, Constipation. 

ADSTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ADSTRINGENTTA, Astringents. 

ADULAS'SO. The Justitia bivalvis. A small 
shrub, used in India as a local application in gout. 

ADULT, see Adult age. 

Apult Age, Andri'a, from adolescere, 'to 
grow to,' (ad and olere, olitum, 'to grow.') Vi- 
riCitij. The age succeeding adolescence, and pre- 
ceding old age. In the civil law, an adult is one, 
who. if a boy, has attained the age of fourteen 
years ; and, if a girl, of twelve. In the common 
law, one of full age. Adult, Adul'tus, is also 
used for one in the adult age. 

ADULTERATIO, Falsification. 

ADULTUS, see Adult age. 

ADUNCATIO UNGUIUM, Onychogryphosis. 

ADURENS, Caustic, 

ADURION, Rhus coriaria. 

ADUST, Adus'tus, from adurere, (ad and 
were,) 'to burn.' The blood and fluids were 
formerly said to be adust, when there was much 
heat in the constitution and but little serum in 
the blood. 

ADUSTIO. Adustion, Burn. 

ADUS'TION, Adus'tio. State of the body 
described under Adust. In surgery, it signifies 


ADVENTITIUS, Accidental. 

ADYNA'MIA, fmpoten'tia; from a, privative, 
and Awa/its, 'strength,' Adyna'sia, Adyna'tia. 
Considerable debility of the vital powers; as in 
typhus fever. Some Nosologists have a class of 
diseases under the name Adynamia, Ec'lyses, 
Morbi asthen'ici. 

Adynamia Virilts, Impotence. 

ADYNAM'IC, Adynam'icus, Hypodynam'ic, 
Hypodynam'icus ; same etymon. Appertaining 
lo debility of the vital powers. 

ADYNASIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATIA, Adynamia. 



ADYNATOS, Sickly. 

vEDCEA, Genital Organs. 

iEDffi'AGRA, from aihoia, 'genital organs' 
and ayoa. ' seizure.' Gout in the genitals 

.ED(EAG'RAPHY, JBdcugrajh'ii* from «- 
iota, 'organs of generation,' and ypa|u, 'I de- 
scribe.' A description of the organs of gene- 

JEDCEAL'OGY, JEdoealog"ia, from atcota, 'the 
pudendum, and Aoy OS , 'a description.' A treatise 
ou the organs of generation. 

A5D<EAT'0MY; JEdceatom'ia, JSdaeotom'ia, 
Maaotrome, jEdoeot'omy, from atioia, 'the pu- 
dendum,' and rcuvu, 'I cut.' Dissection of the 
parts nf generation. 

-fiDCEI'TIS, JEdoeoti'tis, Medei'tis; from <u- 


iota, 'genital organs,' and it is, denoting inflam- 
mation. Inflammation of the genital organs. 

iED(EOBLENORRIMEA, Leuoorrhoea, f 

iEDCEODYN'IA, from aicca, 'genital organs, 
and oSwii, ' pain.' Pain in the genitals. Puden- 
dagra. T 

-&DCEOGARGALUS, Masturbation, N ym- 
phomania. . 

.-EDO30GARGARISMUS, Masturbation, 

iEDOiOMANIA, Nymphomania. 

iEDffiON, Inguen. 

JED030PS0PHESIS, ^Edceopsophia. 

JEDCEOPSOPH'IA, JEdceopsophe'sis, from at- 
Sota, 'the pudendum,' and ijjotieiv, 'to make a 
noise.' Emission of wind by the urethra in man, 
by the vagina in woman. — Sauvages and Sagar. 

^Edceopsophia Uterina, Physometra. 

^EDffiOTITIS, ^Edceitis — e. Gangrenosa, 
Colpocace — as. Gangrenosa puellarum, Colpo- 
cace infantilis — e. Gangrenosa puerperarum, 
Colpocace puerperarum. 

^EDCEOTOME, ^Edceatomy. 

uEDOEOTOMIA, iEdceatomy. 

^EDCEOTOMY, .Edceatomv. 

^IDOPTOSIS, Hysteroptosis— ae. TJteri, Pro- 
lapsus uteri — a. Uteri inversa, Uterus, inversion 
of the — e. Uteri retroversa, Retroversio uteri — • 
as. Vagina?, Prolapsus V. — e. Vesicas, Exocyste. 

jEEIG'LUCES, Aeig'luces, from an, 'always,' 
and yXvKvs, ' sweet.' A kind of sweet wine or 
must. — Gorraeus. 

^EGAGROPI'LA, JEgagropi'lus, from atyaypos, 
'the rock goat,' and rr«Ao?, 'hair,' Bezoar d'AUe- 
magne, Pila Dama'rtim seu Rupicapra' rum. A 
ball composed of hairs, found in the stomach of 
the goat: once used medicinally. — Bezoar. 

.EGEIROS, Populus. 

^EGER, Sick. 

JE'GIAS, JEgis, JEglia, ^E'gides, from aif, 'the 
goat;' why, is not known. (F.) Aige or Aigle, 
There is obscurity regarding the precise meaning 
of this word. It was used to designate an ulcer, 
or speck on the transparent cornea. — Hippocrates. 

Maitre Jean uses it for a calcareous deposit 
between the conjunctiva and sclerotica. 

^EGIDES, iEgias. 

^E'GILOPS, An'chilops, An'kylops, from ail;, 
' goat,' and iD\p, ' the eye.' An ulcer at the greater 
angle of the eye, which sometimes does not pene- 
trate to the lachrymal sac, but at others does, 
and constitutes fistula lachrymalis. — Galen, Cel- 
sus, Orihasius, Ae'tius, Paulus of iEgina, Ac. 

^GI'RINON. An ointment of which the fruit 
or flower of the poplar was an ingredient; from 
aiyupog, 'the black poplar.' 

^IGLIA, .Egias. 

JEGOCERAS, Trigonella fcenum. 

-ffiGOLETHRON, Ranunculus flammula. 

-EGONYCnON, Lithospermum officinale. 

-EGOPIIONIA, Egophony. 

iEGOPHONICUS, Egophonic. 


.EGRIPPA, Agrippa. 

iEGRITUDO, Disease— e. Ventriculi, Vomit- 

iEGROTATIO, Disease. 

-S1GR0TUS, Sick. 

.EGYP'TIA. An epithet for several medi 
cmes, mentioned by Galen, Paulus of M»\ n Z. 
and Myrepsus. , » ln «» 

2Egyp'tia Moschata, Hibiscus abelmoschuq. 

^gvp't.a Stypte'Ria, A.^*r W ffru „, * 
^Egyptian alum. Recommended by Hippocr 

Ma vp'tia Ul'cera ; Egyptian ulcers. Ulcer* 
of the fauces and tonsils, described by Aret» 
as common in Egypt and Syria. l « u 6, 




iEGYPTIACUM, JEgyp'tion, Mende'sion, Mel 
•^gyptiacum, Phar'macum ^Egyptiacum. A pre- 
paration of vinegar, honey, and verdigris, scarcely 
used now, except by veterinary surgeons as a de- 
tergent. See Linimentum .<Eruginis. 
uEGYPTION, .Egyptiacum. 
AURES, Pharmacum ad aures. 

.EGYP'TIUS PESSUS : ^Egyptian pessary. 
A pessary, composed of honey, turpentine, butter, 
oil of lily or of rose, saffron, each one part; with 
sometimes a small quantity of verdigris. 


^IPATHEIA, see Continent (Disease.) 

AEIPATHIA, see Continent (Disease.) 


JEJSTEA, Catheter. 

iEOLECTHYMA, Variola. 

^OLLION, Varicella. 

.ffiOLLIUM, Varicella. 

.3£0N, aiwv. The entire age of a man from 
birth till death. — Hippocrates, Galen. Also, the 
6pinal marrow. See Medulla Spinalis. 

uEONESIS, Fomentation. 

^EONION, Sedum. 

iEO'RA, from aiwpzw, 'I suspend.' Gestation, 
Swinging. — Aetius, Celsus, &c. 

.EQUALIS, Equal. 

-cEQUA'TOR OC'ULI. The line formed by 
the union of the upper and under eyelid, when 
they are closed. It is below the middle of the globe. 

.EQUTVOCUS, Equivocal. 

AER, Air. 


AER AT US, Carbonated. 

AERE, Carbonated. 

.ffiREOLUM, JEreolus, Ckalcus. The sixth 
part of an obolus by weight, consequently about 
2 grains. 

iE'RESIS, aigzais, 'the removal of any thing.' 
A suffix denoting a removal or separation, as 
Apharesis, Eietrexis, &c. 

AERGIA, Torpor. 

AERIF'EROUS, Aerifer, (F.) Aerifire, from 
aer, 'air,' and fcrre, 'to carry.' An epithet for 
tubes which convey air, as the larynx, trachea, 
and bronchia. 

AERIFLUX'US. The discharge of gas, and 
the fetid emanations from the sick. Flatulence. 
— Sauvages. 

AERODIAPH'THORA, from anp, 'air,' and 
iia(j)dopa, 'corruption.' A corrupt state of the air. 


AEROL'OGY ; Aerolog"ia, Aerolog"ire, from 
anp, 'air,' and Xoyos, 'a description.' That part 
of physics which treats of the air, its qualities, 
uses, and action on the animal economy. 

AER'OMANCY, Aeromanti'a, from anp, 'air,' 
and pavTtia, 'divination." An art in judicial as- 
trology, which consists in the foretelling, by 
means of the air, or substances found in the at- 

AEROMELI, Fraxinus ornus. 

A&ROPERJTONIE, see Tympanites. 

AKROPHOB'IA, from anp, 'air,' and <po0o;, 
'fear.' Dread of the air. This symptom often 
accompanies hydrophobia, and sometimes hyste- 
ria and other affections. 

AEROPHOB'ICUS, Aeroph'obns ; same ety- 
mon. One affected with aerophobia. 

AEROPHOBUS, Aerophobicus. 

AEROPHTHORA, Aerodiaphthora. 

AEROPLEUR1E, Pneumothorax. 

AEROSIS, Pneumatosis, Tympanites. 

AEROTHORAX, Pneumothorax. 

J5RUCA, Cupri subacetas. 

jERU'GINOUS, jErugino'sus, To'des, from 
JErugo, 'verdigris.' (F.) Erugineux. Resem- 
bling verdigris in colour ; as the bile when dis- 
charged at times from the stomach. 

vERU'CO.ioj, from««, 'copper.' Therustofany 
metal, properly of brass. See Cupri Subacetas. 
./Erugo Ferri, Ferri subcarbonas — ae. Plumbi, 
Plumbi subcarbonas. 
JES, Cuprum. 

^ESCHOS, aia^os. Deformity of the body ge- 
nerally, or of some part. — Hippocrates. 

'food,' [?] Casta' nea equi'na, Pavi'na, Horse~ 
chestnut, Buck-eye. (F.) Marronier d' hide. Nat. 
Ord. Hippoeastanea;. Sex, Syst. Heptandria Mo- 
nogyuia. The bark has been advised as a substi- 
tute for cinchona. Both bark and fruit are as- 
tringent. Externally, it has been employed, like 
cinchona, in gangrene. 

.ESECAVUM, Brass. 

.ESTATES, Ephelides. 

iESTHE'MA, aiadijpa, gen. aiodr)iiaTo<;, 'a sen- 
sation, a perception.' See Sensation and Sensi- 
bility. In the plural, asthe' mata, the apparatuses 
of the senses. 

M S T II E M A T L '0 G Y, J3sthematolog"ia ; 
from aiaOn/ia, and Aoyoj, 'a description.' The 
doctrine of, on, the senses, or on the 
apparatus of the senses. 

^ESTHEMATONU'SI, JEsthematorganonu 1 si, 
from aicdrjpa, and vovaoi, ' diseases.' Diseases 
affecting sensation. 


uESTHE'SIS, Aisthe'sis, from aiaSavopai, 'I 
feel.' The faculty of being affected by a sensa- 
tion. Perception. Sensibility, as well as the 
senses themselves. See Sense. 

^ESTHETERION, Sensorium. 

jESTHET'ICA, from aioSavopai, <I feel.' Dis- 
eases affecting the sensations. Dulness, depra- 
vation or abolition of one or more of the external 
organs of sense. The 2d order, class Neurotica, 
of Good. Also, agents that affect sensation. — ■ 

,ESTIVUS, Estival. 


JESTUATIO, Ardor, Ebullition, Fermentation. 

jESTUS, Ardor. 

iEsTrs'icus. Sudden heat, scorching 
or flushing of the face. — Vogel. 

iETAS, Age — ae. Bona, Adolescence — se. De- 
erepita, Decrepitude — so. Mala, Senectus — ae. 
Provecta, Senectus — se. Senilis, Senectus. 

./ETHER, Ether, from atSrip, 'air,' or from aiSoi, 
'I burn.' Liquor &the' reus. A volatile liquor ob- 
tained by distillation from a mixture of alcohol 
and a concentrated acid. See iEther sulphuricus, 
and Ether. 

.(Ether Cnxoniers, Chloroform; Ether, chloric. 

JEthkr IlYnRocvAx'icrs, JEther Prus'aicvs, 
Hydrocyan'ic Ether, Hydrocy'anate of Etlt'erine, 
Oyan'uret of Eth'ute, (F.) Ether Hydrocyanique, 
has been advised in hooping-cough, and whero 
the hydrocyanic arid is indicated. Dose, 6 drops. 

jEther Lignosds, Acetone. 

./Ether Mariiaus, Tinctura seu Alcohol sul- 
furic o-a-lliercus ferri. 

vEther Mi'riat'iccs, Muriatic or Chlorohy- 
dric Ether, Mu'riate of Etherine, Chloride of 
Ethyle. This ether, on account of its volatility, 
can only be kept in cool places. It has the pro- 
perties of the other ethers, and when used, is 
generally mixed with an equal bulk of alcohol. 
It has been employed as an anaesthetic. A Ch/o- 
rinated Chlorohydric Ether, (F.) Ether Chlo-r- 
hydrique chlori, formed by the action of Chlorine 
on Chlorohydric Ether, has been introduced into 
practice as a local anaet;hetio. 


Mm* Nitricus At.coot.tkatus, Spiritus 
Hheri^nitrici— se. Pyro-aceticus, Acetone. 

MTlm Bulpho'ricus, J2. Vitriol'ieus, Naph- 
tha Vitrioli, Sul'phurie Ether. Ether prepared 
from sulphuric ether and alcohol. 

lifted Ether, .Ether rectifica'twi, propared 
by distilling 12 OS. from a mixture of sulphuric 
ether, fjxiv, f&ed potass, §SS. and distilled 
water, fgij, is a limpid, colourless, very inflam- 
mable, volatile liquor; of a penetrating and fra- 
grant odour, and hot pungent taste. Its s. g. is 

JSther Sulphwicus, Sulphuric Ether of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States (1842), 
sEiher of that of 1851, is formed from alcohol, 
Oiv ; sulphuric acid, Oj ; potassa, ^vj ; distilled 
water, fjiij; distilling and redistilling according 
to the process there laid down. The specific gra- 
vity of this ether is 0.750. 

It is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and anti- 
spasmodic, and is externally refrigerant. Dose, 
gtt. xxx to f^iss. When ether is inhaled, it is 
found to be a valuable anaesthetic agent : and is 
employed with advantage in spasmodic affections, 
and in surgical operations. See Anaesthetic. 

The Parisian Codex has an JEther ace'ticus, an 
jEther muria'ticus seu hydrochlor'icus, an jEther 
ni'tricus seu nitro'sus, and an jEther phospho- 
ra'tus. They all possess similar virtues. See 

jEthkr Sulphuricus Acidus, Elixir acidum 
Halleri — ae. Sulphuricus cum alcohole, Spiritus 
tetheris sulphurici — se. Sulphuricus cum alcohole 
aromaticus, Spiritus setheris aromaticus. 

ASther Terkbinthina'tus, Terebinth' inated 
ether, made by mixing gradually two pounds of 
alcohol, and half a pound of spirit of turpentine, 
with two pounds of concentrated nitric acid, and 
distilling one-half the mixture with a gentle heat. 
Employed externally and internally in biliary 
calculi, rheumatism, <fec. Dose 20 to 40 drops, 
in honey or yolk of egg. 

jETHEREA HERBA, Eryngium maritimum. 

JETHE'REAL, Ethe'real, Ethe'reous, JEthe' - 
reus, (F.) Etheree. An ethereal tincture, (F.) 
Teinture etheree, is one formed by the action of 
sulphuric ether, at the ordinary temperature, on 
medicinal substances. An ethereal oil is a vola- 
tile oil. See Olea Volatilia. 

iETHERIZATIO, Etherization. 


jETHE'REO-OLEO'SA (Remedia), from 
jEtheroleum, 'a volatile oil.' Remedies, whose 
properties are dependent upon the volatile oil 
thev contain. 

JETHEROLEA, Olea volatilia. 

.ETHIOP'ICUS LAPIS, Ethiopian stone. A 
stone formerly supposed to be possessed of con- 
siderable virtue. — Oribasius. 

JETHIOPIFICA'TIO, JEthiopopoe' sis, JEthi- 
opis'mus, sEthiopio'sis, from JEthiops, and facere, 
'to make.' The mummy-like colouring of the 
skin, induced at times by the use of mercurial 
•intment; and seen in bodies poisoned by arsenic. 

^THIOPIOSIS, iEthiopificatio. 

A3THIOPIS. Salvia selarea. 

^TIIIOPISMITS, ;Ethiopificatio. 

JETIIIOPOPOESIS, iEthiopifieatio. 

.E'THIOPS, from aiSo>, 'I burn,' and ^, 
'countenance.' A black or burnt countenance. 
Th<» ancients gave this name to certain oxides 
and eulphurets of metals, which were of a black 

^titiops Albus, Albino — 33. Alcalisatus, Hy- 
drargyrum cum ci-eta — se. Animal, see Choroid. 

A5THIOPS Martia'ljs Ferri Leutox'ydum ni- 
giiim. The black deutoxide of iron : once in re- 
pute as a tonic. 

■aSTHioPS Mineralis, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 


nitmim _ ffi . Nareoticus, nydrargyn sulphuretum 
nigrum— 88. per se, Hydrargyri oxydum cinereum 
— ffi. Saccharatus, Hydrargyrum saccharatum— 

ae. Vegetabilis, see Fucus vesiculosus. 

iETHOL'ICES, from ai$u, 'I burn.' Fiery 
pustules on the skin. Some have considered 
them to have been boils. 

^ETHUSA AMMI, Sison ammi. 

vEthu'sa Cyna'pium, Fool's Parsley, (F.) Faux 
Pcrsil, Petite Oigue. Family, Umbelliferae. Sex. 
Si/st. Pentandria Digynia. A poisonous plant, 
which has been mistaken for true parsley, pro- 
ducing nausea, vomiting, headache, giddiness, 
sopor, and at times, fatal results. It resembles 
conium in its action. 

iETHu'sA Meum, Meum, 31. Athaman'ticum, 
seu Anethifo'liuin, Athaman'ta Meum, Ligus'ticum 
Capilla'ceum seu Meum, Ses'eli Meum, Men, Spig- 
nel, Baldmoney. (F.) Ethnse, 3Uum. The root haa 
been advised as carminative, stomachic, &c. 

jETIOL'OGY, JEtiolog"ia, Etiol'ogy, Aitio- 
log"ia, from atna, 'cause,' and \oyos, 'a dis- 
course.' The doctrine of the causes of disease. 

A3TFTES, from atrog, 'an eagle.' Eagle-stone, 
Pierre d'Aigle, Hydrate de tritoxide de fer. This 
stone was formerly supposed to facilitate delivery, 
if bound on the thigh; and to prevent abortion, 
if bound on the arm. It was also called Lapis 

MIOl PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 

iETOLION, Cnidia grana. 

AFFADISSEMENT, (F.) from fade, 'insipid.' 
That condition of the digestive function in which 
the appetite is diminished, the sense of taste 
blunted, and the action of the stomach enfeebled; 
a state usually accompanied by general languor. 


AFFAIRES, Menses. 

AFFAISSE3IENT, Collapsus. 

AFFECTIO, Affection — a. Arthritica Cordis, 
Cardiagra — a. Hypochondriaca, Hypochondriasis 
— a. Hysterica, Hysteria — a. Sarmatica, Plica— 
a. Tympanitica, Tympanites. 

AFFECTION, Affec'tio, from afficio or affec 
tare (ad and facere,) 'to move or influence.' 
Any mode in which the mind or body is affected 
or modified. 

a. Vaporeuse, Hypochondriasis. 

AFFECTIONES ANIMI, Affections of the 

Passio'nes seu Affectio'nes seu Conqiiassatio'nea 
seu Confusio'nes seu Turbatio'nes seu Pcrturba- 
tio'nes an'imi, (F.) Affections de I'dme include not 
only the different passions, as love, hatred, jea- 
lousy, <fcc, but every condition of the mind that 
is accompanied by an agreeable or disagreeable 
feeling, as pleasure, fear, sorrow, &c. 

In Pathology, Affection, Pathos, Pathe'ma, is 
synonymous with disease: thus we speak of a 
pulmonary affection, a calculous affection, &c 

AFFECTIONS BE L'AME.' Affections of 
the mind. 

AFFECTIVE. Thatwhich affects, touches, Ac. 
Gall gives the term affective faculties (F.) Facnl- 
tes affectives, to functions dependent upon the 
organization of the brain, comprising the senti- 
ments, affections, &c. 

AFFECTUS, Passion — a. Faucium pestilens 

Cyanchc maligna — a. Hyderodcs, Hydrops a! 

Spasmodico-convulsivus labiorum, Neural "ia fa- 
ciei. fe 

AF'FERENT, Af'ferens, Centripetal, Esod'ic 
from affcro, (ad and fero, 'to carry,') <I brine-' 
Conveying inwards, as from the periphery to th« 
centre. The vessels which convey the lvmph to 
the lymphatic glands, are called afferent Al so 




nerves that convey impressions towards the nerv- 
ous centres — nervi entobcenon'tes. 

AF'FION, Of'fium, O'pium. The Bantamese 
thus designate an electuary of which opium is the 
basis, and which they use as an excitant. 

AFFLA'TUS, Adjla'tus, Epipnoi'a, from ad, 
'to,' and flare 'to blow.' Any air that strikes 
the bodv^and produces disease. 

AF'FLUENCE, Afflux, from afflucre, (ad and 
fluerc, 'to flow,') 'to flow to.' A flow or deter- 
mination of humours, and particularly of blood, 
towards any part. 

AFFLUXUS, Fluxion. 

AFFUSIO, Affusion— a. Frigida, see Affusion 
— a. Orbicularis, Placenta. 

AFFU'SION, Affu'sio, Pros'chysis, Epich'ysis, 
from ad, 'to,' axL&fumdere,fu8itm, 'to pour.' The 
action of pouring a liquid on any body. Affu- 
sions, Rhyptolu'sim, cold and warm, are used in 
different diseases. The cold affusion, Affu'sio 
seu Per/ u'sio frig" ida, is said to have been bene- 
ficial in cutting short typhus fever and scarlatina, 
if used during the first days. It consists in pla- 
cing the patient in a tub, and pouring cold water 
over him ; then wiping him dry, and putting him 
to bed. The only precaution necessary, is, to 
use it in the state of greatest heat and exacerba- 
tion ; not when chilliness, or topical inflamma- 
tion, is present. 

AFIUM, Opium. 

AFTER-BIRTH, Secundines. 

AFTER-PAIXS, see Pains, labour. 

AGACEMENT, (F.) from ama^uv, 'to sharpen.' 
The setting on edge. 

able sensation experienced when acids are placed 
in contact with the teeth. Tooth edge. Setting 
the teeth on edge. 

ritation of the system, and particularly of the 
organs of sense and locomotion, corresponding 
nearlv to the English Fidgets. 

AGALACTATIO, Agalactia. 

AGALACTIA, Agalax'ia, Agalae'tio, Agalac- 
ta'tio, Defec'tus lac'tis, Oligoga'lia, Oligogalac'- 
tia, from a, privative, and ya\a, 'milk.' Absence 
of milk in the mammae. 

AGALAXTA, Agalactia. 

AGAL'LOCHUM, from ayaWount, 'to become 
splendid,' Calambac, Oalambouk, Lig'num AgaV - 
lochi veri, Lig'num Al'o'es, L. Aspal' athi, Xylo- 
aloes, Aloes wood. A resinous and very aromatic 
wood of the East Indies, from Excaca' ria AgaV- 
locha, Cynometra Agal'lochum, Aloex'ylon AgaV- 
loehum. Used in making pastils, &c. — Diosco- 
rides, Oribasius, Paulus. 

AGAMOUS, see Cryptogamous. 

AG'ARIC, Agar'icum. A genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system, some of which are edible, 
others poisonous. It was so called from Agaria, 
a region of Sarmatia. — Dioscorides. Among the 
edible varieties of the Boletus, the following are 
the chief. 1. The Agar'ieus edu'lis seu Arven'sis 
seu Sylvat'icnsseu. Campes' tris,(¥ .) Agaric comes- 
tible et champignon de couche. 2. The Agar'ieus 
odora'tus, (F.) Mousseron. The most common 
poisonous varieties are the Agar'ieus ncca'tor, 
(F.) Agaric meurtrier: and 2. The Agaricus 
acris, (F.) Agaric dcre ; besides the Auranite, a 
sub-genus, which includes several species. One 
of the most delicate is the Agaricus Aurantiacus, 
but care must be taken not to confound it with 
the A. Pseudo-aurantiaeus, which is very poi- 
sonous. The A. aurantiacus is called, in French, 
Orange. See Poisons, Table of. 

Agaric, see Boletus igniarius — a. Blanc, Bo- 
letus laricis — a. de Chine, Boletus igniarius — a. 
Female, Boletus igniarius — a. of the Oak, Bole- 

tus igniarius — a. Odorant, Daodaleasuaveolens — ■ 
a. White, Boletus laricis. 

AGARICUM, Boletus igniarius. 

AGARICUS, Boletus igniarius — a. Albus, Bo- 
letus laricis — a. Arvensis, see Agaric — a. Auran- 
tiacus, Amanitas, Bolites — a. Auriculseforma, 
Peziza auricula — a. Campestris, see Agaric — a. 
Chirurgorum, Boletus igniarius — a. Igniarius, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Laricis, Boletus laricis — 
a. Pseudo-aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. Quercus, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Sylvaticus, see Agaric. 

AGASYLLIS GALB ANUM, Bubon galbanum. 

AGATHIS DAMARRA, Pinus damarra. 



AGA'VE AMERICA'NA^A. Ramo'sa, Ameri- 
can Agave, American aloe, Maguey, from ayavo;, 
'admirable.' Nat. Ord. Bromcliaeeas. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. This plant has been 
considered diuretic and antisyphilitic. The fa- 
vourite drink of the Mexicans — Pulque — is the 
fermented juice of this plant. 

Agave Ramosa, A. Americana. 

Agave Vikgis'ica, Rattlesnake's master: — ■ 
grows in the Southern States. The root is very 
bitter. It has been used in tincture as a carmina- 
tive in colic ; and as a remedy for bites of ser- 

AGE, 'n\tKia, Heli'hia, JEtas ; — Of uncertain 
etymon. Period of life. Time that has elapsed 
since birth, &c. Five ages are often designated 
in the life of man. 1. First infancy (Infan'tia ;) 
2. Second infancy (Pueri"tiaf) 3. Adolescence 
(Adoleseen'tia:) 4. The adult age (Yiril'itas:) 
5. Old age (Senec'tus.) 

AGENEIOS, Imberbis. 

AGEN'ESIS, from a, privative, and ycveci;, 
'generation.' Imperfect development of any part 
of the body; as cerebral agenesis, i. e. imperfect 
development of the brain in the foetus. 

AGENNESIA, Impotence, Sterilitas. 

AGENNESIS, Impotence. 

AGENOSO'MUS ; from a, privative, ytwata, 
'I generate,' and aiajja, 'body.' A malformation 
in which the fissure and eventration are chiefly 
in the lower part of the abdomen; the urinary 
or sexual apparatus absent or very rudimentary. 

AGENT, Agens, from agere, 'to act.' Any 
power which produces, or tends to produce an 
effect on the human body. Morbific agents, (F.) 
Agens morbifiques, are the causes of disease; — 
therapeutical agents, (F.) Agens therapeutiques, 
the means of treating it. 


AGERA'SIA, Insenescen'tia, from a, privative, 
and yrjpas, 'old age.' A vigorous and green old 

AGERATUM, Achillea ageratum. 

AUE'RATUS LAPIS. A stono used by cob- 
blers to polish shoes. It was formerly esteemed 
discutient and astringent. — Galen, Oribasius, 

AGES, Palm. 

AGEUSIA, Ageustia. 

AGEUS'TIA, Agheus'tia, Ageu'sia, Apogeus'~ 
tin, Apogeu'sis, Dysassthe'sia gustato'ria, Para* 
geu'sis, from a, priv., and ycvais, 'taste.' Dimi- 
nution or loss of taste, Anasthe'sia lingua. Sau- 
vages, Cullen. 

AGGLOM'ERATE, Agglomera'tus, from ag- 
glomerare (ad and glomerare, 'to wind up yarn 
in a ball,') 'to collect together.' Applied to tu- 
mours or glands in aggregation. 

AGGLU'TINANT, ~ Agglu'tinans, Collet'ievt, 
Glu'tinans, from gluten, 'glue' (F.) Agglutinant, 
Agglutinutif, Glutinatif. Remedies were for- 


mcrly so called, which were considered capable 
of uniting divided parts. — Paulus. 

Plasters are called agglutinanU, (F.) aggluti- 
natifs, which adhere strongly to the skin. Cer- 
tain bandages are likewise so termed. (F.) Ban- 
acliit< \s agglutinative*. 

TO AGGLU'TINATE. The French vise the 
word agglutiner, in the sense of 'to reunite;' as 
agglutiner les levres d'une plaie, 'to reunite the 
lips of a wound.' 

AQOLUTINA TIF, Agglutinant. 


AGGLUTINA'TION, Colle'sis, Epicolle'sis, 
Proscolle'sis, Glutina'tio, from agglutinare, 'to 
glue together.' The first degree of adhesion. 
Also, the action of agglutinants. 

AGGLUTINER, To agglutinate. 

AG'GREGATB, Aggrega'tus, from aggregare, 
(ad and gregare,) 'to flock together,' 'to assemble 
together.' Glands are called aggregate which 
are in clusters. See Peyeri Glandulae. Aggre- 
gate pille, (F.) Pilules agregatives, signified, 
formerly, those which were believed to contain 
the properties of a considerable number of medi- 
cines, and to be able to supply their place. 

AGHEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

AGHOUL, Agul. 

HA'LID. An Egyptian and Ethiopian shrub, 
similar to Ximenia. The Ethiopians use it as a 
vermifuge. The fruit is purgative. 

AGIHALID, Agiahalid. 

AGISSANT. Active. 

AGITATION, Agita'tio, Done' sis,- from agere, 
'to act.' Constant and fatiguing motion of the 
body, Ti/rbe, Tyrba'sia, In'quies, — or distressing 
mental inquietude, — An'imi Agita'tio. 

AGITATORIUS, Convul'sive. 

AGLOS'SIA, from a, privative, and yXwoaa, 
' the tongue.' A malformation, which consists in 
the want of a tongue. 

AGLOSSOS'TOMA, from Aglossia, and oroua, 
• month.' A mouth without a tongue. 

gra'phia, from a, priv., y\uaaa, 'the tongue,' 
erufia, ' the mouth,' and ypatpto, ' I describe.' 
Description of a mouth without a tongue. — Ro- 
land (of Saumur). 

AGLUTI'TION, Agluti'tio, from a, priv., and 
glatire, 'to swallow.' A hybrid term, designat- 
ing impossibility of swallowing. — LinnEeus." 

AGMA, Fracture. 

ACMATOLOG"IA, from ay/ia, fracture, and 
Xoyog, 'a description.' The doctrine of fractures. 
A treatise on fractures. 

AG ME, Fracture. 

of the fingers. — a. Membrana, Amnios. 

AGMINATED GLANDS, Peyer's glands. 

AGNA'THIA, from a, priv., and yvados, 'jaw.' 
A malformation, which consists in the want of 
the jaw, especially of the lower 


AGNOI'A, Agnae'a from a, priv., and ytvooKto, 
I know. State of a patient who does not recoe- 

ni8 f «™ d « al8, ~ Hi PP° c ™tes, Galen, Foesius? 


AGO'GE. ay-yn. The order or condition of a 
disease.— Hippoc, Galen. Likewise the state of 
tne air.— Hippoc., Galen, Gorraeus, Foesius. 

AGOGUE, ayuyos, a leader,' from «y W , 'I lead 
or expel Hence Cholagogue, an expeller of 
bile : Hydragogue, <fec. 

AGOMPHPASIS, Agompho'sis, from a, priva- 
tive, and yo^ou,, <I nail.' Looseness of the 
teetn.— Gon»us. See Gomphiasis 

AGOMPHOSIS, Agoruphiasis. 

AGON, Agonj. 


AGONE, Hyoscyamus. 

AGON I A, Sterilitas. 

AG0N1SMA, Agony. 


AGONIS'TICA, from ayiav, 'a combat.' The 
part of ancient gymnastics, which had reference 
to the combats of the Athletre. 

Also, very cold water, given internally, to calm 
febrile heat.— Paulus of iEgina. 

AGONIZANS, Psychorages. 

AGONOS, Sterile. 

AG'ONY, Agon'ia, Agon, Agonis'ma, Agonis'- 
mus, Mochthus, Mogus, I'xychorag"ia, PsycTlor- 
rhag"ia, Angor, from aytav, 'a combat.' The 
last struggle of life. — Galen, Gorraeus, &o. The 
agony, which is of longer or shorter duration, is 
characterized by great change in the features, 
gradual abolition of sensation and motion, loss 
of voice, dryness or lividity of the tongue and 
lips, rattling in the throat, small and intermit- 
tent pulse, and coldness of the extremities. 
This state is not present in those who die sud- 
denly. See Facies Hippocratica. 

AGOS'TUS, from ayu, 'I lead.' The fore arm 
from the elbow to the fingers. Also, the palm 
of the hand. — Gomeus. See Palm. 

AGRA, aypa, from ayptui, 'I seize hold of.' A 
seizure, as Odontagra, a tooth seizure, toothache ; 
Ghiragra, Podaqra, &C. 

AGRAFE DE VALENTIN. A kind of for- 
ceps with parallel branches, employed by Valen- 
tin in the operation for hare lip, to effect the ap- 
proximation of the edges of the wound. 

AGRAHALID, Agiahalid. 


AGRIA, Herpes exedens. 

AGRIAMPELOS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRICOCCIMELEA, Prunus Spinosa. 

AGRIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AGRIMONIA, Agrimony — a. Eupatoria, 
Agrimony — a. Odorata, Agrimony — a. Officina- 
lis, Agrimony. 

AG'RIMONY, Agrimo'nia, A. Extpato'ria seu 
odora'ta seu officinalis, Caf'al, Lap'pttla hepat'- 
ica, Cockle-bur, Stickwort. (F.) Aigremoine. NaU 
Ord. Rosacea^. Sex. Syst. Icosandria Digynia. 
A mild astringent and stomachic. Dose, in 
powder, from T)j to 5Jj. 

Agrimony, Hemp, Eupatorium cannabinum. 

AGRIOCASTANUM, Bunium bulbocastanum, 
Lycoperdon tuber. 

AGRIOCINARA, Sempervivum tectorum. 

AGRIORIGANUM, Origanum maiorana. 

AGRIOSELINUM, Smyrnum olusatrum. 

AGRIOTHYM'IA, from ayptos, 'ferocious,' and 
Su/xoj, 'disposition.' Ferocious insanity. — Sau- 

A GRIPALMA GALLIS, Leonurns cardiaca. 
AGRIP'PA, ^Egrip'pa, from ager partus, 'dif- 
ficult birth:' or perhaps from aypa. 'taking, or 
seizure, and ™,j, ' the foot.' This term has 
been given to those born by the feet. It is pre- 
tended that the family of Agrippa obtained their 
name from this circumstance. Parturition, where 
the feet present, is called Agrippa partus, Aqriv. 
pi' mis partite. * r 

AGRO DI CEDRO, see Citrus medica 

AGROSTIS, Bryonia alba. 

AG RUN A, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AGRYPNOCOMA, Coma vigil 

AGRYPNO'DES, from ayp^ vo% , , , , 
Characterized by sleeplessness, as Febr v esS- 
pnodes, a fever accompanied with sleeples ° ry ~ 




AGRTPNOTICUS, Anthypnotic. 

AGRYP'NUS, aypwvos. Sleepless; vigilant. 

AG (J A DE VERUGA, see Verugas. 

AGUARDIENTE, Brandy. See also Spirit. 
— a. de Italia, see Spirit. 

A'GUE, from Gothic, agis, 'trembling.' (?) In- 
termittent fever. 

Ague and Fever, Intermittent fever. 

Ague Cake, Placen'ta febri'lit, Physco'nia 
sple'nicum, P. splenica, Splenis Tumor ; (F.) Ga- 
teau febrile. A visceral obstruction — generally 
in the spleen — which follows agues, and is dis- 
tinctly felt by external examination. To a 
greater or less degree, it is not uncommon. 

Ague, Dead, see Fever, masked. Ague drop, 
tasteless, Liquor arsenicalis — a. Dumb, see Fever, 
masked — a. Free, Laurus sassafras — a. Leaping, 
see Leaping ague — a. Quartan, Quartan — a. Ter- 
tian, Tertian fever — a. Weed, Eupatoriuui perfo- 

AGUL, Ayhoul, Alha'gi, the Hedisa'rum seu 
Hedysa'rum alhagi. A thorny shrub of Persia 
and Mesopotamia, which affords manna. The 
leaves are purgative. 

AGY'ION, from a, priv., and yviov, 'limb.' 
Mutilated or wanting limbs. — Hippocr. Weak, 
feeble. — Galen. 

AGYR'IAS, from ayvpis, 'a collection.' Opa- 
city of the crystalline. — Aetius, Pare. 

AGYRTA, from ayvpi;, 'a crowd.' Formerly, 
a stroller who pretended to supernatural powers. 
Subsequently, a quack or illiterate pretender. 
See Charlatan. 

AGYRTIA, Charlatanry. 

AHO'RA, from a, privative, and 'u>pa, 'youth.' 
Tardy development of the organs : — the opposite 
to Hyperho'ra. 

AHOUAI, Thevetia ahouai. 

AHUSAL, Orpiment. 

AHYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AIDE, (F.) Ad'jutor min'ister. An assistant 
to a surgeon in his operations. 

AID ROMANIA, Nymphomania. 

AIERSA, Iris Germanica. 

AIGE, Mgi&s. 

the city of this name, in Normandy, is the cha- 
lybeate spring of Saint Xantin, much used in 
the 16th and 17th centuries. 

AIGLE, Mgi&s. 

AIGRE, Acidulous — a. Voix. See Acid. 

AIGKELET, Acidulous. 

AIGRETTE, see Typha latifolia. 

AIGREMOINE, Agrimony. 

AIGRE URS, Acidities. 

AIGU, Acute. 

AIGUILLE, Needle — a. d Acupuncture, see 
Needle — a. d Appareil, see Needle — a. d Bee de 
Lievre, see Needle — a. d Cataracte, see Needle — 
a. de Deschamps, see Needle — a. Engainee, see 
Needle — a. d Fistule, see Needle — a. d. Gaine, 
see Needle — a. d Ligature, see Needle — a. d 
Manche, see Needle — a. d Seton, see Needle — a. 
d Suture, see Needle. 

AIGUILLON, (F.) Spina Helmon'tii. A 
term used since the time of Van Helmont to de- 
signate the proximate cause of inflammation. 
According to him, an inflamed part is in the 
same condition as if an aiguillon or thorn were 
thrust into it. 

AIGU1SER, to Acidulate. 

AIL, Allium. 

AILE, Ala, Aileron. 

AILERON, (F.) Extre'ma Ala seu Pin'nula, 
diminutive of (F.) Aile, a wing. The extremity 
of the wing of a bird, to which the great feathers 
are attached. 

folds at the base of the broad ligaments of the 
uterus, which are occupied by the ovary and its 
ligament, the Fallopian tube, and the round liga- 

AIMA, 'aijia, see Hsema. 

AIM ANT, Magnet. 

AIMATERA, llepatirrhcea. 

AIMORRHGIA, Hremorrhagia. 

AIMORRHOIS, Ha;morrhois. 

AINE, Inguen. 

AIPATHIA, Continent disease. 

AIPI, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIMA COXERA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIPOCA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIR, A'er, Pneuma, from au>, ' I breathe.' 
Common Air, Atmospheric air (F.) Air atmospke- 
rique, is an invisible, transparent, inodorous, in- 
sipid, ponderable, compressible, and elastic fluid, 
which, under the form of the atmosphere, sur- 
rounds the earth to the height of 15 or 10 

Air is essentially composed of two gases, oxy- 
gen and nitrogen, in the proportion of 20 of the 
former to 80 of the latter. Oxygen is the vital 
portion, but the nitrogen is necessary to dilute it. 
Air also contains a small portion of carbonic acid 
gas, and has always floating in it aqueous va- 
pour, different terrestrial emanations, <tc. Its 
effects upon the human body vary according to 
its greater or less density, temperature, moisture, 
<fec. ; hence, change of air is found extremely 
serviceable in the prevention and cure of certain 
morbid conditions. See Climate and Respira- 

acid — a. Alcalin, Ammonia — a. Atmospherique, 

Air Bladder, Swim-bladder, Swimming blad- 
der; (F.) Vessienatatoire. An abdominal organ 
in many fishes, sometimes communicating by 
means of a duct with the alimentary canal, at 
others, not, which is considered by some to be- 
long to the respiratory system. Its contents aro 
the elements of atmospheric air, but in different 
proportions ; and its chief and general function 
appears to be to regulate the specific gravity of 
the fish. 

Air Cells of the Lungs, Bronchial cells; see 
Cellule — a. Chamber, Folliculus aeris — a. Dephlo- 
gisticated, Oxygen — a. Empyreal, Oxygen — a. du 
Feu, Oxygen — a. Factitious, Carbonic acid — a. 
Fixed, Carbonic acid — a. Gate, Azote — a. Inflam- 
mable, Hydrogen, Hydrogen carburetted. 

Air Passages, (F.) Voies aeriennes, V. aeri- 
feres. The larynx, trachea, bronchia, &c. 

Air, Pure, Oxygen — a. Solid, of Hales, Car- 
bonic acid — a. Vicie, Azote — a. Vital, Oxygen. 

AIRAIN, Bell-metal, Brass. 

AIRE, Areola. 

AIRELLE ANGULEUSE, Vaccinium myr- 
tillus — a. Ponctuee, Vaccinium vitis idtea. 


Airthrey is situate about two miles north of 
Stirling, Scotland. The waters are saline ca- 
thartics; containing chloride of sodium, chloride 
of calcium, sulphate of zinc, and chloride of mag- 

AISSELLE, Axilla. 

AISTHESIS, iEsthesis. 

AITHOMO'MA, from at$os, 'black.' A black 
condition of all the humours of the eye. A. 

AITIA, Cause. 

AITIOLOGY, ^Etiologia. 

AITION, Cause. 


OF. Called by the Germans, Aachen. A ther- 
mal, Bnlphureoua, mineral water, which contains, 
iu liUKI grammes, 28.54 cubic inches of sulpho- 
hydric aria gas, 1S.05 cubic inches of carbonic 
acid gas, 0.1304 grammes of carbonate of lime, 
0.0440 grammes «'l' carbonate of magnesia, 0.5 I t4 
grammes of carbonate of soda, 2.3697 grammes 
of chloride of sodium, 0.2637 of sulphate of soda, 
and 0.0705 of silica. The temperature is 134° 

The factitious water of Aix-la-Chapelle, A' qua 
Aqui«granen'sis, (F.) Eau d'Aix-la-Chapelle, is 
made by adding pure water f^xvijss, to hydro- 
ttUphuretted water f^iv., carbonate of soda gr. 
xx. chloride of sodium gr. ix. — Ph. P. 

There are thermal sulphureous springs at Aix 
in Savoy (98°), and some thermal springs at Aix 
in Provence (91°). 

AIZOOX, Sempervivum tectorum. 

A'JUGA, A. pyramida'lis, Gonsol'ida me'dia, 
Bu'gula, B. pyramida'lis, Teu'criumpyramida'le, 
Upright Bugloss, Middle Gonsound. (F.) Bugle 
pyramidale. This plant is subastringent and 

Ajuga Chasi.epitys, Teucrium chamaepitys. 

Ajuoa Reptans, Bu'gula, /I. reptans, Common 
Bugle, (F.) Bugle rampante, has similar proper- 

AKATALIS, Juniperus communis. 

AKATKRA, Juniperus communis. 

AKINESIA, Aeinesia. 

AKOLOGT, Materia Medica. 

ARRATO PEGLSi, Acratopegse. 

ALA, Pinna, Pteryx, 'a wing.' (F.) A He. 
A term often used by anatomists for parts which 
project like a wing from the median line ; as the 
Ala- nasi, Aim of the uterus, &o. See Axilla and 
Pavilion of the Ear. Also, Pterygium. 

Ai.a Extrema, sec Aileron. 

ALABAS'TEE, Alabas'trwm. (F.) Albdtre, 
Alabastri'tes. A variety of compact gypsum; 
of which an ointment was once made ; — the un- 
guen'tum alahastri' nam ; used as a discutient. 
Alabaster likewise entered into several denti- 


Nymph* — a. Majores, Labia pudendi — a. Mino- 
res. Nymphs — a. Muliebres minores, Nymphse — 
a. Nasi, see Nasus — a. Pudendi Muliebris, Labia 
pudendi — a. Pulmonum, see Pulmo — a. of the 
Uterus, see Ala — a. Vespertilionis, see Uterus. 

ALAITER, from (F.J lait, 'milk.' To suckle. 

ALALIA. Mutitas. 

ALAMB1C, Alembic. 

ALANFU'TA. A name given by the Arabians 
to a vein, situate between the chin and lower lip, 
which they were in the habit of opening in cases 
of faHor of the breath. — Avicenna. 

ALAQUE'CA. The Hindoostanee name of a 
stone, found in small, polished fragments, which 
is considered efficacious in arresting hemorrhage 
when applied externally. It is a sulphuret of 

ALARES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles 

Ala'res Yexje. The superficial veins at the 
fold of the arm. 

ALA'RIA OSSA. The wing-like processes of 
the sphenoid bone. 

ALA'RIS, Ala'tus, Aliform' is ; frorff ala 'a 
wing.' Wing-shaped; winged. 

ALATERNUS, COMMON, Rhamnus ala- 
tcrnus — a. Latifohus, Rhamnus alatenms, 

ALA'TUS. Pterygo'des, Homo ala'ttu. One 
whose scapulae project backwards like win<>\s 

ALBAP'ARAN, AJdaharan. The sesamoid 
bone of the nietatarso-phalangal joint of the 


great toe. The Rabbis and Magicians attributed 
extraordinary virtues to it. — Arabians. 


ALBAMENTUM, Albumen ovi. 

A French acidulous chalybeate, in the department 
of the Loire. 

ALBARAS ALBA, Lepra alphoides— a. Nigra, 
Lepra nigricans. 

ALBARJ5S, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBAROS, Lepra alphoides. 

ALBA TEE, Alabaster. 


ALBIN D'(EUF, Albumen ovi. 

ALBINISM, see Albino. 

ALBINISMUS, see Albino. 

ALBI'NO 'White.' Leucce'thiops, JEthiops 
allms, Dondo, from albus, 'white.' (F.) Blafard, 
Negre-blanc. A Spanish word applied to indivi- 
duals of the human race who have the skin and 
hair white; the iris very pale, bordering on red; 
and the eyes so sensible, that they cannot bear 
the light of day. This condition, which has been 
called Leucathio'pia, Alpha' sis jEthiop' ica, Albi- 
no'is'mus, Albinis' mus, Al'binism, Leucopathi'a, is 
seen more frequently in the Negro. Both sexes 
are exposed to it. It does not seem to be true, 
that there are tribes of Albinos in the interior of 

ALBINOISMUS, see Albino. 

ALBOR OVI, Albumen ovi. 

AL'BORA. A kind of itch or complicated 
leprosy. — Paracelsus. 

ALBOT, Crucible. 

ALBOTIM, Terebinthina. 

ALBUGIN'EA, Tu'nica albugin'ea, A. Testis, 
Perites'tis, Dura mater testis, Membra' na capsula'- 
ris testis. (F.) Albuginee, Tunique albuginee. A 
strong, fibrous, and resisting membrane, which 
immediately envelopes the testicle, and has, at 
its upper part, an enlargement, called corpus 
Highmorianum. From its inner surface it sends 
off a number of flat, filiform prolongations or 
septa, between which are contained the semi- 
niferous vessels. Externally it is covered by the 
tunica vaginalis testis. 

ALBUGINEE, Albuginea, Albugineous. 

ALBUGIN'EOUS, Albugin'eus, 'white,' from 
albus, (F.) Albuginee. A term applied to tex- 
tures, humours, &c, which are perfectly white. 

Albugin'eous Fibre, (F.) Fibre albuginee. A 
name given by Chaussier to what he considers 
one of the four elementary fibres. 

The albugineous fibre is linear, cylindrical, 
tenacious, elastic, but little extensible, and of a 
shining, satiny appearance. It forms fascise or 
fasciculi, which constitute the tendons, articular 
ligaments, and aponeuroses; hence the name 
Albugineous membranes, given by Chaussier to 
the fibrous membranes. 

Gauthier considered, that the rete mucosura 
consists of four layers, to two of which he gives 
the names mempra'na albugin'ea profunda and 
membra' na albugin'ea superjicia'lis, respectively 

ALBUGINI'TIS, (F.) Albuginite. A term* 
employed by some authors for inflammation of 
the albugineous tissue. Thus, gout and rheu- 
matism are regarded aa species of the o- enua 

ALBUGO OCULORUM, Leucoma— a . 
Albumen ovi. 

ALBULA, Leucoma. 

ALBUM CANIS, Album grsecura — a. 

Album Gr.ucfm, Oynoc'oprus, Spo'dium Cr 
co'rum, Album Canis, Stercus Cani'num Alb, 
The white dung of the dog. It consists almost 






wholly of phosphate of lime, from the bones used | 
as food. It was formerly applied as a discutient 
to the inside of the throat in quinsies, but is 
now justly banished from practice. 

Album Nigrum. The excrement of the mouse. 

Album Oculi, see Sclerotic. 

Album Rhazis. A white ointment made of 
cerusse and lard, prescribed by the Arabian phy- 
sician Rhazes. 

ALBU'MEN, Leuco'ma, Ooni'ne, Ozemun, from 
albus, ' white.' (F.) Albumine. An immediate 
principle of animals and vegetables, which con- 
stitutes the chief part of the white of egg. It is 
found in the serum, chyle, synovia, serous fluids, 
Ac. There is not much difference in chemical 
composition between animal and vegetable albu- 
men, fibrin and casein: fibrin alone appears, how- 
ever, to be possessed of plastic properties. Also, 
the white of the eye. See Sclerotic. 

Albu'men Ovi, Albu'mor, Alhu'go Ovi, Albor 
Ovi, Oan'didum Ovi, Albu'men, Clare'ta, Ovi 
albus liquor, Albumen'tum, Lac avis or tchite of 
e il'.h (F.) Blanc d'oeuf, (Old F.) Albin d'veuf, is 
used in pharmacy for suspending oils, &c, in 
water. See Ovum. 

ALBUMFXE. Albumen. 

ALBUMINURIA. A hybrid term from 'Albu- 
men,' and ovpov, 'the urine.' A condition of the 
urine in which it contains albumen, the presence 
of which is indicated by its coagulation on the 
application of adequate heat., Kidney, Bright's 
disease of the. 

ALBUMOR, Albumen ovi. 

AL'CAEST, Al'cahest, Al'chaest, perhaps from 
(G.) all, 'all,' and geist, 'spirit.' A word in- 
vented by Paracelsus to designate a liquor, which, 
according to him, was capable of removing every 
kind of swelling. 

The same word was used by Van Helmont for 
a fancied universal solvent, capable of reducing 
every body to its elements. 

Alcaest of Glauber is a thick liquor ob- 
tained by detonating nitrate of potassa on hot 
coals, which transforms it into subcarbonate of 

Alcaest of Respour is a mixture of potassa 
and oxvd of zinc. 

ALCAHEST, Alcaest. 

ALCAHOL, Alcohol. 

ALCALES'CENCE, Alkales'eence, Alcalescen' - 
tia. The condition in which a fluid becomes 

Alcalescence of the Humours was an old 
notion of the humourists. It can only occur 
during the putrid fermentation of animal mat- 
ters, which contain azote, and produce ammonia. 
Alcalin'ity is the quality of being alcaline. 

AL'CALI or Alca'li, Al'kali, from al {Arab.,) 
'the,' and kali, the name of the Salso'la Soda, 
a plant which contains a large quantity of one 
of the principal alkalis — soda. The alkalis are 
substances soluble in water, possessing generally 
a urinous, acrid, and caustic taste, turning the 
syrup of violets green, and restoring to blue in- 
fusion of litmus, which has been reddened by 
acids; reddening the yellow of turmeric, and 
having the greatest tendency to unite with acids, 
whose character they modify, and form salts with 
them. In medicine we understand by this term 
Potassa, Soda, or Ammonia. 

Alcali, Caustic, Al'kali Oaus'ticum. A pure 
alkali. One deprived of its carbonic acid. 

Alcalis, Fixed, Soda and potassa; Volatile 
Alcali, Ammonia. 

Alcali Ammoniacum Acetatum, Liquor am- 
mouise acetatis — a. Ammoniacum fluidum, Liquor 
ammonite — a. Fixum tartarizatum, Potassae tar- 

tras — a. Minerale sulphuricum, Soda, sulphate 
of — a. Tartari aceto saturatum, Potassae acetas — 
a. Vegetabile salito dephlogisticatum, Potassae 
murias hyperoxygenatus — a. Vegetabile tartari- 
zatum, Potassae tartras — a. Vegetabile vitriola- 
tum, Potassae sulphas — a. Volatile acetatum, Li- 
quor ammoniae acetatis — a. Volatile aeratum, 
Ammonia? carbonas — a. Volatile ex sale ainmo- 
niaco, Ammoniaa carbonas. 


ALCALINITY. See Alkalescence. 

ALCANA, Anchusa officinalis. 

TA, Prinos — a. Orientalis, Lawsonia inermis — a. 
Spuria, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Vera, Lawsonia 

ALCEA, Hibiscus abelmoschus— a. ^Igyptiaca, 
Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. Indica, Hibiscus abel- 

Alce'a Ro'sea, Common hollyhock. Emollient, 
like Althaea. 


ALCHACHIL, Rosmarinus. 

ALCHAEST, Alcahest. 

ALCHEMIL'LA, said to have been celebrated 
with the Alchemists [? ] A. vuh/a'ris, Common 
Ladies' Mantle, Pes Leo'nis, Leontopo'dium, (F.) 
Pied de Lion. Formerly in great repute as an 
astringent in hemorrhage. 

ALCHEMY, Alchymy. 

ALCHITRAM, see Pinus Svlvestris. 

ALCHITURA, see Pinus Sylvestris. 

ALCHOOL, Alcohol. 


AL'CHYMY, Al'chemy, Ahhemi'a, Alchiiiii'a, 
Adep'ta Philosoph'ia, from al, an Arabic par- 
ticle, signifying 'superiority, excellence,' and 
Ohimia, 'Chymistry.' This word was formerly 
synonymous with Chymistry; but, from the 7th 
century, it has been applied to the mysterious 
art of endeavouring to discover a universal re- 
medy, and a mode of transmuting the baser me- 
tals into gold : an operation to which they gave 
the name Opus magnum, and Philosopher's stone. 

Alchymy has also been called Scien'tia vel 
Philosoph'ia Hermet'ica, from an idea that Her- 
mes or Mercury was its inventor. 

Harris has well defined this chimerical art: 
' Ars sine arte, cvjus principium est mentiri, me- 
dium laborare, et finis mcndicare.' 

Al'chymist, Flatua'rius, Adept'. One pre- 
tending to alchymy. 

ALCOCALUM, Cynara scolymus. 

AL'COHOL, Al'cahol, Alchool, Allcol, Alcol, 
Al'cool, Al'kool. An Arabic word, formerly used 
for an impalpable powder, and signifying ' very 
subtile, much divided.' At the present day it is 
applied to highly rectified spirit of wine: — see 
S/iiritus rectiftcatus or rectified spirit, distilled 
from dried subcarbonate of potassa. In the Ph. 
U. S. Alcohol is rectified spirit of the specific- 
gravity 0.835. 

Alcohol is an inflammable liquor, lighter than 
water, of a warm, acrid taste, colourless, trans- 
parent, and of a pungent, aromatic smell. It is 
the product of the distillation of vinous liquors; 
is miscihle with water in all proportions, and is 
the direct solvent of resins, balsams, <fcc. Various 
other vegetable principles are soluble in it, and 
hence it is used, in different states of concentra- 
tion, in the preparation of elixirs, tinctures, es- 
sences, &c. 

Alcohol acts on the animal body as a powerful 
stimulus: as such, in a dilute form, it is used in 
the prevention and cure of disease. Its habitual 
and inordinate use is the cause of many serious 
affections, of a chronic character especially, as 
visceral obstructions, dropsy, &c. 


Alcohol iEmEREus Psrratus, A. Sulfurico- 
irthcreus ferri— a. cum Aloe perfoliate, Tinctura 
aloes— a. Ammonia et guaiaci, Tinctura guaiaci 
ammoniata — a. Ammoiiiatnm, Spiritus ammoiiia 
—a. Ammoniatum aromaticum, Spiritua ammo- 
nia? aromaticns — a. Ammoniatum fostidnm, Spi- 
ritus ammonise foetidna — a. Amylicum, Oil, Fusel 
— a. cum Aromatibus aulphuricatus, Sulphuricum 
acidum aromaticum — a. cum Aromatibus compo- 
6itus, Tinctura cinnamomi composita — a. Casto- 
riatum, Tinctura castorei — a. cum Crotone casca- 
rilla. Tinctura cascarilla? — a. Dilutum, Spiritus 
tenuior — a. Ferratus, Tinctura ferri muriatis — 
a. cum Sulphate ferri tartarisatus, see Ferrum 
tartarisatum — a. cum Guaiaco officinale ammo- 
niatus, Tinctura guaiaci arnmoniata — a. Iodii, 
Tinctura Iodinas — a. cum Opio, Tinctura opii 
— a. Sulphuricatum, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. 
Sulphuricum, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Sul- 
phuris, Carbonis sulphuretum — a. Vini, Spiritus 

ALCOHOL'IC, Alcohol' icus,Spirituo' sus,Spir'- 
ituoiiH. Relating to or containing alcohol — as 
an alcoholic drink or remedy. 

ALGOL, Alcohol. 

ALGOLS, Aphthae. 

ALCOOL, Alcohol — a. Camphre, Spiritus cam- 

ALCOOLAT, Tincture. 

ALCOOLATUM, Tincture— a. Antiscorbuti- 
cum, Tinctura de Cochleariis — a. Carminativuin 
Sylvii, Tinctura de Cochleariis — a. de Croco com- 
positum, Tinctura de Croco composita, 

ALCOOLTSER (F.) Formerly, 'to reduce into 
an impalpable powder.' No longer used. 


AL VORNOQUE (F.) Oortex Alcornoco. The 
bark of Alchor'nea latifo'lia, of Jamaica, which 
lias been considered capable of curing phthisis. 
It is bitter, tonic, and slightly astringent. Dose 
of the powder Qi to gss. 

AL'OYON, Hal'cyon. A swallow of Cochin 
China, whose nest is gelatinous and very nutri- 
tious. It has been proposed in medicine as ana- 
leptic and aphrodisiac. 

ALOYO'NIUM, Bastard sponge. The ashes 
were formerly employed as dentrifices: they were 
believed proper for favouring the growth of the 
hair and beard, and were used in Alopecia. 

ALDABARAN, Albadaran. 

ALDEHYDE, see Anaesthetic. 

ALDER, AMERICAN, Alnus serratula— a. 
Black, Prinos, Rhainnus frangula — a. European. 
Alnus glutinosa. 

ALE, Cerevisia. 

ALEACAS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALECOST, Tanacetum balsamita. 

ALECTO'RIUS LAPIS, Alecto'ria ; from 
akzKTuip, ' a. cock.' The name of a stone, supposed 
to exist in the stomach of the cock, or, according 
to others, in that of the capon, four years old. 
Many marvellous properties were formerly attri- 
buted to it, which are as groundless as its exist- 
ence. There are no stones in the stomach, except 
what have been swallowed. 

ALEGAR, Acetum. 

ALEHOOF, Glechoma hederacea. 

ALELMMA, Liniment. 

ALEIPHA, Liniment. 
^ ALEIPTE'RIUM, from aXn0a>, 'I anoint.' 
The place in the ancient gymnasium where the 
combatants anointed themselves. 

ALEIP'TRON. Same etymon. A box for 
containing ointments. 

ALEMA, Farina. 

ALEM'BIC (Arab.) Moorshead, Capitel'lwm, 
Capu'ulum, Am'bicue, (F.) Alambic. A utensil 
made of glass, metal, or earthen ware, adapted 


for distillation. A still. It consists of a Lody 
or cucurbit, (F.) cucurbite, chaudiire, to which ia 
attached a head or capital, (F.) chapiteau, and 
out of this a beak descends laterally to be inserted 
into the receiver, worm, condenser, or refrigera- 
tor, (F.) serpentin, refrigerant, as the case may 

ALEM'BROTH (Salt.) Sal Alembroth. The 
alchymists designated by this name, and by 
those of Sal sapien'tice, Sal artis, Sal vitce and 
S. Scien'tice, the product resulting from the sub- 
limation of a mixture of corrosive sublimate and 
sal ammoniac. It is stimulant, but not employed. 

ALESE, (F.) Aleze, Lin'teum, from aXefa, 'I 
preserve.' A guard. A cloth arranged in seve- 
ral folds, and placed upon a bed, so as to guard 
it from the lochial or other discharges. 

ALETON, Farina. 

ALETRIS, A. farinosa. 

Al'etris, A. Farino'sa, Stargrass, Starwort^ 
Blazing star, Aloe-root, Bitter grass, Black root, 
Unicorn root, Ague root, Ague grass, Devil's bit, 
Ifealy starwort, (F.) Aletris Meunier, Nat. Old. 
Asphodelese. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia, 
This plant is an intense and permanent bitter, 
and is used as a tonic and stomachic. It is com- 
mon in the United States. 

ALEURON, Farina. 

ALEUROTESIS, see Cribration. 

ALEXANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 


ALEXAN'DRINE, Emplas'trum Alexan'dri. 
A garlic plaster, invented by Alexander, contem- 
porary of Mesue. Other ancient preparations 
were called 'Alexandrine;' as the Alexan'dri 
antid'otus au'rea, used in apoplexy ; the Collyr'- 
ium siccum Alexandri'num, or ' Colly rium of King 
Alexander,' mentioned by Aetius. 

ALEXICACUM, Amuletum, Alexipharmic. 

ALEXIPHAR'MIC, Alexiphar'macus, Anti- 
phar'macus, Alexica'cus, Caco-alexite'ria, Lexi- 
phar' mac-us, (F.) Alexipharmaque, from aXt^uv, 
'to repel,' and (papfiaKov, 'poison.' A term for- 
merly used for medicines which were considered 
proper for expelling from the body various mor- 
bific principles, or for preventing the bad effects 
of poisons taken inwardly. 


ALEXIR, Elixir. 

ALEXITE'RIA.CWfecire'na, from a^aaSai, 
'to assist.' Originally, alexiterium, was used 
synonymously with remedy. In more modern 
times it has been applied to a class of medicines, 
that counteract poisons placed in contact with the 
exterior of the body, in contradistinction to alex- 

fection— a. Nitricum, see Disinfection. 

ALEZE, Alese. 

ALFUSA, Tutia. 

ALGA MARINA, Pila marina. 

ALGALIE, Catheter. 

AL'GAROTH, Al'garot, Alaaro'thi Pnlvis, 
J ulvis Angel'icus, Ox'idum seu Submu'riaa Stib'ii 

Antimony, (F.) Oxyde d'Antimoine, so called from 
Victor Algarothi, a Veronese physician. The 
sub-muriate of protoxide of antimony, separated 
from the muriate of antimony by washing away 
some of its acid. It was formerly much used aa 
an emetic, purgative, and diaphoretic. 

ALGE'DON, from aXyos, 'pain.' Violent pain 
about the neck of the bladder, occasionally oc- 
curring in gonorrhoea.— Cockburn. 


Algedov, Pain. 

ALGEMA, Pain. 


ALGETTCUS, see Algos. 

AL'GIDUS, from algor, 'cold.' That which 
is accompanied by coldness. 

Al'gida Febuis, F. horrified, F. hor'rida, F. 
quer' qtiera, F. crymo'des, Bry'cetus, Bry'chetus. 
(F.) Fievre algide, Algid Fever. A pernicious 
intermittent, accompanied by icy coldness, which 
is often fatal in the second or third paroxysm. 

ALGOR, Rigor. 

ALGOS, aXyos, 'pain.' See Pain. Hence, 
Alget'icus, 'painful,' as Epilepsia alyet'ica. The 
suffix algia has the same signification, — as in 
Cephalalgia, Pleuralgia, Neuralgia, &o. 

ALGOSPAS'MUS, from alyog, 'pain,' and 
CTraopo;, ' spasm.' Painful spasm or cramp of 
the muscles. 

ALHAGI, Agul. 

ALHANDAL, see Cucumis colocynthis. 

ALHASEF, Sudamina. 

ALIBILIS, Nutritious. 

AL'ICA, Hal'ica, Farina'rium, Chondrus, from 
alere, 'to nourish.' A grain from which the an- 
cients made their tisanes ; supposed, by some, to 
have been the Triticum spelta. At times, it 
seems to have meant the tisane itself. 

AL'ICES, from aXifw, 'I sprinkle.' Spots 
which precede the eruption of small pox. 

AL1ENATIO, Anomalia — a. Mentis, Insanity. 


ALIENUS, Delirious. 

ALIFORMES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 

ALIFORMIS, Alaris, Pterygoid. 

ALIGULUS, Confection. 

ALIMA, Aliment, 

ALIMELLzE, Parotid. 

AL'IMENT, Alimen'tum, Al'ima, Harma'lia, 
Nutri'mea, Nu'triens, Sustentaculum, Ciba'rium, 
Broma, Oomis'te, Cibus, Esca, Nutri'tus, Nutri- 
tnen'titm, Sitos, Trophe. (F.) Aliment, Nourri- 
ture, from alere, ' to nourish.' Food. Any sub- 
stance which, if introduced into the system, is 
capable of nourishing it and repairing its losses. 

The study of aliments forms one of the most 
important branches of hygiene. They are con- 
fined to the organized kingdom, — the mineral 
affording none. 

As regards the immediate principles which 
predominate in their composition, they have been 
classed, but imperfectly, as follows : — 


( Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, In- 

1. Fecidaecous. < dian corn, potato, sago, peas, 

f beans, &c. 

C Carrot, salsify, beet, turnip, aspara- 

2. Mucilaginous. < gus, cabbage, lettuce, artichoke, 

( melon, &c. 

3. Saccharine. Sugar, fig, date, raisin, apricot, &c. 

! Orange, currant, gooseberry, cher- 
ry, peach, strawberry, raspberry, 
mulberry, prune, pear, apple, 
sorrel, &e. 
_ -, .( Cocoa, olive, sweet almond, nut, 

5. Oleaginous and> walnut animal fat, oil, butter, 

Fatty. } &c 

6. Caseous. Different kinds of milk, cheese. 

I Tendon, aponeurosis, true skin, 

7. Gelatinous. < cellular texture; very young 

( animals. 

8. Albuminous. Brain, nerve, eggs, &o. 

9. Fibrinous. Flesh and blood. 

Dr. Prout has four great classes— the aqueous, 
taccharine, oleaginous, and albuminous: — Dr. 
Pereira twelve; — the aqueous, mucilaginous or 
gummy, saccharine, amylaceous, ligneous, pecti- 
naceous, acidulous, alcoholic, oily or fatty, pro- 
teinaceous, gelatinous, and saline. 

Liebig divides them into two classes: — the 


TION, in which he comprises vegetable fibrin, 
vegetable albumen, vegetable casein, flesh and 
blood ; and the non-nitrogenized elements of 
respiration, in which he comprises, fat, starch, 
gum, cane sugar, grape sugar, sugar of milk, pec- 
tin, bassc\rin, wine, beer and spirits. The former 
alone, in his view, are inservient to the nutrition 
of organized tissue : the latter are burnt in respi- 
ration, and furnish heat. 

The following simple arrangement is, perhaps, 
as little objectionable as any : 
, ,.., . , _,. , ( Fibrinous (Glutinous') 

1. mrogemztd AUments, > Albuminous. 
(Albuminous, of Prout.) } CaBeinous . 

C Amylaceous. 

2. Non-nitrogcniied Aliments, < Saccharine. 
( Oleaginous. 

The second division might be still farther sim- 
plified, inasmuch as amylaceous aliments are 
convertible into sugar during the digestive pro- 
cess ; and, from both, oleaginous matter may be 

ALIMENTARY TUBE, Canal, alimentary. 

ALIMENTATION, Alimenta'tio. The act of 

ALIMENTUM, Aliment, Pabulum. 

ALIMOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALINDE'SIS, from a\ivSofiai, ' to be turned 
about.' A species of exercise, which consisted 
in rolling in the dust, after having been anointed 
with oil. — Hippocrates. 

ALIPjE'NOS, Alipce'num, Alipan'tos, from a, 
priv., and \tnavciv, 'to be fat.' An epithet for- 
merly given to every exterra' ririeij, devoid of 
fat or moisture; such as po'-e'ers.-— GrF.ien. 

ALIPANTOS, Alipa>n'.f. 

ALIP'TA, Alip'tes, is ,ti o\t'4>i->, 'I r.noint' 
He who anointed tho Athldtoe after b?,thing- 
The place where this i,f.s done was called Alip- 

ALIPTERIUM, * .-■ Alipta. 

ALIP'TICA, sario etymon. The part of an- 
cient medicine, w^icfr, treated of inunction, as & 
means of preservi jg health. 

ALISIER BIANO, Crataegus aria. 

ALISMA, A. plantago, Arnica montana — a. 
Grammifolia, A plantago — a. Lanceola'ta, A. 

Alis'ma Pl^'iTA'go, Alisma, A. lanceola'ta sen 
graminifo'lia, i'ianta'go aquat'ica, Water Plan- 
tain, (F.) Plat tain d'Eau. Nat. Ord. Alismacese. 
Sex. Syst. H' .landria Polygynia. The fresh root 
is acrid, an<? the dried leaves will vesicate. The 
leaves have oeen proposed as substitutes for Uva 

ALITUBA, Nutrition. 

AL'KALE, O'leum Galli'nce. An ancient phar- 
maceutical name for pullets' fat. 

ALKALESCENCE, Alcalescence. 

ALKALI, see Alcali — a. Ammoniacum caus- 
ticum, Ammonia — a. Ammoniacum spirituosum, 
Spiritus ammonias — a. Minerale nitratum, Soda, 
nitrate of — a. Minerale phosphoratum, Soda, 
phosphate of — a. Minerale salinum, Soda, mu- 
riate of — a. Vegetable, Potash — a. Vegetabile cum 
aceto, Potassse acetas — a. Vegetabile fixum caus- 
ticum, Potassa fusa — a. Volatile, Ammonia — a 
Volatile causticum, Ammonia — a. Volatile, con- 
crete, Ammonias carbonas — a. Volatile nitratum, 
Ammonias nitras — a. Volatile tartarizatum, Am- 
monias tartras — a. Volatile vitriolatum, Ammo- 
niae sulphas. 

ALKANET, BASTARD, Lithospermum offici- 
nale — a. Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Garden, 
Anchusa officinalis — a. Officinal, Anchusa offici- 

ALKAR, Medicament. 


ALKEKENGI, Physalis. 

ALKER'MES, Confec'tio Alker'mes, Alcher'- 
tncs. A celebrated electuary, composed of a mul- 
titude of substances. It was so called from tbe 
grains of kernies contained in it. It was used 
as a stimulant. Also, kernies. 

ALKERVA, see Ricinus communis. 

ALKITRAN, Cedria. 

ALKOL, Alcohol. 

ALKOOL, Alcohol. 

ALLA, Cerevisia. 

ALLAITEMENT, Lactation. 

ALLAMAN'DA, A. Cathar'tica seu grandi- 
ffo'ra, Ore'lia grandifo'ra, Gal'arips, Echi'nus 
scandens, Apoc"ynum scandens. A shrub, native 
of Guiana, the infusion of whose leaves is said by 
Linnaeus to be useful in Colica Pictonum. 

ALLANTODES, Allantois. 

ALLAN'TOIC ACID, Ac"idum allanto'icnm. 
A peculiar acid, found in the liquor of the allan- 
tois of tho cow. 

ALLANTOIDES, Allantois. 

ALLAN'TOIS, Allantdi'des, Allanto'des, Mem- 
bra'na urina'ria, .M seu Tunica Fareimina' lis, 
M. [ntestina'lis, the AUantoid Vesicle, from «AXa?, 
'a sausage,' and ctSos, 'shape.' A sort of elon- 
gated bladder, between the chorion and amnion 
of the foetus, which is thrown out from the caudal 
extremity of the embryo, and communicates with 
the bladder by the urachus. It is very apparent 
in quadrupeds, but not in the human species. As 
the allantois is developed, its walls become very 
vascular, and contain the ramifications of what 
become the umbilical artery and vein, which, by 
the elongation of tho allantois, are brought 
through the villi of the chorion, into indirect 
communication with the vessels of the mother. 

ALLANTOTOX'ICUM, from aXXas, 'a sau- 
sage,' and toZikov, ' a poison.' Sausage poison 
(G.)Wurstgift. The Germans have given this 
namo to a poison developed in sausages formed 
of blood and liver. 

ALLELUIA, Oxalis acetosella. 

ALLE'VIATOR: from ad, 'to,' and levare, 'to 
raise.' A soother. An instrument for raising in- 
valids, invented by Mr. Jenks, of Rhode Island. 
It consists of two upright posts, about six feet 
high, each supported by a pedestal; of two hori- 
zontal bars at the top, rather longer than a com- 
mon bedstead ; of a windlass of the same length, 
placed six inches below the upper bar; of a cog- 
wheel and handle; of linen belts from six to 
twelve inches wide; of straps secured at one end 
of the windlass ; and at the other having hooks 
attached to corresponding eyes in the linen belts, 
and of a head-piece made of netting. The pa- 
tient lying on his mattress, the surgeon passes 
the linen belts beneath his body, attaching them 
to the hooks on the ends of the straps, and ad- 
justing the whole at the proper distance and 
length, so as to balance the body exactly, and 
then raises it from the mattress by turning the 
handle of the windlass. To lower the . patient 
again, and replace him on the mattress, the wind- 
lass must be reversed. 

ALLGOOD, Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 

ALLHEAL, Heraeleura spondylium. 

ALLlA'CEOUS, a/lia'ceus, from allium, 'gar- 
lic' belonging to garlic, as alliaceous odour. 

ALL I AIRE, Alliaria. 

ALLIA'RIA, from allium, its smell resembling 
garlic. A. cjficina'lis, Erys'imum allia'ria seu 
cordifc'lium, Sisymbrium allia'ria, Jack-in-the- 
Tiedqe, stinking hedge MiiKard, Hedge Garlic 
Sauce-alone, Hes' peris allia'ria, (F.) Alliaire. 
This plant has been sometimes given in humid 
iwtiMns and dyspnoea. It is reputed to be dia- 
phoretic, diuretic, and antiscorbutic. 


The Parisian Codex has a compound syrup of 
alliaria, Strop d'erysimum composS, which is use 
in hoarseness. 

ALLIGATURA, Fascia, Ligature. 

ALLIOTICUS, Alterative. 

AL'LIUM, from oleo, 'I smell.' A.eati mm, 
Theriaca rustico'rum, Ampelop' rasum, Soor odon, 
Scordon, Garlic, (F.) Ail. Nat. Ord. Aspno- 
delese. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogyma. A 
native of Sicily, but cultivated for use. The 
bulbs or cloves, Ag'lithes, have a strong, offensive, 
and penetrating odour, and a sweetish, biting, 
and caustic taste. Internally, garlic is stimulant, 
diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue (?), diapho- 
retic, and anthelmintic. Externally, it is rube- 
facient, maturative, and repellent. 

Dose, one to six cloves, swallowed whole, or 
from f^ss to f £ij. of the juice. 

Taylor's Remedy for Deafness, a nostrum, ap- 
pears to consist of garlic, infused in oil of al- 
monds, and coloured by alkanet root. 

Allium Ascalonicum, Echalotte. 

Al'lium Cepa, Oepa vtdga'ris, Common Onion, 
Cepul'la, Orom'myon, (F.) Oignon. Acrid and 
stimulating, and possessing very little nutriment. 
Onions have been used as stimulants, diuretics, 
and anthelmintics. The boiled or roasted onion, 
as a cataplasm, is emollient and maturating. 
The fresh root is rubefacient. The expressed 
juice is sometimes used in otalgia and in rheu- 

Allium Gallicum, Portulaca. — a. Plantagi- 
neum, A. Victoriale. 

Al'lium Poruum, Porrum, P. sati'rum, Pro- 
sum, the Leek or Porret ; (F.) Poireau, Porreau, 
It possesses the same property as the onion. 

The virtues of the genus Allium depend upon 
an acrid principle, soluble in water, alcohol, acids, 
and alkalies. 

Allium Redolens, Teucrium scordium. 

Al'lium Victoiua'le, A. plantagin'eum, Cepa 
victoria'lis, Victoria'lis longa. The root, which, 
when dried, loses its alliaceous smell and taste, 
is said to be efficacious in allaying the abdominal 
spasms of pregnant women (?) 

ALLOCHET'IA, Allotrioehet'ia, from aXAot, 
'another,' and x c & tv > '*° S° to stool.' The dis- 
charge of extraneous matters from the bowels. 
The discharge of fasces by an abnormous opening. 

ALLOCHOOS, Delirious. 

ALLOCHROMA'SIA, from aXUu 'another/ 
and xpw^a, ' colour.' A change of colour. 

ALL(EOPATHIA, Allopathy. 

ALL(EOPATHIC, Allopathic. 

ALLCEOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLXEOTICTJS, Alterative. 

ALLOIOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLOIOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLONGEMENT, Elongation. 

ALLOPATH, Allopathist, 

ALLOPATHES, Allopathic. 

ALLOPATH'IC, Allopath'icus, Alloeopaih'ie, 
Allceopath'icus, Allop'athcs, Heterojxitli ic, from 
a\\og, 'another,' and ira&os, 'affection.' Relating 
to the ordinary method of medical practice, in 
contradistinction to the homoeopathic 

ALLOP'ATHIST, Al'lopath, same etymon 
One who follows allopathy. 

ALLOP'ATHY, AUopathi'a, Allaeopathia, By. 
penantio'sis, Hypenantio'ma, Oara'tio contrario'- 
rum per contra'ria, same etymon. Tho opposite 
to homoeopathy. The ordinary medical practice 

ALLOPHASIS. Delirium. I ^cuce. 


ALLOTRIODON'TIA, from Q XX rp t0f , f . 
reign,' and o&ovs, ' a tooth.' Transplantation of 

ALLOTRIOECCRISIS, from a \\ 0Tpi0i , « fo . 




reign,' and tKicpuri?,' 'separation.' The separa- 
tion of extraneous matters from the body in dis- 

ALLOTRIOTEX'IS, from aWorpio;, 'foreign,' 
and tc^is, 'parturition.' The bringing forth of 
an abnormous foetus. 

ALLOTRIU'RIA, from aWorpios, 'foreign/ 
and ovpov, ' urine.' Admixture of foreign mat- 
ters with the urine. 

AL'LOTROPISM; from a\\o;, 'another,' and 
rpoTro?, 'a turn or change.' A term recently in- 
troduced into chemistry; the object of which is 
to express the property possessed by certain 
simple bodies, of assuming different qualities on 
being subjected to certain modes of treatment. 
Carbon, for example, furnishes three forms — 
plumbago, charcoal, and diamond. 

ALLSPICE, see Myrtus pimenta — a. Bush, 
Lauras Benzoin — a. Carolina, Calycanthus — a. 
Wild, Laurus Benzoin. 

ALLUCINATIO, Hallucination. 
ALL US E, Influenza. 
ALMA, Water. 

ALMARIAB, see Plumbi oxydum semivitreum. 
ALMEZERION, Cneorum tricoccum. 
ALMOND, Amygdala. 

Almond Bloom. A liquid cosmetic, formed 
of Brazil dust ^j> water Oiij ; boil and strain ; 
and add isinglass Jvj, !J r( " la sylrcstria ^ij, or 
cochineal ^ij, alum ^j, borax sji'j j b°d again, 
and strain through a tine cloth. 

Almond Cake, see Amygdala — a. of the Ear, 
Tonsil — a. Earth, Arachis hypogaea — a. Paste, 
see Amygdala — a. Powder, see Amygdala — a. of 
the Throat, Tonsil. 

ALNUS, A. glutinosa — a. Communis, A. gluti- 

ALNUS GLUTINO'SA, Alnus, A commu'nis, 
Bet'ula ylutino'sa seu emar/jina'ta. Europe' an Al- 
der. A tree which grows in Europe, in moist 
places. The bark and leaves are astringent and 
bitter; and hence are employed in intermittents, 
and as a tonic and astringent. 

Alnus Serrat'ula, American Alder, has simi- 
lar properties. 

Alnus Nigra, Rhamnus frangula. 
ALOCHI'A, from a, privative, and Xo^cco, 'lo- 
chia.' Absence of the lochial discharge. 

ALOEDA'RIUM. A compound medicine, 
containing aloes. — Gorraeus. 
ALOE, Aloes. 

ALOE ROOT, Aletris farinosa. 
AL'OES, Al'oe, Fel Natu'ree. The inspissated 
juice of the Aloe. Nat. Ord. Asphodeleae. Sex. 
Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. 

Aloes Barbadexsis, A. hepatica — a. Bombay, 
A. hepatica — a. des Barbades, A. hepatica. 

Aloes Caballi'na, A. Guinien'sis, Horse- 
aloes. Used chiefly for horses. It is collected 
in Spain and Portugal, and is very coarse. 
Aloes en Calebasses, A. hepatica. 
Aloes, Cape, Shining Aloes; a cheap and ex- 
cellent form of aloes, collected at the Cape of 
Good Hope, from Aloe ferox, A. Africana, A. 
spicata, and other species. 

Aloes, East India, A. Succotorina — a. Guini- 
ensis, A. Caballina. 

Aloes Hepat'ica, A. vulrja'ris, A. Barbaden'- 
$is, Hepat'ic aloes, Bombay aloes, Barba'does 
aloes, A. vul//a'ris extrac'tum, (F.) Aloes en cale- 
basses, A. des Barbades. This species has a very 
disagreeable odour, and an intensely bitter and 
nauseous taste. Properties the same as the last. 
Aloes, Horse, A. Caballina — a. Lucida, A. 
Succotorina — a. Socotrine, A. Succotorina — a. 
Spicata oxtraetum, A. Succotorina. 

Aloes Succotori'na, Soc'otrine aloes, Turkey 
aloes, East India aloes, Aloes lu'cida, A. Zoctori'- 
nia, A. spica'tcP, extrac'tum, An'ima Aloe's, is the 
best species. Its odour is not unpleasant; taste 
very bitter, and slightly aromatic; colour red- 
dish-brown, with a shade of purple ; mass hard, 
friable; fracture conchoidal and glossy; soluble 
in dilute alcohol. Powder of a bright cinnamon- 
yellow colour. It is cathartic, warm, and stimu- 
lating; emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and stoma- 
chic. As a cathartic, it affects the rectum chiefly. 
Dose, as a cathartic, gr. v. to ^j. in pill. 

Aloes, Turkey, A. Succotorina — a. Vulgaris, 
A. hepaticus. — a. Wood, Agallochum — a. Zocto- 
rinia, A._ Succotorina. 

ALOET'IC, Aloet'icus. A preparation which 
contains aloes. 

ALOEXYLON, Agallochum. 
ALOGOTROPH'IA, from aXoyos, 'dispropor- 
tionate,' and Tpo<pri, 'nutrition.' Irregular nutri- 
tion. Used particularly to designate the irregu- 
lar manner in which the nutrition of bones is 
effected in rickety individuals. 

ALOPE'CIA, from aU^, 'a fox ;' (this ani- 
mal being said to be subject to the affection.) 
Capillo'rum defiu'rium, Athrix depi'lis, Phalac- 
ro'tis, Depila'tio, Trrcho'sis Athrix, Ganyra-'na 
Alope'cia, Atrich'ia, Dejiu'vium seu Lapsus Pilo'- 
rum, Lipsotrieh'ia, Vulpis morbus, Baldness. 
Falling off of the hair; loss of the hair. When 
this is confined to the crown of the head, it is 
called calvities, although the terms are often used 

Alopecia Areata, Porrigo deealvans — a. Cir- 
cumscripta, Porrigo deealvans — a Partialis, Por- 
rigo deealvans. 

ALOUOHE, Crataegus aria. 
ALOUCH'I. The name of a gum procured 
from the canella alba tree. 

ALOUCHIEK, Crataegus aria. 
ALPAM. A shrub which grows on the coast 
of Malabar. Certain parts of this, infused in oil, 
form an antipsoric ointment. The juice of the 
leaves, mixed with that of calamus, is employed 
against the bites of serpents. 

ALPHENIC, Saccharum candidum. 
ALPHITEDON, see Fracture. 
ALPH'ITON, a\<piTov, Polen'ta, Fari'na. Any 
kind of meal. Toasted barley-meal. — Hippocra- 
tes. Polenta means also a food composed of In- 
dian meal, cheese, <fec. See Farina. 

ALPHON'SIN, Alphon'sinum. A kind of bul T 
let forceps, similar to a Porte-crayon, so called 
from the inventor, Alphonso Ferri, of Naples. — 
ALPHOS, Lepra alphoides. 
damomum — a. Galanga, Maranta galanga. 
ALPISTE, Phalaris Canadiensis. 
ALSANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 
ALSI'NE ME'DIA, A. avioula'rum seu vvlga'- 
ris, from a\oos, 'a grove,' because growing abun- 
dantly in the woods. Morsus Galli'nm, IIolos'- 
teum Alsi'ne, Stella' ria me'dia, Mouse-ear, (Jhiek- 
weed, (F.) Mouron des Oiseaux, Morgoline. This 
plant, if boiled tender, may be eaten like spinach, 
and forms an excellent emollient poultice. It 
was formerly regarded as a vulnerary and deter- 

ALTAFOR, Camphor. 
ALTER SEXUS, Sex, female. 
ALTERANS, Alterative. 
ALTERANT, Alterative. 
ALTER A'TION, Altera' tio, from alter, 'other, 
Alloio'sis, Allwo'sis. This word is 'jsed in Franca 



to express a morbid change which supervenes in 
the expression of the countenance {alteration de 
la face.) or in the structure of an organ [altirar- 
tion organique,) or in the nature of fluids excreted 
{altrratioa de V urine, den larmes, du /ait, <(•<".) 

Alteration is also used in an entirely different 
sense, to express intense thirst in disease. In 
this case its etymology is different. It comes 
from haltter, and was formerly written haleter- 

AL'TER A.TIVE, Al'terana, Alloiot'icua, Alloe- 
ot'ictts, AII,ot'icus, Immu'tans. An agent con- 
sidered to be capable of producing a salutary 
change in a uisease, but without exciting any 
sensible evacuation. As medicine improves, this 
uncertain class of remedies becomes, of necessity, 
diminished in number. See Eutrophie. 

(F.) Alterant. The French term likewise 
means, that which causes thirst, — Siticulo'sus, 
Dipset' icus, as altSrer means both to change, and 
to cause thirst. S'alterer is to experience a 
change for the worse, — corrum'pi.) 
ALTERCUM, Hyoscyamus. 
ALTH^E'A, from a\Seiv, 'to heal ;' A. officina- 
lis, Malvavie'cum, Aristaltha'a, Hibis'cus, Ibis'- 
chus, Ibis' elm mismal'va, Biatrial' va, Ifarsh mal- 
low. (F.) Guimauve. Nat. Ord. Malvaceae. Sex. 
Sj/at. Monadelphia Polyandria. The leaves, 
Altha'm fo'lia, and root, Aitha'a radix, contain 
much mucilage. They are emollient and demul- 
cent, and are employed wherever medicines, pos- 
sessing such properties, are required. In the Ph. 
U. S., Althaea is the root of Althaea officinalis. 
ALTHANAIHA, Orpiment. 
ALTIIEUS, Physician. 
ALTHEXIS, Curation. 
ALTHOS, Medicament. 
ALTILIBAT, Terebinthina. 
ALU'DEL, Alu'tel, Vitrum aublimato'rium. A 
hollow sphere of stone, glass, or earthen ware, with 
a short neck projecting at each end, by means of 
Which one glass might be set upon the other. 
The uppermost had no aperture at the top. Alu- 
dels were formerly used in the sublimation of 
various substances. 

A'LULA; diminutive of ala, 'a wing.' A little 

ALUM, Symphytum— a. Cataplasm, Coas;ulum 
aluminosum— a. Egyptian, yEgyptia stypteria. 

Alum, Roche, Alu'mcn de Itoehi, (F.) Alun de 
Roche. So called from Roccha in Syria, where 
there was a manufactory of it. It is in pieces of 
the size of an almond, covered with a reddish 

Common Roche Alum, A. Rochi Gallia. Frag- 
ments of common alum, moistened and shaken 
with prepared bole. It is white when broken. 

Alum, Solution op, Compound, Liq. aluminis 

Alum Root, Geranium maculatum, Heuchera 

ALU'MEN, (an Arabic term, alum,) Alum, 

Hypersul'pkas alu'mina et Potaa'aa, Potaa'aa 
aln'nnno-snlphaa, Sul'phaa Alumina Acid'nlua 
cum Potaa'aa, Sulphaa Alu'mina;, Std'phas KaV 

phaa A>-vil'l<B alcaliaa'tum, 
rica. (F.) Alun. J 

Alumen Catinum, Potash of commerce — a 
iixum, see Potash — a. Kinosatum, Pulvis sul' 
phatis aluminae compositus. 

Alu'men Commu'ne, Common alum, Ennlish 
alum, Rock alum, Alumen faeti"tium, A crystal' 
hnum,A. ru'pemn, (F.) Alun d'Angleterre, is the 
variety usually employed. It i s in octahedral 

effloresces in the air, ami is soluble in 10 pans v* 
water at 60°. It is tonic and astringent, and as 
such is used internally and externally. Dose, gr. 
v. to xv. 

Alu'men Exsicca'tum, Alu'men uatum, A. eal- 
cina'tum, Sulphaa alu'mina fusue, Aryil'la fiul- 
phu'riea usta, Burnt alum, dried alum. (F.) Alun 
calcine", {Alum melted in an earthen vessel until 
ebullition ceases.) Escharotic. 

Alu'men Roma'num, Roman alum, A. Ru'ti- 
lum, A. Rubrum. (F.) Alun de Rome. In crys- 
tals, which are of a pale red when broken, and 
covered with a reddish efflorescence. 

ALUMINA, ACETATE OF, Aluminae Acetas 
— a. Depurata, Argilla pura — a. Pura, Argilla 
pura — a. Sulphate of, Aluminae Sulphas. 

ALU'MINiE ACE'TAS, Argil' la Ace'taa,Ac"e- 
tate of Alu'mina. A deliquescent salt, obtained 
by the addition of acetate of lead to sulphate of 
alumina and potaaaa. It possesses the same pro- 
perties as the sulphate of alumina. 

Alu'mina et Potass^e Hypersulphas, Alu- 
men — a. et Potassae supersulphas, Alumen — a. 
Sulphas, Alumen. 

Alu'mina Sulphas, Argilla Sulphas, Sulphate 
of Alu'mina. Simple sulphate of alumina may 
be made by the direct combination of alumina 
and sulphuric acid, and contains 30 per cent, of 
the former, to 70 per cent, of the latter. It is 
a deliquescent salt; and is an excellent antisep- 
tic and detergent to ulcers. It is chiefly used to 
preserve dead bodies — a strong solution being 
injected into the arteries. 

Alumina Sulphas Acidulus cum Potass!, 
Alumen — a. Sulphas fusus, Alumen exsiccatum. 
ALUM IN E FACT WE, Argilla pura. 
AL UN, Alumen. 
ALUNSEL, Gutta. 
ALUS, Symphytum. 

ALUSIA, Hallucination — a. Hypochondriasis 
ALUTEL, Aludel. 

ALVAQUILLA, Psoralea glandulosa. 
ALVARAS NIGRA, Ichthyosis. 
ALVEARIUM, Auditory canal, external. 
ALVE'OLAR, Alveola' ria, from alveus, 'a ca- 
vity.' (F.) Alvgolaire. That which relates to 
the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Arches, (F.) Arcades aheolaires, 
are formed by the margins or borders of the two 
jaws, which are hollowed by the. Alveoli. 
^ Alve'olar Artery, Supra-maxillary A., Ar- 
tere sus-maxillaire of Chaussier, arises from the 
internal maxillary, descends behind the tuberos- 
ity of the upper jaw, and gives branches to the 
upper molar teeth, gums, periosteum, membrane 
ot the maxillary sinus, and buccinator muscle. 

Alveolar Border, Limbua alveola' ris. The 
part of the jaws, that is hollowed by the alveolL 
Alve olar Membranes are very fine mem- 
branes situate between the teeth and alveoli, and 
formed by a portion of the sac or follicle which 
enclosed the tooth before it pierced the gum Bv 
some this membrane has been called the alveola, 
dental periosteum. 

Alve'olar Vein. This has a similar distri- 
bution with the artery. 
AL VEOLE, Alveolus. 
ALVEOLI DENTIS, see Alveolus 
ALVEOLO-LABIAL, Buccinator. 
ALVE'OLUS, same etymon. Bo'trion Bo' 
thrion, Odontoboth'rium, Odontophat'ne E r 
Mortariolum, Hol'micoa, Praaepiolum ' Pha?*-' 
Phat'nion, Prascpium, Patne, Pathne ' (P \ Y,' 
veole. The alveoli are the sockets of the t th 


Alve'oli dentin, Moe'nia seu Caver'na den'tium, 
into which they are, as it were, driven. Their 
size and shape are determined by the teeth which 
they receive, and they are pierced at the apex by 
small holes, which give passage to the dental 
vessels and nerves. 

ALVEUS, Auge — a. Ampullosus, Receptacu- 
lum chyli — a. Ampullescens, Thoracic duct — a. 
Communis: see Semicircular canals — a. Utricu- 
losus : see Semicircular canals. 

ALVI EXCRETIO, Defecation — a. Fluxus 
aquosus, Diarrhoea — a. Laxitas, Diarrhoea — a. 
Profluvium, Diarrhoea. 

ALVIDUCUS, Laxative. 

ALVIXE, Alvi'nue, from alvus, 'the abdomen.' 
That which relates to the lower belly, as ah-ine 
dejections, alvine flux, aivine obstructions, &c. 


ALVUS, Abdomen, Uterus — a. Adstrieta, Con- 
stipation — a. Cita, Diarrhoea — a. Dura, Constipa- 
tio — a. Renum, Pelvis of the kidney — a. Tarda, 
Constipation — a. Viridis, Dejection. 

ALYCE, Anxiety. 

AL'YPON, from a, priv., and Xdtt;, 'pain.' An 
acrid, purging plant, described by Matthiolus. 
By some it has been supposed to be the Globula'- 
ria alypum of botanists. 

ALYSIS, Anxiety. 

ALYSMUS, Anxiety. 

ALYSSUM PLIXII, Galium Mollugo. 

ALYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

AL'ZILAT. In some of the Arabian writers, 
a weight of three grains. — Ruland and Johnson. 

AMABILE, Lacuna Labii Superioris. 

AMADOU, Boletus igniarius. 

AMADOUVIER, Boletus igniarius. 

AM A IGRISSEMENT, Emaciation. 

AM ANDES, see Amygdala. 

AMANI'TiE, from a, privative, and /xavia, 
'madness :' i. e. 'not poisonous.' A name given, 
by the Greeks and Romans, to the edible cham- 
pignons. Amanita forms, at the present day, a 
genus, some of which are edible, others poison- 
ous. Amongst others, it contains the Agaricus 
aurantiacus and A, pseudo-aurantiacus. 

AMARA DULCIS, Solanum dulcamara. 

AMARACI'NUM. An ancient and esteemed 
plaster, containing several aromatics, the marjo- 
ram, afiaptzKo;, in particular. 

AMARACUS, Origanum majorana — a. Tomen- 
tosus, Origanum dictamnus. 

AMARITIES, Bitterness. 

AMARITUDO, Bitterness. 

AMAROR, Bitterness. 

AMARUCACHU, Polyanthes tuberosa. 

AMA'RUS, Picros, 'bitter.' (F.) Amer. The 
bitter principle of vegetables is the great natural 
tonic, and hence bitters, as they are termed col- 
lectively, belong to the class of tonics. Several 
are used in medicine; the chief are, gentian, 
quassia, cinchona, calumba, dog-wood, Ac. . 

AMASE'SIS, Amasse'sis, from a, privative, and 
fiaaiiati, 'mastication.' Mastication when im- 
peded or impracticable. 

AMATORIUM, Lacuna labii superioris. 

AMATORII, Oblique muscles of the eye. 


rior oculi. 

AMAURO'SIS, Ob/usca'tio, Offusca'tio, from 
auavpog, 'obscure.' Drop serene, Gutta sere'na, 
Oatarac'ta nigra, Paropsis amauro'sis, Immohil'- 
ilas pupil' las, Suffu'sio nigra, Black cat' ar act. 
(F.) Goutte-sereine, Cataracte noire, Anopticoner- 
v-ie (Plorry.) Diminution, or complete loss of 
eight, without any perceptible alteration in the 
organization of the eye; generally, perhaps, 
owing to loss of power of the optic nerve or re- 


tina. Counter-irritants are the most successful 
remedial agents, although the disease is always 
very difficult of removal, and generally totally 

Amaurosis Dimidiata, Hemiopia — a. Imper- 
fecta, Hypo-amaurosis. 

AMAUROT'IC, Amaurot' icus ; same etymon. 
Affected with amaurosis. 

Amaurotic Cat's Eye, Galeamanro'si.i. A 
name given by Beer to an amaurotic af'ection, 
accompanied by a remarkable change of colour 
in the pupil, which presents, apparently in tho 
fundus of the eye, a lighter tint, yellowish or 
brownish yellow, instead of its natural clear 

AMA'ZIA, from a, privative, and/ja£o?, 'breast.' 
A monstrosity, in which there is absence of one 
or both breasts. 

AMBARUM, Ambergris — a. Cineritium, Am- 
bergris. _ 

AMBE, from aufiaivw, 'I ascend;' Ambi. A 
superficial eminence on a bone. Also, an old 
surgical machine for reducing dislocations of the 
shoulder ; the invention of which is ascribed to 
Hippocrates. It is no longer used. — Hippo- 
crates, Scultetus. See Crista. 

AMBER, Succinum — a. Liquid : see Liquid- 
amber styraciflua. 

AM'BERGRIS, Ambra gri'sea, Ambor, Am- 
bar, Ambra cinera'cea, A. ambrosiaca, Ambarum, 
Sue' cinum cine' reum, S. gri'seum, Am'barum cine- 
ri"tium. A concrete substance, of the consis- 
tence of wax, cineritious colour, studded with 
yellow and blackish spots, and exhaling a very 
pleasant odour. It seems highly probable that 
ambergris is formed in the intestines of the 
whale, and voided with its excrements. Like ah 
aromatic substances, ambergris is slightly anti- 
spasmodic and excitant ; but it is o. - em- 
ployed as a perfume than as a medicine. 

AMBIA. A liquid, yellow bitumen, the smell 
and virtues of which are similar to those of the> 
resin tacamahaca. It is obtained from a spring 
in India. 

AMBICUS, Alembic. 

AMBIDEX'TER, Amphidex'his, from ambo, 
'both,' and dexter, 'right.' One who uses both 
hands with equal facility. Celsus says the sur- 
geon ought to be 'non minus sinistra quarn dex- 
trd promptus. One of the aphorisms of Hippo- 
crates says, that a woman is never ambidexter. 
This is a mistake. 

AMBIL^EVUS, Ampharisteros. 


AMBLOMA, Abortion. 

AMBLOSIS, Abortion. 

AMBLOSMUS, Abortion. 

AMBLOTIIRIDIOX, see Abortion. 


AMBLOTICUS, Abortive. 

AMBLUS, au(S\vs, 'obscure.' Hence, 

AMBLYAPH'IA, from a^fiXv;, 'obscure,' and 
'a<pn, 'feeling.' Dulness of the sense of touch. 

AMBLYOGMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBLYO'PIA, from au(3\v<;, 'obscure,' and 
w\l/, ' the eye.' Ambly'osmos, Amblyog' 'won, Ampli- 
o'pia (so cilled by some, according to Castelli, 
oib ignorantiam Qt<bc<b lingual,) Hebetn'do rixus, 
Feebleness of sight, (V.) Yuc faible. First degree 
of Amaurosis. — Hippocrates. 

Amblyopia Crepusculabis, Hemernlopia — a. 
Dissitorum, Myopia — a. Meridiana, Nyctalopia-^ 
a. Proximorum, Presbytia. 

AMBLYOSMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBOLICUS, Abortive. 

AMBON, a/iPiav, '(lie raised rim of a shield or 
dish,' from «/</iuivw, 'I ascend.' The fibro-caiti- 




l&ginous rings or bourrclets, which surround the 
articular cavities, as the glenoid cavity of the 
scapula, the acetabulum; <Lc., have been so called 
• — Galen. See Crista. 

AMBOR, Ambergris. 

AMBRA, Succinum — a. Ambrosiaca, Amber- 
gris — a. Cineracea, Ambergris. 

AMBRAGRISEA, Ambergris. 

AMBRE BLANC, Succinum (album) — a. 
Jaune, Succinum. 

AMBRETTE, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

AMBRO'SIA, from a, privative, and Pporos, 
' mortal.' Food which makes immortal, or the 
food of immortals. The food of the gods — Ho- 
mer. See also, Chenopodium botrys. 

Ambrosia Elatior, see A. Trifida. 

Ambro'sia Marit'ima. A plant which grows 
on the shores of the Levant, and has a pleasant, 
bitter and aromatic taste. It is given in infusion, 
as a tonic and antispasmodic. 

Ambro'sia Trif'ida, Horseweed, Richwced, 
Horsemint, Horsecane, Bitterweed, Great Rag- 
weed, Wild Hemp. This indigenous plant is 
found in low grounds and along streams, from 
Canada to Georgia, and west to Louisiana and 
Arkansas. It is an annual, and flowers in Au- 
gust and September. An infusion has been re- 
commended locally in mercurial salivation. 

Ambrosia Elatior, Ragweed, is said by Dr. R. 
E. Griffith to have much more developed sensible 


AMBULANCE, (P.) from ambulare, 'to walk.' 
A military hospital attached to an army, and 
moving along with it. Also called Hopital am- 

AMBULATIO, Walking. 

AM'BULATORY, Am'bulans, Ambidati'vus, 
Am'bulative, (F.) Ambulant. A morbid affection 
is said to be 'ambulatory,' (F.) ambulante, when 
it skips from one part to another ,• as Erisypeles 
ambulants, &o. When blisters are applied suc- 
cessively on different parts of the body, they are 
called Vesicatoires ambulants. 

AMBIILEIA, Cichorium intybus. 

AM'BULI. The Brachmanie name for an In- 
dian aquatic herb, which appears to belong to 
the family Lysimachice. The whole plant has a 
sweet smell. Its decoction has a very bitter 
taste, and is an excellent febrifuge. It is also 
taken in milk in cases of vertigo. 

SUS, Flatus furio'sus, Vare'ni. Painful, mo- 
bile, and periodical tumours affecting different 
parts, which were once considered as the effect 
of very subtile vapours — Michaelis. Their na- 
ture is by no means clear. 

AMBUSTK), Burn. 

AMBUTUA, Pareira brava. 

AMBUYA-EMBO. A very beautiful, creeping 
aristolochia of Brazil, the decoction of which is 
exhibited successfully in obstructions. It is also 
us-ed in fumigation and in baths as a tonic. 

A ME, Anima. 

AMELI. A Malabar shrub, belonging to a 
genus unknown. The decoction of its leaves is 
said to relieve colic. Its roots, boiled in oil, are 
used to repel tumours. 

AMELIA, Apathy. 

AMENIA, Amenorrhoea, Emmenagogues. 

AMENOMA'NIA. A hybrid word, formed 
from the Latin amounts, 'agreeable,' and pavia, 
' mania. A gay form of insanity. 

AMENORRHEA, Paramenia obstructio'nis, 
tfenocryph'ia, Menosta'eia, Apophrax'tSjArrha'a, 
iJe/ec'tua sou Reman' sio seu Vcssu'tio men'sium, 

Menstrua' tio impedi'ta, Ischome'nia,Ame'nia, fro:n 
a, privative, fatv, 'a month,' and pca>, 'I flow.' 
Suppression of the menses, (F.) Suppression du 
flax menstruel. This suppression is most com- 
monly symptomatic, and hence the chief atten- 
tion must be paid to the cause. Usually, there is 
an atonic state of the system generally, and hence 
chalybeates and other tonics are advisable. 

Two groat varieties of Amenorrhoea are com- 
monly reckoned. 1. A. Emansio'nis, Eman'sio 
men'sium. Mends' chests, Menos'chesis, Menstrua' tio 
retenta, Men'sium reten'tio, Retention of the men- 
ses, when the menses do not appear at the usual 
age: and, 2. Suppres'sio Men'sium, Suppres'sio 
Mcnstruatio'nis, Amenorrhos'a Supjiressio'nis, In- 
terrup'tio menstruatio'nis, Menstrua'tio suppressa, 
in which the catamenia are obstructed in their 
regular periods of recurrence. See Emansio Men- 
sium, and Menses. 

Amenorrhcea Difficilis, Dysmenorrhoea — a. 
Emansionis, see Amenorrhoea — a. Hymeniea, see 
Hymenicus — a. Partialis, Dysmenorrhoea — a. 
Suppressionis, see Amenorrhoea. 

AMENTIA, Dementia : see, also, Fatuitas, and 
Idiotism — a. Senilis, Dementia of the aged. 

AMER, Amarus. 

AMERICAN, see Homo. 


AMERTUME, Bitterness. 

AM'ETHYST, Amethys'tus, from a, privative, 
and jxi6vii>, ' I am drunk.' A precious stone, to 
which the ancients attributed the property of 
preventing drunkenness. It was also used as an 
anti-diarrhceic and absorbent — Pliny, Albertus 

AMETH'YSUM, Amethys'him, {remedium,) 
Same etymon as the last. A remedy for drunk- 

AMETRIA, Intemperance. Also, absence of 
the uterus ; from a, privative, and pyTpa, ' the 

AMICULUM, Amnios. 

AM IB ON, IOBURE B', Starch, Iodide of. 

AMIDUM, Amylum. 

AMINiEA, Anime. 

AMIN^E'UM VINUM, Amine' an wine, highly 
esteemed as a stomachic. Virgil distinguishes it 
from the Falernian. — Pliny, Macrobius, &c. 

AMMA, Truss. 

AMMI, Am mi majus seu cicuUefo'lium seu 
vultja're seu Bolberi, Am'mios murica'ta, A'pium 
ummi, Bishop's weed. The seeds of this plant are 
aromatic and pungent. They are said to be 
carminative and diuretic, and are tonic and sto- 

Ammi Bolberi, Ammi — a. des Boutiques, see 
Sison ammi — a. Cicutaefolium, Ammi — a. Verum, 
see Sison ammi — a. Vulgare, Ammi. 

AMMION, Hydrargyri sulphuretum rubrum. 


AMMISMUS, Psammismus. 

AMMOCHO'SIA, Ammocho'sis, from a/iuo!, 
' sand,' and %tu>, ' I pour.' Arena'tio. Putting 
the human body in hot sand, for the cure of 

AMMO'NIA, Ammo'nia or Ammoni'aeal gas, 
Volatile al'kali, Al'cali ammoni'acum caUs'tictim, 
A. volat'ile cans'tieum, Ammo'nia eaus'tica, A. 
pura, Ammoni'acum, A. caus'ticum, Gas ammo- 
niaca'le, Mephi'tis urino'sa, (F.) Ammoniaqne, 
Air alcalin, Gaz ammoniacal. An alcali, so called, 
because obtained principally by decomposing sal 
ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) by lime. This 
gas is colourless, transparent, elastic, of a pun- 
gent, characteristic odour, and an acrid urinous 
taste. It turns the syrup of violets green and 




its specific gravity is 0-596. When inhaled, 
largely diluted with common air, it is a powerful 
irritant. When unmixed, it instantly induces 

Ammonia, Acetate of, Solution of, Liquor 
ammonias acetatis — a. Arseniate of, Arseniate of 
ammonia — a. Benzoate of, Ammonias benzoas — 
a. Caustica liquida, Liquor ammonia? — a. Chloro- 
bydrate of, Ammonias murias — a. Citrate of, Am- 
monias citras — a. Hydriodate of, Ammonium, io- 
dide of — a. Hydrochlorate of, Ammonias murias 
— a. Hydrosulphuret of, Ammonias sulphuretum — 
a. Iodide of, see Iodine — a. Liniment of, strong, 
Linimentum ammonias fortius — a. Liquid, Liquor 
Ammonias — a. Muriatica, Ammonias murias — a. 
Nitrata, Ammonias nitras — a. Phosphate of, Am- 
monias phosphas — a. Prasparata, Ammonias car- 
bonas — a. Pura liquida, Liquor ammonias — a, 
Solution of, Liquor ammonias — a. Solution of, 
stronger, Liquor ammonias fortior — a. Tartrate of, 
Ammonias tartras. 

AMMO'NIAC, GUM, Ammoni'acum, (Ph. U. 
S.) Gum'mi Ammoni'acum, Armoni'acum, Mato'- 
rium, (F.) Ammoniac, Gomme ammoniaque, so 
called from Ammonia in Lybia, whence it is 
brought. A gum-resin, the concrete juice of 
Dore'ma ammoni'acum, of Persia : a species of a 
genus allied to Ferula. It is in irregular, dry 
masses and tears, yellow externally, whitish with- 
in. Its odour is peculiar, and not ungrateful : 
taste nauseous, sweet, and bitter. It forms a 
white emulsion with water: is soluble in vinegar; 
partially so in alcohol, ether, and solutions of the 

Gum ammoniacum is expectorant, deobstru- 
ent (?) antispasmodic, discutient, and resolvent. 
It is chiefly used, however, in the first capacity, 
and in the formation of certain plasters. 

Two varieties are met with in the market, 
Guttm ammoni'aci, the best; and Lapis ammoni'- 
aci, the more impure. 

AMMONIACiE NITRAS, Ammonias nitras— 
a. Sulphas, Ammonias sulphas. 

AMMONIACUM, Ammonia, Ammoniac Gum 
— a. Succinatum, Spiritus ammonias fcetidus — a. 
Volatile mite, Ammonias carbonas. 

AMMONITE ACETAS, Liquor ammonias ace- 
tatis — a. Arsenias, Arseniate of Ammonia. 

Ammo'ni.e Ben'zoas, Ben'zoate of Ammonia. 
A salt formed by the union of benzoic acid and 
ammonia, which has been prescribed for the re- 
moval of gouty depositions of urate of soda in 
the joints. It is regarded as a good diuretic. 

Ammonite Car'bonas, A. Subcar'bonas, A. Ses- 
quicar'bonai, Salt of bones, Sal Os'sium, Salt of 
wood-soot, Sal Fulig"inis, Salt of urine, Volatile 
Sal Ammoniac, Baker's salt, Al'cali volat'ile 
aera' -turn, A. volat'ile ammoniaca'le, A. volat'ile 
■ex sale ammoni'aco, Ammoni'acum volat'ile mite, 
'Ammo'nium carbon'icum, A. subcarbo'neum, Car- 
bonas ammo'nia alkali'nus seu incomple'tus seu 
euperammoni' acus, Hypocar'bonas ammo' nice, Flo- 
res sails ammoni'aci, Sal cornu cervi volat'ile, 
Sal volat'ilis sails ammoni'aci, Concrete volatile 
alkali, Carbonate or Subcarbonate of ammonia, 
Ammo'nia prapara'ta, Sal volat'ile, Smelling milt, 
(F.) Carbonate a" ammoniaque, Sel volatil d'An- 
gleterre, ( Amman, muriat. Ibj ; Oretm Ibiss. Sub- 
lime — Ph. U. S.) A white, striated, crystalline 
mass; odour and taste pungent and ammonincal : 
soluble in two parts of water : insoluble in alco- 
hol : effloresces in the air. It is stimulant, ant- 
acid, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose, gr. 
v. to xv. 

Carbonate of ammonia is at times used to form 
effervescing draughts. One scruple saturates six 
fluidrachms of lemon-juice, twenty-six grains of 

crystallized tartaric acid, and twenty-six grains 
of crystallized citric acid. 

Ammonia Citras, Citrate of Ammo'nia. Made 
by saturating lemon or lime juice, or a solution 
of citric acid, with carbonate of ammonia. Doso, 
f 3 sa- 
lt may be made extemporaneously, and taken 
in an effervescing state. Seventeen grains of 
citric acid or half a fluidounce of lemon-juice 
will be sufficient for thirteen grains of carbonate 
of ammonia. 

Ammonite Cupro-sulphas, Cuprum ammo- 

Ammonite et Ferri Murias, Ferruru ammo- 
niatum — a. Ferro-citras, Ferri ammouio-citras— 
a. Hydriodas, Ammonium, iodide of — a. Hydro- 
sulphuretum, Liquor fumans Boylii — a. Hypocar- 
bonas, Ammonias Carbonas. 

Ammo'nia Mu'rias, 3/u'riate of Ammo'nia, 
Hydrochlo'rate of Ammo'nia, Ohlorohydrate of 
Ammo'nia, Sal Ammoni'acum, Sal Ammo'niac, 
Sal Ammoni'acus, Ammo'nia Muriat'ica, Ammo'- 
nium Muria'tum, Hydrochlo'ras Ammo'nia, Sal 
Armoni'acum, Salmiac, Fuli'go Al'ba Philoso- 
pho'rum, Misadir, (F.) Muriate a" Ammoniaque. 
A saline concrete, formed by the combination of 
muriatic acid with ammonia. In Egypt it is 
manufactured in large quantities by subliming 
the soot formed by burning camel's dung — 26 
pounds of the soot yielding 6 pounds. It is also 
prepared, in great quantities, by adding sulphuric 
acid to the volatile alkali obtained from soot, 
bones, Ac, mixing this with common salt, and 

Muriate of ammonia is inodorous, but has an 
acrid, pungent, bitterish, and urinous taste. 
Three parts of cold water dissolve one. Solu- 
ble also in 4 - 5 parts of alcohol. It is aperient 
and diuretic, but seldom used internally. Ex- 
ternally, it is employed, producing cold during 
its solution, in inflammations, &c. 

Ammo'nia Nitras, Nitrate of Ammonia, AV- 
kali volat'ile nitra'tum, Sal ammoni'acus nitro'sus, 
Ammo'nia nitra'ta, Nitras ammoni'aco,, Nitrum 
flammans, (F.) Nitrate d' Ammoniaque. A salt 
composed of nitric acid and ammonia. It is diu- 
retic and deobstruent. (?) Externally, it is dis- 
cutient and sialogogue. 

Ammo'nia Phosphas, Phosphate of Ammo'nia, 
(F.) Phosphate d' Ammoniaque. This salt has been 
recommended as an excitant, diaphoretic, and 
discutient. More recently, it has been proposed 
as a new remedy for gout and rheumatism, as a 
solvent of uric acid calculus, and for diseases, 
acute and chronic, connected directly with the 
lithio acid diathesis. 

Ammonia Sesquicarbonas, A. carbonas. 

Ammo'nia Sulphas, Sulphate of Ammo'nia, 
Sulphas ammoni'aea, Ammo'nium sulphu'ricum, 
Al'kali volat'ile vitriola'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum 
secre'tum Glaiiberi, Sal sccre'tus GlAUBERI, 17- 
triolum ammoniaca'le, (F.) Sulphate d'Ammoni- 
aque. Formed by adding sulphuric acid cither 
to sal ammoniac or to ammoniacal liquor. Its 
properties are like those of the muriate of am- 

Ammo'nia Sulphure'tum, Sul'phuret of Am- 
mo'nia, HydrosuV phuret of Ammo'nia, Ammo- 
nium Sulf hydra' turn, HydrosuV phas Ammonia;, 
Spir'itus Begui'ni, Sp. fumans Begui'ni, Sul- 
phure'tum ammoni'acw, Sp. salis ammoni'aci svl- 
phura'tus, Liquor ammo'nii hydrothi'odis, Hydro- 
sulphure'tum Ammo'nicnm, Hydrarg. ammoniaca'- 
le aquo'sum, Hydrog" eno-sulphure' turn ammoni'- 
aci liq'uidum, Spir'itus sul']>huris volat'ilis, He- 
par sulphuris volat'ile, Boyle's or Beouine'8 
fuming spirit, f F.) Hydrosnlphate sulfuri. dAn- 




tnoniaque, Liqueur fumante de Boyle, Sulfure 
hydroge'ne' d' Ammoniaque, Hydrosulfure d'Am- 
moniaque. Odour very fetid ; taste nauseous and 
styptic ; colour dark yellowish green. It is re- 
puted to be sedative, nauseating, emetic, disoxy- 
genizing, (?) and has been given in diabetes and 
diseases of increased excitement. Dose, gtt. viij. 
to gtt. xx. 

Ammo'nIjB Tartras, Al'kali volat'ile tartari- 
za'tum, Sal Ammoni'acum tarta'reum, Tar'tarus 
ammo' nice, Tartrate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Tartrate 
d' Ammoniaque. A salt composed of tartaric acid 
and ammonia. It is diaphoretic and diuretic; 
but not much used. 

AMMONIAQUE, Ammonia — a. Arseniate d', 
Arseniate of ammonia — a. Hydrosulfure a", Am- 
monia? sulphuretum — a. Hydrosidfate sulfure d', 
Ammonia? sulphuretum — a. Liquide, Liquor am- 
monia; — a. Phosphate d', Ammonia? phosphas — 
a. Sulfure hydrogene d', Ammonia? sulphuretum. 
AMMONII IODIDUM, Ammonium, iodide of. 
Ammonii Ioduretum, Ammonium, iodide of. 
prum ammoniatum. 

AMMO'NION, from a^ios, 'sand.' An ancient 
collyrium of great virtues in many diseases of the 
eye, and which was said to remove sand from 
that organ. 

ammonia — a. Carbonicum, Ammonia? carbonas 
— -a. Hydroiodicum, Ammonium, iodide of — a. 
Iodatum, Ammonium, iodide of. 

Ammo'nium, I'odide of, Iod'idum seu Iodure'- 
tum ammonii, Ammonium Ioda'tum seu Hydro- 
iod'icum, Hydri'odas ammo' nice., Hydri'odate of 
ammo'nia. This salt is formed by saturating 
liquid hydriodic acid with caustic ammonia, and 
evaporating the solution. It is applied in the 
form of ointment (3J ad adipis ^j) in lepra, 
psoriasis, &c. 

Ammonium Muriaticum Martiatum seu Mar- 
tiale, Ferrum ammoniatum — a. Muriatum, Am- 
monia? murias — a. Subcarboneum, Ammonia? car- 
bonas — a. Sulf hydratum, Ammonia? sulphuretum 
— a. Sulphuiicum, Ammonia? sulphas. 
_ AMNA ALCALIZATA, Water, mineral, sa- 


AMNE'SIA, Amnest'ia, Amnemos'yne, from a, 
privative, and uwati, 'memory.' Moria imbec"- 
ilis amne'sia, Obliv'io, Recollectio'nis jactu'ra, 
Dyscesthe'sia inter'na, Debil'itas memo'rice, Me- 
mo' ria dele'ta, (F.) Perte de Memoire, 'loss of 
memory.' By some Nosologists, amnesia consti- 
tutes a genus of diseases. By most, it is consi- 
dered only as a symptom, which may occur in 
many diseases. 

AMNESTIA, Amnesia. 
AMNI TIS, Amnitis. 

AMNIOCLEP'SIS, from Amnios, and k\svtu>, 
'I steal or take away clandestinely.' Premature 
escape of the liquor amnii. 

AMNIORRHffi'A, from amnios, and ptu, 'I 
flow.' A premature discharge of the liquor amnii. 
AM'NIOS, Am'nion, Am'nium, Hym'nium, 
Charta virgin' ea, Armatu'ra, Agni'na membra'na, 
Pellu'cida membra'na, Galea, Scepar'num, Indu'- 
eium, Amic'ulum, Membra'na fcetum invol'vens. 
The innermost of the enveloping membranes of 
the fetus : — so called because first observed in 
the sheep, (?) auvos, 'a sheep.' It is thin, trans- 
parent, perspirable, and possesses many delicate, 
colourless vessels, which have not been injected. 
It is generally considered to be produced by a 
fold of the external layer of the germinal mem- 
brane, rising up, and gradually enveloping the 
embryo. _ Its external surface is feebly united to 
tha cnorion by areoiar and vascular filaments. 

Its inner surface is polished, and is in contact 
with the bodv of the foetus and the liquor amnu. 
AMNIOT'IC ACID, Ac"idnm am'mcum vel 
amniot'icum. A peculiar acid, found by Vauque- 
lin and Buniva in the liquor amnii of the cow. 

AMNI'TIS, Amnii'tis, from Amnion ami lUt, 
inflammation. Inflammation of the Amnion. 

AMCENOMA'NIA, from amanus, 'agreeable, 
and mania. ' A form of mania in which the hal- 
lucinations are of an agreeable character. 

Air ME FA UX, Sison amomum. 

AMO'MUM CARDAMO'MUM, A. re-pens sen 
racemo'sum, A. verum, Alpin'ia cardamo'mum, 
Caro'pi, Mato'nia Cardamo'mum, Eletta'ria Car- 
damo'mum, Cardamo'mum Minus, Lesser or offici- 
nal Car'damom, (F.) Cardamome de la Cote de 
Malabar, Cardamome. The seeds of this East 
India plant have an agreeable, aromatic odour, 
and a pungent, grateful taste. They are car- 
minative and stomachic: but are chiefly used 
to give warmth to other remedies. The fruit is 
called Amomis. Dose, gr. v. to ^j- 

Amomum Curcuma, Curcuma longa. 

Amomum Galanga, Maranta G. 

Amomum Granum Paradi'si, Cardamo'mum 
mains, Meleguet'ta, Maniguet'ta, Cardamo'mum 
pipera'tum, A. max'imum, (F.) Graines de Para- 
dis. Greater cardamom seeds resemble the last 
in properties. They are extremely hot, and not 
much used. 

Amomum Hirsutum, Costus — a. Montanum, 
see Cassumuniar — a. Pimenta: see Myrtus pi- 
men ta — a. Repens, A. cardamomnm — a. Sylves- 
tre, see Cassumuniar — a, Zedoaria, Kaempferia 
rotunda — a. Zerumbet, see Cassumuniar. 

Amomum Zin'giber, Zin'giber officina'/e, Zin'- 
gibcr album, Z. nigrum, Z. commu'ne, Zin'ziber, 
Ginger, (F.) Gingembre. The white and black 
ginger, Zin'ziber fuscum et album, are the rhizoma 
of the same plant, Zin'giber officina'le, the dif- 
ference depending upon the mode of preparing 

The odour of ginger is aromatic ; taste warm. 
aromatic, and acrid. It yields its virtues tv 
alcohol, and in a great degree to water. It il 
carminative, stimulant, and sialogogue. 

Preserved Ginger, Zingib' eris Radix Condi'ta, 
Radix Zingib'eris condi'ta ex India alla'ta, is a 
condiment which possesses all the virtues of 

Ginger-Beer Poxcders may be formed of whit* 
sugar, gj- and ^'j- gi n g^r, gr. v. subcarbonate of 
soda, gr. xxxvj in each blue paper: acid of tar- 
tar, J^iss in each white paper, — for half a pint of 

Oxley's Concentrated Essence of Jamaica Gin- 
ger is a solution of ginger in rectified spirit. 

AMOR, Love. 

AMORGE, Amurea. 

AMORPHUS, Anhistous, Anideus. 

AMOSTEUS, Osteocolla. 

AMOUR, Love — a. Physique, Appetite, ve- 

AMOUREUX (muscle.) Obliquus superior 

AMPAC, Amp'acus. An East India tree, the 
leaves of which have a strong odour, and are 
used in baths as detergents. A very odoriferous 
resin is obtained from it. 

AMPAR, Succinum. 

AMPELOCARPUS, Galium aparine 


ian Creeper, American Ivy, Fiveleaved h v 
Woody Climber. An indigenous climbing plant! 
Family, Vitaceae ; which flowers in July. It has 
been advised as an expectorant. 

AMPELOS, Vitis vinifera-a. Agria, Bryonia 




olba — a. Idaea, Vaccinium Vitis Idaea — a. Oino- 
phoros, Vitis vinifera. 


AMPHARIS'TEROS, Ambite'vus, 'awkward;' 
from a/Mpt, and apiartpos, ' the left.' Opposed to 


AMPHEMERUS, Quotidian. 

AMPHI, ap<pi, 'both, around, on all sides.' 
Ilence, a prefix in many of the following terms. 

AMPHIAM. Opium. 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS, from aufi, 'both,' and 
op^puo-if, ' articulation.' A mixed articulation, 
in which the corresponding surfaces of bones are 
united in an intimate manner by an intermediate 
body, which allows, however, of some slight mo- 
tion. Such is the junction of the bodies of the 
vertebrae by means of the intervertebral car- 
tilages. This articulation has also been called 
Diarthrose de Gontinuite. The motion it permits 
is but slight. 



blestroi'des (membrana) the retina, and pa\aKia, 
* softening.' Mollescence or softening of the 

AMPHIBRAN'CHIA, from a^t, 'around/ 
and 0pay%ia, ' the throat.' Amphibron'chia. The 
tonsils and neighbouring parts. — Hippocrates. 


AMPHID'EUM, from apibi, 'around,' and !>to>, 
'I bind.' The outermost margin of the cervix 
uteri ; the Labium uteri. 

AMPHIDEXIUS. Ambidexter. 

AMPHIDIARTHRO'SIS, from au<f>i, 'about,' 
and StapSpuxus, 'a moveable joint.' A name given 
by Winslow to the temporo-maxillary articula- 
tion, because, according to that anatomist, it 
partakes both of ginglymus and arthrodia. 


AMPHIMERINA, Pertussis— a. Hectica, Hec- 
tic fever. 


AMPHION, Maslach. 

AMPHIPLEX, Perinaeum. 


AMPHISMELA, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISMILE, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISPHAL'SIS, Gircumac'tio, Circum- 
duc'tio, from afifyi, 'around,' and ofaWui, 'I wan- 
der.' The movement of circumduction used in 
reducing luxations.— Hippocrates. 

AMPHODIPLOPIA, see Diplopia. 

AM'PHORA, per syncop. for aiMpiipopcv^, from 
au(f>i, ' on both sides,' and 0tpw, ' I bear :' because 
it had two handles. A liquid measure among 
the ancients, containing above seven gallons. 
Also called Quadrant' al, Gera'mium, Ceram'nium, 





AM PLEXUS, Coition. 

AMPLIFICATIO, Platynosis. 

AMPLIOPIA, Amblyopia. 

AMPOSIS, Anaposis. 

AMPOULES, Essera. 

AMPUL'LA, (L.) 'A bottle.' A membranous 
bag, shaped like a leathern bottle. See Cavitas 
Elliptica. In pharmacy, a receiver. 

Ampulla Chylifera seu Chyli, Recepta- 
Culum chyli. 

AMPULLJE, Phlyctaenae. 

AMPUTATION, Amputa'tio, from amputare, 
(am, 'around,' and putare,) 'to cut off.' Apot'- 

ome, Apotom'ia. The operation of separating, by 
means of a cutting instrument, a limb or a part 
of a limb, or a projecting part, as the mamma, 
penis, <fec, from the rest of the body. In tho 
case of a tumour, the term excision, removal, or 
extirpation,(Y.) Resection, is more commonly used. 

Amputation, Circular, is that in which the 
integuments and muscles are ^vided circularly. 

Amputation, Flap, (F.) A. a lambeaux, is when 
one or two flaps are left so as to cover the stump, 
when the limb has been removed. 

Amputation, Joint, Exarticula'tio, (F.) A. 
dans {'article ou dans la contiguite des membres, 
is when the limb is removed at an articulation. 

Each amputation requires a different process, 
which is described in works on operative surgery. 

Amputation, Spontaneous, See Spontaneous. 

AMULET, Amuletum. ■ 

AMULETTE, Amuletum. 

AMULE'TUM, from amoliri, 'to remove.' An 
Amulet, Periam'ma, Apotropm' um, Periap'ton, 
Phylacte'rion, Apoteles'ma, Exarte'ma, Alexica'- 
cum, Prceservati' vum, Probasca'nium, Probascan'- 
tium, (F.) Amulette. Any image or substance 
worn about the person for the purpose of pre- 
venting disease or danger. 

AMUR'CA, Amur'ga, apopyn. The marc or 
grounds remaining after olives have been crushed 
and deprived of their oil. It has been used as 
an application to ulcers. 

AMURGA, Amurca. 

AMUSA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

A'MYCE, Amycha, Amy'xis. Excoriation, Sca- 

AMYCHA, Amyce. 

AMYC'TICA, from a/jvacw, 'I lacerate,' Me- 
dicines which stimulate and vellicate the skin. — 
Caelius Aurelianus. 

AMYDRIASIS, Mydriasis. 

AMYEL'IA, from a, privative, and i*vc\p(, 
' marrow.' A monstrous formation, in which 
there is an absence of spinal marrow. 

AMYG'DALA, same etymon as Amyctica; 
because there seem to be fissures in the shell. 
The Almond, of which there are two kinds ; 
Amyg'dalcs ama'rm and A. dul'ces, (F.) Amandes 
ameres, and A. donees, obtained from two varie- 
ties of Amyg'dalus communis or A. sati'va, a 
native of Barbary. Nat. Ord. Amygdaleae. Sex. 
Syst. Icosandria Monogynia. 

The taste of Amygdala dulcis is soft and sweet; 
that of A. amara, bitter. Both yield, by expres- 
sion, a sweet, bland oil. The bitter almond con- 
tains Prussic acid. They are chiefly used for 
forming emulsions. 

Amyg'dal.e Pasta, Almond Paste, a cosmetic 
for softening the skin and preventing chaps, is 
made of bitter almonds, blanched, ^iv, white of 
one egg ; rose water, and rectified spirit, equal 
parts, or as much as is sufficient. 

Amyg'dal^e Placen'ta, Almond Cake, is the 
cake left after the expression of the oil. Tho 
ground Almond Cake, Almond Powder, Eari'na 
Amygdala' rum, is used instead of soap for wash- 
ing the hands. 

Amygdala, Tonsil. Also, a lobule or promi- 
nence of the cerebellum, so called from its resem- 
blance to an enlarged tonsil. This and its fellow 
of the opposite side form the lateral boundaries 
of the anterior extremity of the valley, and are 
in great part covered by the medulla oblongata. 
The Amygdala; are seated on either side of the 
uvula, in the fourth ventricle. 

AMYODALATUM, Emulsio Amygdalas. 

AMYGDALE. Tonsil. 

»AM YO'DALIN, Amygdali'num, Amygdali'na, 
Amy g'd aline. A principle contained in bitter 
almonds, which is prepared by pressing ft* 


oruised almonds between heated plates to sepa- 
rate the fat oil ; boiling the residue in alcohol ; 
evaporating, and treating with ether, which pre- 
cipitates the amygdaline in a crystalline powder. 
A weak solution of it, under the influence of a 
6inall quantity of emulsin or synaptase, which 
constitutes the larger portion of the pulp of al- 
monds, yields at Mice oil of bitter almonds and 
hydrocyanic acid. 

AMYGDALITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 
AMYGDALUS, see Amygdala. 
Amygdalus Communis, see Amygdala. 
Amyg'dalus Per'sica, Per'sica vulga'ris. The 
common peach-tree, (F.) Pecker. The leaves and 
flowers have been considered laxative. They are 
bitter and aromatic, and have been given in hae- 
maturia, nephritis, Ac. The fruit is one of the 
pleasant and wholesome summer fruits, when 
ripe. The kernels, Amyg'dalce Per'sica, as well 
as the flowers, contain prussic acid. 

Peach Brandy is distilled from the fruit, and 
is much used in the United States. 
AMYGMOS, Scarification. 
AMYLA'CEA (remedia), from amylum, 'starch.' 
Remedies whose chief medicinal constituent is 
AMYLEON, Amylum. 

AMYLI IODIDUM, Starch, iodide of— a. 
Ioduretum, Starch, iodide of. 

A'MYLUM, A'midum, Fec'ula, Amyl'eon, 
Amyl'ion, from a, priv., and itvXn, 'a mill,' be- 
cause made without a mill. Stare h, (F.) Amidon, 
Amylon, Starch of Wheat, Fari'na, Trit'icifari'- 
na, Amylum triti"ceum seu Trit'ici, Fec'ula Amy- 
la'cea, is inodorous and insipid, white and fria- 
ble. It is insoluble in cold water and alcohol, 
but forms with boiling water a strong, semi-trans- 
parent jelly. It is demulcent, and is used as an 
emollient glyster, and as the vehicle for opium, 
when given per anum. Starch is met with abun- 
dantly in all the cereal grains, in the stalks of 
many of the palms, in some lichens, and in many 
tuberous roots, particularly in the bulbs of the 

Amylum Americanum, see Arrow root — a. Can- 
naceum, Tous-les-mois — a. Iodatum, Starch, 
iodide of — a. Manihoticum, see Jatropha mani- 
hot — a. Marantaceum, Arrow-root — a. Palma- 
ceum, Sago — a. Querneum, Racahout. 

A'MYON, from a, priv., and fivov, ' a muscle,' 
Emuscula'tus. Without muscle. Applied to the 
limbs, when so extenuated that the muscles can- 
not be distinguished. 
AMYOSIS, Synezizis. 
Am'yris Elemif'era, (F.) Bahamier Elenii- 
fere. Nat. Ord. Terebinthaceas. Sex. Syst. 
Octandria Monogynia. The plant whence it has 
been supposed Gum Ele'mi is obtained. This 
gum or resin is brought from the Spanish East 
and West Indies. Brazilian Elemi, according 
to Dr. Royle, is produced by Icica Icicariba ; 
Mexican Elemi, by Ela'phrium elemiferum; and 
Manilla Elemi, by Cana'rium commu'ne. It is 
eoftish, transparent, of a pale whitish colour, in- 
clining a little to green, and of a strong, though 
not unpleasant smell. It is only used in oint- 
ments and plasters, and is a digestive. 

Amyris Gileadensis, see A. opobalsamum. 
Am'yris Opobal'samum, (F.) Bahamier de la 
Mecque, Bal'sem, Bal'samum. The plant from 
which is obtained the Balsam of Mecca, BaV - 
$amum genui'num, antiquo'rum, BalsamelcB'on, 
jEgyptiacum Bal'samum, Bal'samum Asiat'icum, 
B. Juda'icum, B. Syriacum, B. e Meccd, Coco- 
bal'samum, B. Alpi'ni, Oleum Bal'sami, OpobnV- 
»<imum, Xylobal' samum, Balsam or Balm of Gi- 


Tead, (F.) Baume Blanc, B. de Constantinople 

«c, B. de Galaad, II. du Grand Oaire, Z-J> al ' 
ebinthine de GilSad, T. d'Egypte,T. 'l'^™™ 
Kaire, T. de Judee. A resinous juice obtained 
by making incisions into Amyris opobal samum 
and A. Gileaden'sis onAnnxn^Balsamaden dron 
Gileaden'se of Kunth. The juice of the fruit is 
called Carpobal' samum; that of the wood and 
branches Xylobal' samum. It has the general 
properties of the milder Terebinthinates. 

Amyris Tomentosum, Fagara octandra. 

AMYRON, Carthamus Tinctorius. 

A'MYUS, from a, privative, and pvs, a mouse, 
a muscle.' Weak or poor in muscle. 

AMYX'IA, from a, privative, and ixvfr, mu- 
cus.' Deficiency of mucus. 

AMYXIS, Amyce, Scarification. 

ANA, ava, a word which signifies 'of each.' 
It is used in prescriptions as well as a and aa, its 
abbreviations. As a prefix to words, it means 
' in,' ' through,' ' upwards,' ' above,' in opposition 
to cata; also 'repetition,' like the English re. 
Hence, — 

ANAB'ASIS, from ava(3atvw, 'I ascend.' The 
first period of a disease, or that of increase. — 
Galen. See Augmentation. 

ANABEXIS, Expectoration. 

ANABLEP'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and /JAsjtco, 
' I see.' Restoration to sight. 

ANABOLiE'ON, Anabole'us, from ava/3aXXoi, 'I 
cast up.' An ointment for extracting darts or 
other extranejous bodies. 

ANAB'OLE, from ava, 'upwards,' and (3a\\u>, 
'I cast.' Anago'ge, Anaph'ora, Anaeine'ma, 
Anacine'sis. An evacuation upwards. An act 
by which certain matters are ejected by the 
mouth. In common acceptation it includes, ex- 
spuition, expectoration, regurgitation, and vomit- 

ANABROCHIS'MUS, Anabron'chismns, from 
ava, 'with,' and jlpoxog, 'a running knot.' An 
operation for removing the eye-lashes, for exam- 
ple, when they irritate the eye, by means of a 
hair knotted around them — Hippocrates, Galen, 

ANABRONCHISMUS, Anabrochismus. 

ANABROSIS, Corrosion, Erosion. 

ANACAMPSEROS, Sedum telephium. 

occidenta'lis, Cassu'vium pomif'ernm, Cashew 
( W. Indies.) (F.) Ac'ajou. Nat. Ord. Terebin- 
thaceae. Sex. Syst. Enneandria Monogynia. 
The Oil of the Oasheio Nut, O'leum Anacar'dii, 
(F.) Huile d' Acajou, is an active caustic, and used 
as such in the countries where it grows, especially 
for destroying warts, &c. 

Anacardium Orientale, Avicennia tomen- 

ANACATHAR'SIS, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
xaSaipttv, ' to purge.' Purgation upwards. Ex- 
pectoration. See, also, Repurgatio. 

Anacatharsis Catarrhalis Simplex, Ca- 


ANACESTOS, Incurable. 

ANACHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 


ANACINEMA, Anabole, Exspuition 

ANACINESIS, Anabole, Exspuition.' 

ANACLASIS, Repercussion. 

ANACLINTE'RIUM, Anaclin'trvm, Recubi- 
to'rium, from avaicXtvui, ' I recline.' A lono- chair 
or seat, so formed that the person can rest in a 
reclining posture. 

ANACLINTRUM, Anaclinterium 

ANACOLLE'MA, from ava, 'together, and 
Ko\\au>, ' I glue.' A healing medicine. 

Anacollemata, Frontal bandages. ' 




ANACOLUP'PA. A creeping plant of Mala- 
bar, the juice of which, mixed with powdered 
pepper, passes in India as a cure for epilepsy, 
and as the only remedy for the bite of the naja. 
It is supposed to be Zapa'nia nodijlo'ra. 

ANACOLUTH1E, Incoherence. 

ANACOMIDE, Restauratio. 



ANACTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANACTIRION, Artemisia. 

ANACYCLEON, Charlatan. 

mis Pyrethrum — a. Pyrethrum, Anthemis pyre- 


ANADIPLO'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and SirrXooi, 
'I double.' Epanadiplo'sis, Epanalep'sis, Redu- 
plica'tio. The redoubling which occurs in a 
paroxysm of an intermittent, when its type is 
double. — Galen, Alexander of Tralles. 

AN AD OR A, Ecdora. 

ANAD'OSIS, from avaii^u/ii, 'I distribute.' 
Purgation upwards, as by vomiting. Congestion 
of blood towards the upper parts of the body. 
Anadosis seems also to have occasionally meant 
chylification, whilst diadosis meant capillary nu- 
trition, — Hippocrates, Galen. 

ANAD'ROME, from ava, 'upwards,' and Spcjj<>>, 
'I run.' The transport of a humour or pain from 
a lower to an upper part. — Hippocr. Also, the 
globus hystericus. 

ANiEDCE'US, from av, privative, and atSoia, 
'organs of generation.' A monster devoid of 
sexual organs. 

ANdSMATOPOIE'SIS, from a, av, privative, 
'atpta, 'hlood,' and itoudt, 'I make.' Impeded or 
obstructed haematosis. 

ANiEMATO'SIS, Anhcemato'sis, from a, av, 
privative, and 'aifia, 'blood.' Defective haeina- 
tosis or preparation of the blood. Anaemia. 

AN^E'MIA, Exas'mia, An&'masis, Anha-'mia, 
Anho&mato'sis, Polyanhce'mia, Anazmo'sis, Olige- 
mia, Oligohce'mia, Hypce'mia, Hydroee'mia, Hy- 
dremia, Ane'mia, (F.) Anemie, Polyanhemie, 
Hydrohemie, Exsanguinity, Bloodlessness : from 
a, priv., and 'atjia, ' blood.' Privation of blood ; 
— the opposite to plethora. It is characterized 
by every sign of debility. Also, diminished quan- 
tity of fluids in the capillary vessels : — the oppo- 
site to Hyperemia. — The essential character of 
the blood in anaemia is diminution in the ratio 
of red corpuscles. 

AN-33'MIC, Anem'ic, Ana' miens ; same ety- 
mon. Appertaining to Anaemia, — as an " aneemic 
person ;" " aneemic urine." 

ANjEMOCH'ROUS, from a, av, privative, 'at/ia, 
' blood,' and xP oa > ' colour.' Devoid of colour, 

AN^MOSIS, Anaemia. 

AN<EMOT'ROPHY, Aneemotroph'ia : from av, 
privative, 'aijia, 'blood,' and Tpo(j>rj, 'nourish- 
ment.' A deficiency of sanguineous nourishment. 
— Prout. 

AN^MYDRIA, Anhydraemia. 

AN^ESTHE'SIA, Anasthe'sis, Insensibil'itas, 
Analge' sia, Par ap' sis expers, (F.) Anesthirie : 
from a, privative, and aiaQavoptai, 'I feel.' Pri- 
vation of sensation, and especially of that of touch, 
according to some. It may be general or partial, 
and is almost always symptomatic. 

Anaesthesia Linguae, Ageustia — a. Olfactoria, 

ANJESTHESIR, Anaesthesia. 

AN^ESTHET'IC, Anesthet'io, Anmsthet'icus, 
Anestkesique ; same etymon, as Anasthesia. Re- 
lating to privation of feeling, as an " an antithetic 
agent j" one that prevents feeling, as chloroform 

inhaled during a surgical operation. Different 
agents have been used as anaesthetics, — sulphuric 
ether, chloroform, chloric ether, compound ether, 
chlorohydric and nitric ethers, bisulphuret of 
carbon, chloride of olefiant gas, benziu, alde- 
hyde, light coal-tar naphtha, &c. ; but the first 
four are alone employed as agents. 

ANiESTHETIZA'TION, (F.) Anesthetisation; 
same etymon. The condition of the nervous sys- 
tem induced by anaesthetics. 

AN^ESTHISIA, Insensibility. 

ANAGAL'LIS, from ava, and ya\a, 'milk, 
from its power of coagulating milk. A. arven'sis, 
A. Pha?nic"ea, lied Pim'pemel, Scarlet Pimper- 
nel. Nat. Ord. Primulaceae. Sex. Pen- 
tandria Monogynia. (F.) Mouron rouge. A 
common European plant; a reputed antispasmo- 
dic and stomachic. 

Another species — Anagal'lis cceru'lea is a mere 
variety of the above. 

Anagallis Aquatica, Veronica Beccabunga. 




ANAGLYPHE, Calamus scriptorius. 

ANAGOGE, Anabole, Rejection. 

ANAGRAPHE, Prescription. 

ANAG'YRIS, Anag'yrus, Ac'opon, Anag'yris 
foe'tida, Stinking Bean Trefoil. Native of Italy. 
The leaves are powerfully purgative. The juice 
is said to be diuretic, and the seeds emetic. — Di- 
oscorides, Paulus. 

ANAGYRUS, Anagyris. 

ANAL, Ana'lis. That which refers to the 
anus ; — as Anal region, &c. 

ANAL'DIA, (F.) Analdie ; from a, privative, 
and aA<W, 'to grow.' Defective nutrition. 

ANALEMSIA, Analepsia. 

ANALENTIA, Analepsia. 

ANALEP'SIA, Analep'sis, Analen'tia, Ana- 
lem'sia, from ava, 'fresh,' and \ayif5avav, 'to take.' 
Restoration to strength after disease. — Galen. A 
kind of sympathetic epilepsy, originating from 
gastric disorder. See Epilepsy. 

Also, the support given to a fractured extre- 
mity ; — Appen'xio. — Hippocrates. 

ANALEPSIS, Convalescence, Restauratio. 

ANALEP'TICA, Anapsye'tica, Psychot'ica, 
Refecti'va, Refcien'tia, Analeptics, same ety- 
mon. Restorative medicines or food ; such as 
are adapted to recruit the strength during con- 
valescence : — as sago, salep, tapioca, jelly, &c. 

Analeptic Pills, James's, consist of James's 
Powder, Gum Ammoniacum, and Pills of Aloes 
and Myrrh, equal parts, with Tincture of Castor, 
sufficient to form a mass. 

ANALGE'SIA, Anal'gia, from a, priv., and 
a\yo(, 'pain.' Absence of pain both in health 
and disease. See Anaesthesia. 

ANALGIA, Analgesia. 

AN'ALOGUE, Anal'ogus ; from ava, 'again,' 
and Xoyoi, ' a description.' A part in one orga- 
nized being which has the same function as ano- 
ther part in another organized being. 


ANALOSIS, Atrophy. 

ANALTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANALTHES, Incurable. 

ANAMIRTA COCCULUS, Menispermum coo 
cuius — a. Paniculat.a, Menispermum cocculus. 

ANAMNES'TIC, Anamnes' ticum, from ava, 
'again,' and [ivaouai, 'I remember.' A medicine 
for improving the memory. See, also, Comme- 

ANANAS, Bromelia ananas — a. Aculeata, Bro- 
melia ananas — a. Americana, Bromelia pinguiij 
— a. Ovata, Bromelia ananas— "Wild, broad 
leaved, Bromelia pinguin. 


ANANAZIP'TA. A word formerly scrawled 
on amulets to charm away disease. 

ANAXDRI'A, from a, av, privative, and avnp, 
1 a man.' Want of manliness. Impotence in the 
male. The state and act of emasculation. 

ANANEO'SIS, Renova'tio; from ava, 'again,' 
and nog, 'new.' Renovation or renewal, — as of 
the blood by the chyliferous vessels and lym- 

ANAPETI'A, Expan'sio mea'tuum, from ava, 
and rrtruw, 'I dilate.' A state opposite to the 
closure of vessels — Galen. 

ava<pa\avTias, ' bald.' Loss of the hair of the eye- 
brows. Also, baldness in general. 

AXAPHALANTOMA, Anaphalantiasis. 

ANAPHE, Anaphia. 

ANAPH'IA, Anhaph'ia, An'aphe, from a, av, 
priv., and 'a<pn, 'touch.' Diminution or privation 
of the sense of touch. 

ANAPHLASMUS, Masturbation. 

ANAPHONE'SIS, from ava, 'high,' and $wvn, 
'voice.' Exercise of the voice: vociferation: — 
the act of crying out. Vocifera'tio, Clamor. 

ANAPHORA, Anabole. 

ANAPHRODIS'IA, from u, priv., and A<ppo- 
Sirri, 'Venus,' Defec'tus Ven'eris. Absence of the 
venereal appetite. Sometimes used for Impotence 
and Sterility. 

ANAPHRODISIAC, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANAPHROMELI, Mel despumatum. 

ANAP'LASIS, Anaplasmus, from avavXaaau), 
'I restore.' Confirma'tio, Reposi"tio. Restora- 
tion. Union or consolidation of a fractured bone 
- — Hippocrates. 

ANAPLASMATIC, Anaplastic. 

ANAPLASMUS, Anaplasis. 

ANAPLAS'TIC, Anaplas' ticus ; same etymon. 
An epithet applied to the art of restoring lost 
Darts, or the normal shape — as 'Anaplastic Sur- 
gery.' See Morioplastice. Also an agent, that 
increases the amount of plastic matter — fibrin — 
in the blood ; Anaplasmat'ic. 

ANAPLERO'SIS, from avan\vpou>, 'I fill up.' 
Repletion. That part of surgical therapeutics 
whose object is to supply parts that are wanting. 
Also, Apposition or Prosthesis. 


ANAPLEU'SIS, Fluctua'tio, Innata'tio, from 
avaxXav, 'to swim above.' The looseness or 
shaking of an exfoliated bone ; or of a carious or 
Other tooth, <fec. — Hippocrates, Paulus. 


ANAPNEUSIS, Respiration. 

ANAPNOE, Respiration. 

ANAPNOENU'SI; from Anapnoe, 'respira- 
tion,' and vovsos, disease.' Diseases of the re- 
Bpiratory organs. 

ANAPNOMETER, Spirometer. 

ANAPODISIS UTERI, Retroversio Uteri. 

ANAPODISMUS UTERI, Retroversio Uteri. 

phyllum peltatum. 

ANAP'OSIS, Am'posis, from ava, 'again,' and 
roan, ' drink.' A recession of humours from the 
circumference to the centre of the body — Hippo- 

ANAPSE, Auante. 

ANAPSIA, Caecitas. 

ANAPSYCTICA, Analeptica. 

ANAPTYSIS, Expectoration. 
ANARCOTINA, Narcotine. 
ANARRHEGNU'MINA, from avappvywut, 'I 
tuc 'ak out again.' Fractures are so called when 
they become disunited ; as well as ulcers when 
lliev break out afresh. 

ANARRHI'NON, from ava, 'upwards,' and 


piv, ' the nose.' That which returns by the nos« 
— Gorroaus. . , . v_ +h« 

According to others, that which issues by tne 
skin ; from ava, and pivos, ' tho skin. 

ANARRHINUM, Sternutatory. 

ANARRHOE, Anarrhcea. . 

A N A R R H <E ' A, Anar'rhoe, Anarrhopw, 
Anas' tasis, from ava, 'upwards,' and ptu>, 1 flow. 
Afflux of fluid towards the upper part ot the 

ANARRHOPHE, Absorption. 

ANARRHOPHENU'SI ; from anarrhophe, 
'absorption,' and vovaos, 'disease.' Diseases of 
the absorbents. 


ANARRHOPIA, Anarrhcea. 

ANAR'THRUS, from av, priv., and apSpov, 'a 
joint.' Without a joint. One who is so fat that 
his joints are scarcely perceptible — Hipp. 

ANASAR'CA, from ava, 'through/ and aapi, 
' the flesh.' Anasarch'a, Catasar'ca, Aqua inter. 
cus seu inter cutem, Hyposar'ca, Hydrops cellu- 
la'ris totius cor'poris, H. Anasar'ca, H. inter 1 ' cut 
seu subcuta'neus seu cellulo'sus seu cuta'neus seu 
tela cellulo'sa, Katasar'ca, Episarcid'ium, By', 
deros, Hydaton'cus, Hyderon'cus, Hydron'cus, 
Hydrosar'ca, Hydroder'ma, Hydrop'isis vera, 
Sar'cites, Polylym'phia, Hyposarcid'ius, Leuco- 
phlegmu'tia, General dropsy, Dropsy of the cel- 
lular membrane, (F.) Anasarque. Commonly, it 
begins to manifest itself by swelling around the 
ankles; and is characterized by tumefaction of 
the limbs and of the soft parts covering the ab- 
domen, thorax, and even the face, with paleness 
and dryness of the skin, and pitting when any 
of these (especially the ankles) are pressed upon. 
Like dropsy in general, Anasarca may be active 
or passive; and its treatment must be regulated 
by the rules that are applicable to general dropsy. 
At times, the symptoms are of an acute character, 
and the effusion sudden, constituting Derma- 
toch'ysis, Hydrops Anasar'ca acn'tus, CEde'ma 
cal'idum, (E. acu'tum, (E.febri'le of some. See 

Anasarca Hystericum, Anathymiasis — a. 
Pulmonum, Hydropneumonia, OZdema of the 
Lungs — a. Serosa, Phlegmatia dolens. 

ANASARCHA, Anasarca. 

ANASARQUE, Anasarca. 

ANASISMUS, Concussion. 

ANASPADIA, see Anaspadiaeus. 

ANASPA'DIAS, Epispadias, from ava, 'up- 
wards,' and airata, ' I draw.' One whose urethra 
opens on the upper surface of the penis. 

ANASPADISIS, see Anaspadiasus. 

ANASPADISMUS, see Anaspadiseus. 

ANAS'PASIS, Anaspastn'us, from avacnaia, 'I 
contract.' Retrac'tio. Contraction, especially of 
the bowels. The condition is called Anaspu'dia, 
Anaspad'isis, and Anaspadis'mus — Hippocrates. 

ANASPASMUS, Anaspasis. 

ANASSA, Bromelia ananas. 


ANASTASIS, Anarrhcea. Also, restoration 
from sickness. Convalescence. 

ANASTffiCHEm'SIS, from ava , 'again,' and 
btoi%ciov, ' element.' Reelementa'tio. Resolu- 
tion of a body or its parts into their elements 


ANASTOMO'SIS, from ava, 'with,' and croua, 
'a mouth.' Inoscula'tio seu Reu'nio vaso'rum 
Exanastomo'sis, Concur' sus, (F.) Abouchement 
Communication between two vessels. By consi- 
dering the nerves to be channels, in which a 
nervous fluid circulates, their communication like- 
wise has been called Anastomosis. By means of 
anastomoses, if the course of a fluid be arrested 
in one vessel, it can proceed along others. 




Anastomosis Aneurismatica, Telangiectasia 
—a. Jaeobson's ; — see Petrosal ganglion. 

ANASTOMOT'ICS, Anastomot'ica. Same ety- 
mon. Certain medicines were formerly so called, 
which were believed to be capable of opening the 
mouths of vessels : — as aperients, diuretics, &c. 

(F.) Artere coUatirale interne, A. collaterale du 
coude, is a branch of the brachial artery which 
comes off a little above the elbow, and bestows 
branches to the brachialis internus, to the under 
edge of the triceps, and to the muscles, ligaments, 
Ac, about the elbow joint. See, also, Articular 
arteries of the knee. 

ANA STROPHE UTERI, Inversio uteri. 

ANATASIS, Extension. 

ANAT1IYMIAMA, Anathymiasis. 

ANATHYMI'ASIS, Anathymi'ama, from ava, 
'upwards,' and Ovua, 'fumigation.' (Ede'ma fii- 
gax, (Ede'ma spas' ticum, (Ede'ma hyster'icum, 
Anasar'ca hyster'icum. An uncertain and tran- 
sient swelling or inflation, said to have been ob- 
served at times in nervous and hysterical per- 
sons. It also means Exhalation, Fumigation, and 


ANATOME, Anatomy — a. Animata, Physi- 

ANATOMIA, Anatomy — a. Animalis, Zootomy 
— a. Comparata, Zootomy — a. Comparativa, Zo- 
otomy — a. Viva, Physiology. 

AXATOMIE, Anatomy — a. Chirurgicale, see 
Anatomy — a. des Regions, see Anatomy. 

ANAT'OMIST, Anatom'icus. One who oc- 
cupies himself with anatomy. One versed in 

ANAT'OMY, Anat'ome, Anatom'ia, Prosec'tio, 
from ava, and Ttfiveiv, 'to cut,' (F.) Anatomic. 
The word Anatomy properly signifies dissection ; 
but it has been appropriated to the study and 
knowledge of the number, shape, situation, struc- 
ture, and connexion, — in a word, of all the appa- 
rent properties of organized bodies. Anatomy is 
the science of organization. Some have given the 
term a still more extended acceptation, applying 
it to every mechanical decomposition, even of in- 
organic bodies. Thus, Crystallography has been 
termed the Anatomy of crystallized minerals. 
Anatomy has also been called Morphol'ogy, So- 
matol'ogy, Somatot'omy, Organology, &c. It as- 
sumes different names according as the study is 
confined to one organized being, or to a species or 
class of beings. Thus, Androt'omy, or Anthrapot'- 
omy, or Anthropog' raphy , or Anihroposomatol'ogy, 
is the Anatomy of man: — Zootomy, that of the other 
species of the animal kingdom : and Veterinary 
Anat'omy is the anatomy of domestic animals : 
but when the word is used abstractly, it means 
human Anatomy, and particularly the study of 
the organs in a physiological or healthy state. 
Physiological Anatomy is occasionally used to 
signify the kind of anatomy which investigates 
structure with a special view to function. The 
Anatomy of the diseased human body is called 
Patholog"ical or Morbid Anatomy, and when ap- 
plied to Medical Jurisprudence, Foren'sic Anat- 
omy. Several of the organs possessing a simi- 
larity of structure, and being formed of the same 
tissues, they have been grouped into Systems or 
Genera of Organs ; and the study of, or acquaint- 
ance with, such systems, has been called General 
Anat'omy, Histol'ogy, or Morphot'omy, whilst the 
study of each organ in particular has been termed 
Descriptive Anatomy. Histology is, however, more 
frequently applied to the Anatomy of the Tissues, 
which is called, also, Tex'tural and Microscopic 
Anatomy. Descriptive Anatomy has been di- 
vided into Skeletol'ogy which comprises Osteol'- 

ogy, and SyndesmoV ogy ; and into Sarcol'ogy, 
which is subdivided into Myol'ogy, Neurol'ogy, 
Angiol'ogy, Adenol'ogy, Splanchnology, andDer- 
mol'ogy. Sur'gical Anat'omy, Medico- Oh iurgical 
Anatoyny, Topograph' ical Anat'omy, lie'gional 
Anat'omy, (F.) Anatomie Ohiurgicale, A. des Re- 
gions, is the particular and relative study of the 
bones, muscles, nerves, vessels, <fec, with which, 
it is indispensable to be acquainted before per- 
forming operations. Comparative Anat'omy is 
the comparative study of each organ, with a view 
to an acquaintance with the modifications of its 
structure in different animals or in the different 
classes of animals. Transcendent' al or Philosoph- 
ical Anatomy inquires into the mode, plan, or 
model upon which tho animal frame or organs 
are formed; and Artiji'cial A)iat'omy is the art 
of modelling and representing in wax or other 
substance, the different organs or different parts 
of the human body, in the sound or diseased state. 
Phytot'omy is the anatomy of vegetables, and 
Picto'rial Anatomy, anatomy artistically illus- 

Anatomy, Artificial, see Anatomy — a. Com- 
parative, see Anatomy, Zootomy — a. Descriptive, 
see Anatomy — a. Forensic, see Anatomy — a. Ge- 
neral, see Anatomy — a. Human, see Anatomy — 
a. of Man, see Anatomy — a. Medico-chirurgical, 
see Anatomy — a. Microscopic, see Anatomy — a. 
Morbid, see Anatomy — a. Pathological, see Anat- 
omy — a. Philosophical, see Anatomy — a. Physi- 
ological, see Anatomy — a. Pictorial, see Anatomy 
— a. Practical, see Dissection — a. Regional, see 
Anatomy-^ a. Surgical, see Anatomy — a. Tex- 
tural, see Anatomy — a. Topographical, see Anat- 
omy — a. Transcendental, see Anatomy — a. Vet- 
erinary, see Anatomy. 
ANATON, Soda. 
ANATREPSIS, Restauratio. 
ANATRESIS, Perforation, Trepanning. 
ANATRIBE, Friction. 
ANATRIPSIS, Friction. 

ANATRIPSOL'OGY, Anatrij>solog"ia, Ana- 
triptolog" ia, from avarpi^tris, ' friction,' and Aoyof, 
' a discourse.' A treatise on friction as a re- 

ANATRIPTOLOGIA, Anatripsology. 
ANATRON,_Natrum, Soda. 
ANAT'ROPE, from ava, 'upwards,' and rpcroi, 
' I turn.' Subversion. A turning or subver- 
sion or inverted action of the stomach, charac- 
terized by nausea, vomiting, Ac. — Galen. We 
still speak of the stomach turning against any 

ANAUDIA, Catalepsy, Mutitas. 
ANAXYRIS, Rumex acetosa. 
ANAZESIS, Ebullition. 
ANAZOTURIA, see Urine. 
ANCHA, Haunch. 
ANCHILOPS, ^gilops. 
— a. Incarnata, A. Officinalis — a. Lycopsoides, A. 

Anchu'sa Officinalis, A. Angustifo'lia seu 
Incarna'ta seu Lycopsoi'des, Alca'na, Lingua 
Boris, li agios' sum sylves'tre, Ojfic"inal or Garden 
Al'kanet or Bugloss ; Nat. Ord. Boraginea?. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Monogynia. (F.) Buglose. 
A native of Great Britain. The herb was for- 
merly esteemed as a cordial in melancholia and 
hypochondriasis ; but it is now rarely used. It 
is also called llnglos'xa, Bnglos'sum angustifo'- 
liiim mains, B. vulga're majns, B. sati'vum. 

Anchu'sa Tincto'ria, A/can'na spu'ria, Dy- 
er's Bugloss, Ane'bium, Bnglos'sum Tincto'rvm, 
Lithoxper'mum villo' sum, Dyer's Al'kanet, (F ) 
Orcanette. A European plant. Tho niodical 



properties are equivocal. It is used to give a 
beautiful red colour to ointments. 

ANCHYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANCISTRON, Hamulus. 

ANOOLIE, Aquilegia vulgaris. 

ANCON, Elbow, Olecranon. 

ANCONAD, see Anconal Aspect. 

ANCONAGRA, Pechyagra. 

ANCO'NAL; from ayxoiv, 'the elbow.' Relat- 
ing, or appertaining to, the elbow or the olecranon. 

Anconal Aspect. An aspect towards the side 
on which the ancon or elbow is situated. — Bar- 
clay. Anco'nad is used by the same writer ad- 
verbially, to signify 'towards the anconal aspect.' 

ANOONE, Anconeus. 

ANCONE'US, from ayicwv, 'the elbow.' A term 
once applied to every muscle attached to the ole- 
cranon. Winslow distinguished four : — the great, 
external, internal, and small; the first three being 
portions of the same muscle, the triceps brachia- 
lis. The last has, alone, retained the name. It 
is the Ancone'us minor of Winslow, the Ancone'us 
vel Cubita'lis Riola'ni of Douglas, the Epicon- 
dylo-Cubita'lis of Chaussier, the Brevis Cu'biti, 
(F.) Ancone, and is sitnate at the upper and back 
part of the fore-arm. It arises from the external 
condyle of the os humeri, and is inserted into 
the posterior edge of the upper third of the ulna. 
Its use is to aid in the extension of the fore-arm. 

Anconeus Externus, see Triceps extensor 
cubiti — a. Internus, see Triceps extensor cubiti 

— a. Major, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 
ANCTE'RES. Fibula or Olasps, by which 

the lips of wounds were formerly kept together. 

— Celsus, Galen. 
ANCTERIASMUS, Infibnlation. 
ANCU'BITUS, Petrifac'tio. An affection of 

the eye, in which there is a sensation as if sand 
were irritating the organ. 

ANCUNNUEN'TiE. A name formerly given 
to menstruating females. 

ANCUS, Ankus, from ayKwv, 'the elbow.' One 
who cannot extend his arms completely. 

Also, the deformity resulting from a luxation 
of the humerus or fore-arm. — Hippocrates. 

ANCYLE, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOBLEPHARON, Ankyloblepharon. 

ANCYLODERE, Torticollis. 

ANCYLODERIS, Torticollis. 

ANCYLODONTIA, Ankylodontia. 

ANCYLOGLOSSIA, Ankyloglossia. 

ANCYLOMELE, Ankylomele. 

ANCYLOMERISMUS, Ankylomerismus. 

ANCYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOTOMUS, Ankylotomus. 

ANCYRA, Hook. 

ANCYROID CAVITY, Digital cavity. 


ANDA. A tree of Brazil; — Anda Gome'sii, 
Joanne'sia prineeps. Nat. Ord. Euphorbiaceas. 
Sex. Syst. Monoecia Monadelphia. An oil is 
obtained from the seeds by pressure, 50 to 60 
drops of which act as a cathartic. The fruit is 
an oval nut, containing two seeds. These have 
the taste of the chestnut; but are strongly ca- 
thartic, and even emetic. The shell is astrin- 
gent, and is used as such in diarrhoea, &c. 

dely is in France, near Gysore, and eight leagues 
from Rouen. The water is cold, and a weak cha- 
lybeate. It is used in chlorosis and abdominal 

ANDERSON'S PILLS, Pilulse Aloes et Ja- 

ANDIRA IBAI, Geoffraea Vermifuga— a. In- 

ermis, Geoffraea inermis — a. Racemosa, Geoffr»a 

inermis — a. Surinamensis, Geoffraea Surinatnensis. 

ANDRACHAHARA, Sempervivum tectorura. 


ANDRACHNE, Arbutus unedo, Portulaca. 

ANDRANATOM'IA, Andranat'ome, Awlio- 
tom'ia, Androt'ome, Anthropot'omy, irora avrip, 
genitive avipos, ' a man,' and re/xvciv, to cut. 
anatomy of man. 

ANDRI'A. Adult age. Manhood. 

Andri'a Mu'lier, Mulier Hermaphrodit tea. 
A female hermaphrodite. 

ANDROGEN'IA, from avnp, 'man, and ycvuris, 
' generation.' The procreation of males. — Hip- 
pocrates. , 

ANDROG"YNUS, from awp, 'a man, and 
yvvv, ' a woman.' A hermaphrodite. An effe- 
minate person. — Hippocrates. 

ANDROLEPSIA, Conception. 

ANDROMANIA, Nymphomania. 

Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk Tree, Elk Wood, 
Sorrel Wood, Sour Leaf, (F.) Andromedier. A 
small indigenous tree; Nat. Ord. Ericeae, Sex. 
Syst. Decandria Monogynia ; found in the Alle- 
ghany Mountains and the hills and valleys di- 
verging from them, as far as the southern limits 
of Georgia and Alabama; but seldom north of 
Virginia. The leaves are refrigerant and astrin- 
gent, and have been used to make a kind of le- 
monade, which has been given in fevers. 

Androm'eda Maria'na, Broad-leaved Moor- 
wort. A decoction of this American plant is 
said to have been successfully employed as a 
wash, in a disagreeable affection, — not uncommon 
amongst the slaves in the southern parts of the 
United States, — called the Toe Itch, and Ground 
Itch. — Barton. 

— a. Citratus, Juncus odoratus — a. Citriodorus, 
Juncus odoratus, Nardus Indica — a. Nardus, Ca- 
lamus Alexandrinus, Nardus Indica — a. Schoe- 
nanthus, Juncus odoratus. 

ANDROSACE, Umbilicus marinus — a. Mat- 
thioli, Umbilicus marinus. 

ANDROS^EMUM, Hypericum perforatum. 

ANDROTOMY, Andranatomia. 

ANDRUM. An East India word, latinized 
by Kaempfer, signifying a kind of elephantiasis 
of the scrotum, endemic in southern Asia. 

ANEANT1SSEMENT (F.), Vir'ium extinc'. 
tio. This word is often employed hyperbolically, 
by patients in France, to signify excessive fatigue, 
debility or syncope. 

ANEBIUM, Anchusa tinctoria. 

ANEBUS, Impuber. 

ANECPYE'TUS, from av, for avtv, 'without,' 
and Truce), ' I promote suppuration.' That which 
does not suppurate, or is not likely to suppurate. 

ANEGER'TICA, from avcyupw, 'I awaken.' 
The art of resuscitating the apparently dead. 

ANEILE'MA, Aneile'sis, from aveiheadni, 'to 
be rolled upwards.' Applied particularly to the 
motion of air in the intestines and the tormina 
accompanying it. — Hippocrates. 

ANEILESIS, Aneilema. 

ANEMIA, Anaemia. 

ANEMO'NE. The Wind Flower: from avtuot, 
'the wind,' because it does not open its flowers 
until blown upon by the wind. 

ANEMONE DES BOIS, Anemone nemo- 

Anemone Collina, A. Pulsatilla — a, Hepatica, 
Hepatica triloba — a. Intermedin, A. Pulsatilla ' 

Anemo'ne Nemoro'sa, Banvn' cuius albus sen 
nemoro'sus, Wood anem'ony, (F.) Anemone des 
bois. The herb and flowers are poisonous acrid 
and corrosive. They have been used as rubel 

Anemo'ne Praten'sis, A. Sghie^tria, PvhatiV 
la nigricans seu praten'sis. This plant has sil 




milar properties with the last. It is also called 
Meadow Anemony, (F.) Pulsatille noire, P. des 

Anemo'ne Pulsatill'la, A. Colli'na seu In- 
terme'dia seu Praten'sis seu Rubra, Pulsatilla 
vulga'ris, Herba venlis, Nola culina'ria, Pasque 
flower, (F.) Coquelourdc, possesses like proper- 

Anemone Rubra, A. Pratensis — a. Rue-leaved, 
Thalictrum anemonoides — a. Sylvestris, A. Pra- 

ANEMONY, Anemone hepatica — a. Meadow, 
Anemone pratensis — a. Wood, Anemone nemorosa. 

ANEMOS, Wind. 

ANENCEPHALIA, see Anencephalus. 

ANENCEPHAL TR OP HIE, from av, priva- 
tive; £yK£<pa\os, 'the encephalon,' and rpoipn, 'nou- 
rishment.' Atrophy of the encephalon. 

ANENCEPH'ALUS, from a, privative, and 
eyKt<pa\og, ' brain.' A monster devoid of brain. 

— Bonetus. G. St. Hilaire. Also one that has 
a part only of the brain ; — Paraceph'alus. The 
condition has been called Anencephal' ia. A weak, 
silly person. — Hippocrates. 


ANENERGIA, Debilitv. 


ANEPISCHESIS, Incontinentia. 

ANEPITHYM'IA, from a, priv., and cmSvpta, 
'desire.' Many nosologists have used this word 
for a loss of the appetites, as of those of hunger, 
thirst, venery, &c. 

Anepithymia Chlorosis, Chlorosis. 

ANER. avrjp, genitive avtpos. A man. 

ANERETHIS'IA, Inirritabi!'itas,from a, priv., 
and eptOtats, ' irritability.' Defect of irritability. 

— Swediaur. 

ANERYTHROP'SIA, from av, priv., cpvSpos, 
'red,' and oxots, 'vision.' Defective vision, which 
consists in an incapability of distinguishing red. 

ANESIS, Remission. 

ANESTHESIE, Anaesthesia. 

gate of phenomena of impaired feeling produced 
especially by the manipulations of the animal 
magnetizer. — Andral. 

ANESTHETIC, Anaesthetic. 

ANESTHESIQUE, Anaesthetic. 

ANESTHETIZATION, Anaesthetization. 

ANESON, Anethum. 

ANESUM, Pimpinella anisum. 

ANET. Anethum. 

ANETH, Anethum graveolens. 

ANE'THUM, Ane'son, Ane'ton, Ane'thum Foe- 
nic'ulum seu Sege'tum seu Piperi'tum, Fcenic'ulum, 
F. Officinale, F. vulga're, F. Dulce, Ligus'ticum 
fmnic'ulum, Fan'culum, Fennel or Finckle, Mar'- 
athrum, Anet, Sweet Fennel, (F.) Fenouil ou 
Anis doux. Nat. Ord. Urabelliferae. Sex. Syst. 
Pentandria Digynia. The seeds Fcenic'ulum, 
(Ph. U. S.) have an aromatic odour, and warm, 
sweetish taste. They are carminative. The oil 

— Oleum Foenic'uli — is officinal in the Ph.U. S. 
The root is said to be pectoral and diuretic. 

Anethum Fceniculum, Anethum. 

Ane'thum Graveolens, Anethum, Pastina'ca 
Anethum seu Graveolens, Fer'ula Graveolens, A. 
horten'se, Bill, (F.) Aneth, Fenouil puant. A na- 
tive of the south of Europe. The seeds are sti- 
mulant and carminative. Dose, gr. xv to 7A. 

Oleum Ane'thi, Oil of Dill, (F.) Huile d' Aneth, 
possesses the carminative properties of the plant. 

Anethum PaStinaoa, Pastinaca Sativa — a. 
Piperitum, Anethum — a. Segetum, Anethum. 

ANETICUS, Anodyne. 

ANET ON, Anethum. 

ANETUS, Intermittent fever — a. Quartanus, 
Quartan — a. Quotidianus, Quotidian — a. Tertia- 
nus, Tertian fever. 

ANEURAL'GICON, from a, privative, vcvpov, 
'nerve ;' and aAyos, 'pain.' A name given by Dr. 
C. T. Downing to an instrument used by him to 
allay pain in nerves. It is a kind of fumigating 
apparatus, in which dried narcotic and other 
herbs are burnt, the heated vapour being directed 
to any part of the body. 

AN'EURISM, Aneurys'ma, Aneurys'mus, Aneu- 
ris'ma, Cedma, from avtvpwttv, 'to dilate or dis- 
tend.' Dilata'tio Arteria'rum, Ecta'sia, Embo- 
rys'ma, Exangi'a aneuris'ma, Arterieurys'ma, Ar- 
tereurys'ma, Htematoce'le arterio'sa, Absces'siw 
spirituo'suB, Arteriec 'tasis, (F.) Anevrysme, Aneu- 
risme. Properly, Aneurism signifies a tumour, 
produced by the dilatation of an artery ; but it has 
been extended to various lesions of arteries, as 
well as to dilatations of the heart. 

There are various kinds of aneurism. The fol- 
lowing are the chief. 

I. When the blood, which forms the tumour, is 
enclosed within the dilated coats of the artery. 
This is the true Aneurism, Aneurys'ma verum, 
Hernia Arteria'rum, (F.) Anevrysme vrai. 

II. When the blood has escaped from the 
opened artery, it is called spurious or false 
Aneurism, Aneuris'ma spu'rium, Ruptu'ra Arte'- 
ri(B, Arteriorrhex'is, Arteriodial'ysis, Ecchymo'- 
ma arterio'sum, (F.) Anerrysme faux. The latter 
is divided into three varieties. 

1. Diffused False Aneurism, (F.) Anevrysme 
faux, primitif diffus, noncirconscrit ou par infil- 
tration, which occurs immediately after the divi- 
sion or rupture of an artery, and consists of an 
extravasation of blood into the areolar texture 
of the part. 

2. Circumscribed False Aneurism, (F.) Anev- 
rysme, faux consecutif circonscrit on par epanche- 
ment, enkyste ou sacciforme, tumeur hemorrhagiale 
circonscrite, in which the blood issues from the 
vessel some time after the receipt of the wound, 
and forms itself a sac in the neighbouring areolar 

3. An'eurism by Anastomo'sis, or Var'icose An' 
eurism, PhlebarteriodiaV ysis, Aneurys'ma veno'- 
8o-arterio 'sum, A. varico' sum, (F.) Anevrysme par 
anastomose ou variqueux, A. par Erosion, A. de 
Pott, A. des plus petites arteres, which arises from 
the simultaneous wounding of an artery and 
vein; — the arterial blood passing into the vein, 
and producing a varicose state of it. 

III. Mixed Aneurism, (F.) Anevrysme mixte, 
is that which arises from the dilatation of one or 
two of the coats, with division or rupture of the 
other. Some authors have made two varieties 
of this. 

1. Mixed external Aneurism, where the internal 
and middle coats are ruptured, and the areolar 
is dilated. 

2. Mixed internal Aneurism, in which the in- 
ternal coat is dilated, and protrudes, like a hernial 
sac, through the ruptured middle and outer coat*. 
This variety has been called Aneurys'ma Her'- 
niam Arte'rice sistens. 

Aneurisms have been likewise termed tran- 
mat'ic and sponta'neous, according as they may 
have been caused by a wound, or have originated 
spontaneously. They have also been divided 
into internal and external. 

The internal aneurisms are situate in the great 
splanchnic cavities, and occur in the heart and 
great vessels of the chest, abdomen, &c. Their 
diagnosis is difficult, and they are often inacces- 
sible to surgical treatment. 

The external aneurisms are situate at the cite-- 



rior of the head, neck, and limbs, and are dis- 
tinctly pulsatory. 

Aneurisms, especially the internal, may be 
combated by a debilitant treatment, on the plan 
of Valsalva, which consists in repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support life. 
In external aneurism, the artery can be oblite- 
rated. This is usually done by applying a liga- 
ture above the aneurismal tumour. 

Aneurism, Dissecting, is one in which, owing 
to rupture of the inner and middle coats of an 
artery, the blood makes itself a channel between 
these coats and the outer coat. 

In many cases, the lesion appears to consist in 
a separation of the laminae of the middle coat, 
between which the blood forms itself a channel. 

Aneurisms of the Heart, Cardion'chi, Car- 
dieurys'ma, (P.) Anevrysmes du cceur, have been 
divided into active and passive. The former can 
scarcely be esteemed aneurisms, as they most 
commonly consist of increased thickness of the 
parietes of the heart, which diminishes its cavity 
instead of increasing it. The term Hypertrophy 
of the heart, better indicates their character. 
Passice aneurism, Oardiec'tasis, on the contrary, 
is attended with extenuation of the parietes of 
the organ, and enlargement of the cavities. The 
physical signs of dilatation of the heart are the 
following : — The action of the heart is not visible, 
and no impulse is conveyed to the hand. On 
percussion, there is a loss of resonance over a 
larger surface than usual, but the dulness is much 
less intense than that which accompanies hyper- 
trophy. On auscultation, the action of the heart 
is only slightly felt, and communicates at once 
the impression of its diminished power. The 
impulse is feebler than usual. Both sounds are 
widely transmitted over the thorax, and are not 
much fainter at a distance from their point of 

Partial or true aneurism of the heart — Cardi- 
ec'tasis partia'lis, Aneurys'ma consecuti' vum cor- 
dis, is sometimes seen, — rarely, however. 

The name Aneurism of the Valves of the heart 
has been given to pouch-like projections of the 
valves into the auricles. 

Aneurism by Anastomosis, see Aneurism — 
a. Brasdor's operation for, see Brasdor — a. Ex- 
ternal, see Aneurism — a. False, see Aneurism — 
a. False, circumscribed, see Aneurism — a. False, 
diffused, see Aneurism — a. Internal, see Aneurism 
— a. Mixed, see Aneurism — a. Mixed, external, see 
Aneurism — a. Mixed, internal, see Aneurism — a. 
Spontaneous, see Aneurism — a. Spurious, see 
Aneurism — a. Traumatic, see Aneurism — a. True, 
see Aneurism — a. Valsalva's method of treating, 
see Aneurism — a. Varicose, see Aneurism. 

ANEURISMA, Aneurism. 

ANEURIS'MAL, Aneurys'mal, Aneurismat'ic, 
Aiieurysmat'icus, Aneurisma'lis. That which be- 
longs to Aneurism. 

Aneurismal Sac or Cyst, (F.) Sac ou Kyste 
anevrysmal, is a sort of pouch, formed by the 
dilatation of the coats of an artery, in which the 
blood, forming the aneurismal tumour, is con- 

ANEUKISMATIC, Aneurismal. 

ANEURYSM, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMA, Aneurism— a. Cordis activum, 
Heart, hypertrophy of the — a. Herniam arterise 
sisiens, see Aneurism — a. Spurium, see Aneurism 
— a. Varicosum, see Aneurism — a. Venoso-arte- 
riosum, see Aneurism — a. Verum, see Aneurism. 

AN EUR YSME, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMUS, Aneurism, Dilatation. 

ANEVRYSME, Aneurism — a. de I'Aorte, 
Aorteurysma — a. Circonscrit, see Aneurism — a. 
dePolt, see Aneurism — a. des Plus petites arteres, 


see Aneurism — a. Diffus, see Anourism — a. En. 
kystg, see Aneurism — a. Faux, see Aneurism — 
a. Faux consecutif, see Aneurism — a. Mix*e, see 
Aneurism — a. par Anastomose, see Aneurism a. 
par Epanchement, see Aneurism— a. par Erosion, 
see Aneurism — a. par Infiltration, see Aneurism 
a. Primitif, see Aneurism — a. Sacciforme, seo 
Aneurism — a. Variuueux, see Aneurism — a. Vrai, 
see Aneurism. 

ANFION, Maslach. 

fractuosities, cerebral — a. Ethmoidales, see An- 

ANFRACTUOS'ITY, Anfrac'tns, Gyrus, from 
am, 'around,' and frangere, fractum, 'to break.' 
A groove or furrow. Used in anatomy to signify 
sinuous depressions or sulci, of greater or less 
depth, like those which separate the convolutions 
of the brain from each other. These 

Anfractuosities, Cerebral, Anfrac'tns C'er'- 
ebri, Gyri Cer'ebri, Intestin'ida Cer'ebri, (F.) 
Anfractuosites Cerebrales, are always narrow, and 
deeper at the upper surface of the brain than at 
its base ; and are lined by a prolongation of the 
pia mater. 

The Ethmoid Cells are, sometimes, called An- 
fractuosites ethmoidales. 

ANFRACTUS, Anfractuosity— a. Cerebri, An- 
fractuosities (cerebral.) 

ANGECTASIA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIAL, Vascular. 

ANGEIECTASIA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIECTASIS, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIECTOMA, Angiectasis. 

ANGEIOG'RAPHY, Angiography, Angeio- 
graph'ia, from ayycwv, 'a vessel/ and ypaipn, 'a 
description.' The anatomy of the vessels. 

raphy, Angeiondrog' raphy , Angeiohydrogra'phia, 
Hydrangiograph'ia, from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 'vlmp, 
' water,' and ypatpu, ' I describe.' A treatise on 
the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOHYDROT'OMY, Angiohydrot'omy, 
Angeiondrot'omy, Angeiohydrotom'ia, Hydran- 
giotom'ia, from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 'vSwp, 'water,' 
and rtjiuv, ' to cut.' Dissection of the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOLEUCI'TIS, Angiolcuci'tis, Lym. 
phangei'tis, Lymphangi'tis, Lymj^hangioi'tis, Hy- 
drangei'tis, Lymphi'tis, Lymphati'tis, Inflamma' - 
tio vaso'rum lymphatico'rum, from ayyuov, 'a 
vessel,' \lvkos, 'white,' and itis, inflammation, 
(F.) Inflammation des vaisseaux lymphatiques ou 
des tissus blancs. Inflammation of the lympha- 
tics : lymphatic or scrofulous inflammation. 

ANGEIOL'OGY, Angiol'ogy, Angeiolog"i(iy 
from ayyuov, ' a vessel,' and Xoyoj, ' a discourse.' 
A discourse on the vessels. The anatomy of the 
vessels. It includes Arteriol'ogy, Phlebol'ogy, 
and Angeiohydrol'ogy. 

ANGEIOMALA'CIA, Angiomala'cia ; from 
ayyuov, ' a vessel,' and paXaKia, 'softening.' Mol- 
lescence or softening of vessels. 

ANGEIOMYCES, Hamiatodes fungus. 

ANGEION, Vessel. 

ANGEIONDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 


ANGEIONDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGEIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIOPATHI'A, Angiopathi'a, Angeion'- 
osus, Angeionu'sus, Angio'sis, from ayyuov, 'a 
vessel,' and ttuBos, ' a disease.' Disease of the 



ANGETORRHAGIA, Hicmorrhagia activa. 

ANGEIORRIKE'A, (F.) Angeiorrhle ; from 




•yyuov, 'a vessel,' and otu>, 'I flow.' Passive 

ANGEIOSIS, Angiosis. 
ANGEIOSTEGNOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 

ANGEIOSTENOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 

ANGEIOSTEO'SIS, Angiosto'sis, from ayyuov, 
a vessel/ and ooreuxns, 'ossification.' Ossifica- 
tion of vessels. 

ANGEIOSTROPHE, see Torsion. 

ANGEIOTELECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 

ANGEIOT'OMY, Angiot'omy, Angeiotom'ia, 
from ayytiov, 'a vessel/ and rt/xvtiv, 'to cut.' 
Dissection of vessels. 

ANGEI'TIS, Angii'tis, Angioi'tis, Inflatnma'- 
lio vaso'rum, (F.) Angeite. Inflammation of ves- 
sels in general. 

ANGELIC ROOT, Angelica lucida. 

ANGEL'ICA, Angel'ica Archangel' ica seu 
Hispa'na seu Sati'va, Archangel' ica officinalis, 
Garden Angelica, (F.) Angelique, Racine de Saint 
Esprit. So called from its supposed angelic vir- 
tues. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferse. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Digynia. Native of Lapland. The roots, 
stalk, leaves, and seed, are aromatic and carmi- 
native. A sweetmeat is made of the root, which 
Is agreeable. 

Angelica Archangelica, Angelica. 

Angel'ica Atropurpu'rea, Angelica (Ph. 
U. S.) Masterwort. An indigenous species, grow- 
ing over the whole United States, and admitted 
into the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States. Virtues, same as those of 
the Angelica of Europe. 

Angelica Levisticum, Ligusticum levisticum. 

Angelica Lu'cida, Angelic root, Bellyache 
root, Nendo, White root, an indigenous plant, the 
root of which is bitterish, subacrid, fragrant, 
aromatic, stomachic, and tonic. 

Angelica Officinalis, Imperatoria — a. Palu- 
flapifolia, Ligusticum levisticum — a. Sativa, An- 
gelica, A. sylvestris. 

Angel'ica Sylves'tris, A. sati'va, Seli'num 
Sylves'tre seu Angel'ica seu Pubes'cens, Impera- 
to'ria Sylves'tres seu Angelica, Wild Angel'ica, 
(F.) Angelique sauvage. Possesses similar pro- 
perties to the last, but in an inferior degree. The 
seeds, powdered and put into the hair, are used 
to destroy lice. 

Angelica Sylvestris, Ligusticum podagraria 
— a. Tree, Aralia spinosa. 

ANGELI'N^E CORTEX. The bark of a 
Grenada tree, which has been recommended as 
anthelmintic and cathartic. 

ANGELIQUE, Angelica, — a. Sauvage, Angel- 
ica sylvestris. 

ANGELOCACOS, Myrobalanus. 

ANGEMPHRAXIS, Angiemphraxis. 

ANGIDIECTASIA, Trichangiectasia. 

ANGIDIOSPONGUS, Haematodes fungus. 


ANGIEC'TASIS, Angeiecta'sia, Angecta'sia, 
Angieurys'ma, Angeiecto'ma, from ayytiov, ' a 
vessel/ and txraan, ' dilatation.' Any dilatation 
of vessels. — Gr'afe and Alibert. Telangiectasia. 

ANGIEMPHRAX'IS, Angemphrax'is, Angei- 
osteno'sis, Angeiostegno' sis, from ayytiov, ' a ves- 
sel/ and eti<ppafa, ' obstruction.' Obstruction of 

ANGIEURYSMA, Angiectasis. 

ANGIITE, Inflammation, Angeitis. 

ANGIITIS, Angeitis. 

ANGI'NA, Febris Angino'sa, Isthmi'tis, Quin- 
sy or Sore Throat ; from angere, ' to suffocate.' 
Inflammation of the supra-diaphragmatic portion 
of the alimentary canal, and of the air passages. 
The Latin writers applied the term to every dis- 
ease in which deglutition or respiration, sepa- 
rately or united, was affected, provided that such 

affection was above the stomach and lungs.— 
Boerhaave speaks of the angina of the moribund, 
which is nothing more than the dysphagia or 
difficult deglutition preceding death. See Cy- 

Angina Aphthosa, Aphthae — a. Aquosa, Oede- 
ma of the glottis — a. Bronchialis, Bronchitis — a. 
Canina, Cynanche trachealis — a. Cordis, Angina 
pectoris — a. cum Tumore, Cynanche tonsillaris — • 
a. Epidemica, Cynanche maligna — a. Epiglot- 
tidea, Epiglottitis — a Erysipelatosa, Erythrancho 
a. Exudatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Externa, 
Cynanche parotidaea — a. Faucium, Isthmitis — a. 
Faucium Maligna, Cynanche maligna — a. Folli- 
culosa of the pharynx, Pharyngitis, follicular — a. 
Gangrenosa, Cynanche maligna — a. Humida, 
Cynanche trachealis — a. Inflammatoria, Cynan- 
che, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngea, Laryn- 
gitis — a. Laryngea (Edematosa, (Edema of the 
glottis — a. Linguaria, Glossitis — a. Maligna, An- 
gina pellicularis, Cynanche maligna, Pharyngitis, 
diphtheritic — a. Maxillaris, Cynanche parotidaea 
— a. Membranacea, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Mitis, Isthmitis. 

Angi'na Nasa'lis, Nasi'tis posti'ca. An in- 
flammation of the posterior portion of the Sehnei- 
derian membrane lining the nose. Also, Coryza, 

Angi'na (Edemato'sa, (F.) Angine ozdema- 
teuse, (Edeme de la Glotte. An ©edematous swell- 
ing of the glottis ; the effect of chronic cynanche 
laryngea. See (Edema of the Glottis. 

Angina Palatina, Hyperoitis — a. Paralytica, 
Pharyngoplegia^a. Parotidaea Externa, Cynan- 
che parotidaea. 

Angi'na Pec'toris, A. cordis, Sternal'gia, 
Asthma spas' tico-arthrit' icum incon'stans, Asthma 
diaphragmat'icum, Arthri'tis diaphragmatica, 
Orthopnea cardi'aca, Sternodyn'ia syncop'tica 
et pal' pitans, S. syncopa'lis, Cardiog'mus cordis 
sinis'tri, Astheni'a pectora'lis, Angor pec'toris, 
Stenocar' dia, Eiuphragmat'ic gout. Asthma con- 
vidsi'vum, Asthma arthrit'icum, Cardioneura/'gia, 
Nearul'gia brachiothorac"ica, Hypercesthe'sia 
plexus cardi'aci, A. dolorif'icum, Syn'cope angi- 
no'sa seu angens, Cardiod'yne spasmod' ica inter- 
mit'tens, Pnigopho'bia, Prunel'la, Suspir'ium 
cardi'acum, Pneumonal' gia, Suffocative Breast- 
pang, (F.) Angine de Poitrine, Nevrose du Cozur. 
A disease, the precise pathology of which is not 
known. The principal symptoms are, violent 
pain about the sternum, extending towards the 
arms ; anxiety, dyspnoea, and sense of suffoca- 
tion. It is an affection of great danger, and is 
often connected with ossification, or other morbid 
condition of the heart. It appears to be neuropa- 
thic, and has baen termed Neuralgia of the Heart. 
Some, however, employ this last term for an 
acutely painful intermittent affection of the heart, 
which seems to differ from angina pectoris more 
in regard to the small number of parts which are 
drawn into morbid consent with the affected car- 
diac nerves, than in regard either to its nature 
or appropriate treatment. The most powerful 
stimulating and narcotic antispasmodics are re- 
quired during the paroxysm. 

Angi'na Pellicula'ris, A. malig'na, Dipthe- 
ri'tis of the throat. A name given to those in- 
flammations about the throat, in which exuda- 
tions or false membrcnes are thrown out, during 
the phlogosis of the mucous membranes. Aphtha, 
Tracheitis, when accompanied with the membra- 
niform exudation, are, with some, examples of 
diphtheritic inflammation. 

Angina Perniciosa, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Pestilentialis, Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Poly- 
posa, Cynanche trachealis — a. Polyposa seu mem- 
branacea, Cynanche trachealis — a. Pseudo-mem* 
branosa, Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Pulfos^ 




Cynanohe trachealis — a. Sanguinea, Cynanche 

Angina Sicca, (F.) Angine seche, is a chronic 
inflammation of the pharynx, with a distressing 
sense of dryness and heat, in chronic diseases of 
the stomach and lungs. See Paedanchone. 

Angina Simplex, Isthmitis. 

ANGINA Squirro'sa, (F.) Angine squirreuse, 
consists in difliculty of deglutition, caused by 
scirrhous disorganization of the pharynx or oeso- 
phagus, or by enlarged tonsils. 

Angina Strangulatoria, Cynanche trache- 
alis — a. Strepitosa, Cynanche trachealis — a. Suf- 
focatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Synochalis, 
Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Thyreoidea, Thyreoids 
—a. Tonsillaris, Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Tra- 
chealis, Cynanche trachealis — a. Ulcerosa, Cy- 
nanche maligna — a. Uvularis, Staphylcedema, 
Uvulitis — a. Vera et Legitima, Cynanche ton- 

ANGINE GUTTURALE, Cynanche tonsil- 
laris — a. Laryngee, Laryngitis — a. Laryngee et 
tracheale, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngee cede- 
mateuse, (Edema of the glottis — a. (Esophagienne, 
Oesophagitis — a. Pharyngee, Cynanche parotidaea 
— a. de Poitrine, Angina pectoris — a. Seche, An- 
gioa sicca — a. Simple, Isthmitis — a. Squirreuse, 
Angina Squirrosa — a. Tonsillaire, Cynanche ton- 

ANGINEUX, Anginosa. 

ANGINO'SA, (F.) Angineux. That which is 
accompanied with angina; as Scarlati'na angi- 

ANGIOCARDI'TIS, from ayytiov, 'a vessel,' 
and carditis, 'inflammation of the heart.' In- 
flammation of the heart and great vessels. 

ANGIOGRAPHY, Angeiography. 

ANGIOHEMIE, Hyperaemia. 

ANGIOHYDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 


ANGIOHYDROTOM 1, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGIOITIS, Angeitis. 

ANGIOLEUCITIS, Angeioleucitis. 

ANGIOLOGY, Angeiology. 

ANGIOMALACIA, Angeiomalacia. 

ANGIOMYCES, Haamatodes fungus. 

ANGIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGIOPATHIA, Angeiopathia. 


ANGIOPYRA, Synocha. 

ANGIO'SIS, from ayyuov, 'a vessel.' Angeio'- 
lis, Angeiopathi'a. Under this term Alibert in- 
cludes every disease of the blood vessels. 

ANGIOSTEGNOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 

ANGIOSTENOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 

ANGIOSTOSIS, Angeiostosis/ 


ANGIOTELECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 

ANGIOTEN'IC, Angeioten'ic, Angioten' icus 
6eu Angeioten'icus, from ayyuov, ' a vessel,' and 
tuvuv, ' to extend.' An epithet given to inflam- 
matory fever, owing to its action seeming to be 
chiefly exerted on the vascular system. 

ANGIOTOMY, Angeiotomy. 

ANGLE, An'gulus, from ay/aAo?, 'a hook.' 
The space between two lines which meet in a 

Angle, Fa'cial, pointed out by Camper, is 
formed by the union of two lines, one of which 
is drawn from the most prominent part of the 
foreb^ad to the alveolar edge of the upper jaw, 
opposite the incisor teeth — the facial line — and 
the other irom the meatus auditorius externus to 
the same point of the jaw. According to the 
size of the angle it has been attempted to appre- 
ciate the respective proportions of the cranium 
and face, and, to a certain extent, the degree of 

intelligence of individuals and of animals. In 
the white varieties of the species, this angle is 
generally 80°; in the negro not more than 70°, 
and sometimes only 65°. As we descend the 
scale of animals, the angle becomes less and less; 
until, in fishes, it nearly or entirely disappears. 
Animals which have the snout long, and facial 
angle small, such as the snipe, crane, stork, &c, 
are proverbially foolish, at least they are so 
esteemed; whilst intelligence is ascribed to those 
in which the angle is more largely developed, as 
the elephant and the owl. In these last animals, 
however, the large facial angle is caused by the 
size of the frontal sinuses: — so that this mode of 
appreciating the size of the brain is very inexact, 
and cannot be depended upon. 

The following is a table of the angle in man 
and certain animals : 


Man from 68° to 88° and more. 

Sapajou 65 

Orang-Utang ^ . 56 to 58 

O: ic hi m 57 

Mandrill 30 to 42 

Coati 28 

Polecat 31 

Pug-dog 35 

Mastiff 41 

Hare 30 

Ram 30 

Horse 23 

Angle, Occipital, of Daubenton, is formed 
by a line drawn from the posterior margin of the 
foramen magnum to the inferior margin of the 
orbit, and another drawn from the top of the 
head to the space between the occipital condyles. 
In man, these condyles, as well as the foramen 
magnum, are so situate, that a line drawn per- 
pendicular to them would be a continuation of 
the spine ; but in animals they are placed more 
or less obliquely; and the perpendicular is neces- 
sarily thrown farther forward, and the angle ren- 
dered more acute. 

Angle, Optic, (F.) Angle optique, is the angle 
formed by two lines, which shave the extremities 
of an object, and meet at the centre of the pupil. 


ANGOLAM. A very tall Malabar tree, which 
possesses vermifuge properties. 

AN'GONE, Prcefoca'tio Fau'cium seu Uteri'na 
seu Matri'cis, Strangula'tio uteri'na, Snffoca'til 
uteri'na seu hysterica, Globus hystericus, Or- 
thopnea hyster'ic.a, Dyspha'gia gloho'sa, I), hys- 
terica, Nervous Quinsy. A feeling of strangu- 
lation, with dread of suffocation. It is common 
in hysterical females, and is accompanied with a 
sensation as if a ball arose from the abdomen to 
the throat. 

ANGOR, Anguish, (F.) Angoisse. Extreme 
anxiety, accompanied with painful constriction 
at the epigastrium, and often with palpitation 
and oppression. It is frequently an unfavour- 
able symptom. 

Angor, Agony, Orthopnoea — a. Faucium, Isth- 
mitis — a. Pectoris, Angina pectoris. 

ANGOS. Bubo, Uterus, Vessel. 

ANGOURION, Cucumis sativus. 

ANGUIS, Serpent. 

ANGUISH, Angor. 

Anguish, Febrile, Angor Febri'lis. The com- 
bination of weariness, pain, anxiety, and weak- 
ness affecting the head and neck, which is so ge- 
nerally observed at the commencement of fever. 


AN'GULAR, Angula'ris, from angufns, 'an 
angle,' (F.) Angulaire. That which relates to 
an angle. 

Angular Artery and Vein. A name given, 




1. to the termination of the facial artery and 
vein, because they pass by the greater angle of 
the eye; and, 2. to the facial artery and vein 
themselves, because they pass under the angle 
of the jaw. See Facial. 

Angular Nerve is a filament furnished by 
the inferior maxillary, which passes near the 
greater angle of the eye. 

Angular Processes of the frontal bone are 
seated near the angles of the eyes. See Orbitar. 

ANGULARIS, Levator scapulas. 

maj or. 


ANGURIA, Cucurbita citrullus. 

ANGUSTATIO, Arctatio— a. Cordis, Systole— 
a. Intestini recti vel ani, Stricture of the rectum. 

ANGUS'TIA, Angusta'tio, Stenocho'ria. Anx- 
iety, narrowness, strait, constriction. 

Angustia Abdominalis, Pelvis, (Brim) — a. 
Perinaealis, Pelvis, (Outlet.) 

ANGUSTURA, Cusparia febrifnga— a. False, 
Brucea antidysenterica, and Strychnos nux vo- 
mica — a. Spuria, Brucea antidysenterica, and 

ANGUSTURE, FAUSSE, Brucea antidysen- 
terica — a. Ferrugineuse, Brucea antidysenterica 
— a. Vraie, Cusparia febrifuga. 

ANH^EMATOSIA, Asphyxia, Anaemia. 

ANH.EMIA, Anaamia. 

ANHAPHIA, Anaphia. 

ANHELA'TIO, from anhelo, 'I pant.' An- 
hel'itus, Aas'mus, Panting, Anhelation, (F.) E$- 
eoufflement. Short and rapid breathing. See 

Anhelatio is sometimes employed synony- 
mously with asthma. 


ANHIS'TOUS, from a, av, privative, and 'taroc, 
'organic texture,' 'Anorganic' Amor'phus. The 
tunica decidua uteri is termed by Velpeau the 
anhistous membrane. 

ANHUIBA. Laurus sassafras. 

ANHYDRjJE'-MIA, AncBmyd'ria, from av, pri- 
vative, vSup, 'water,' and 'aiua, 'blood.' A con- 
dition of the blood in which there is a diminution 
in the quantity of the serum. 

ANlCE'TON, Anice'tum, Mesia'mum, from a, 
privative, and vucn, ' victory,' ' invincible.' A 
plaster much extolled by the ancients in cases 
of achores. It was formed of litharge, cerusse, 
thus, alum, turpentine, white pepper, and oil. 

ANI'DEUS, from av, privative, and uloc, 
'shape.' Amorphus. A monster devoid of shape. 
—J. G. St. Hilaire. 

ANIDRO'SIS, from a, privative, and 't&pwc, 
'sweat.' Sudo'ris nul'litas vel priva'tio. Ab- 
sence of sweat. Deficiency of perspiration. — 

ANILEMA, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

ANILESIS, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

ANILITAS, see Dementia. 

AN'IMA, An'imus, Mens, Psyche. The mind, 
breath, &c, from avisos, 'wind or breath.' (F.) 
Ante. The principle of the intellectual and moral 
manifestations. Also, the principle of life : — the 
life of plants being termed An'ima vegetati'va, 
(F.) Ame vegetative ; that of man, An'ima senai- 
ti'va, (F.) Ame sensitive. 

The Anima of Stahl, An'ima Stahlia'na, was a 
fancied intelligent principle, which he supposed 
to preside over the phenomena of life, — like the 
Archaeus of Van Helmont. 

Under the term Anima mundi, the ancient phi- 
losophers meant a universal Spirit, which they 
supposed spread over every part of the uni- 

The precise seat of the mind in the brain has 
given rise to many speculations. The point is 

With the ancient chemists, Anima meant the 
active principle of a drug separated by some 
chemical management. 

Anima Aloes : see Aloes, Succotorina — a. Ar- 
ticulorum, Hermodactylus — a. Hepatis, Ferri sul- 
phas — a. Pumionum, Crocus — a. Rhei, Infusum 
rhei — a. Stahliana, see Anima — a. Vegetativa, 
Plastic force. 

AN'IMAL, Zn'on. A name given to every ani- 
mated being. The greater part of animals have 
the power of locomotion ; some can merely exe- 
cute partial movements, such as contraction and 
dilatation. In other respects it is often a matter 
of difficulty to determine what is an animal 
characteristic. The study of animals is called 
ZooV ogy. 

An'imal, (adjective,) Anima'lis. That which 
concerns, or belongs to, an animal. 

Animal Heat, Color anima'lis, C. nati'vtis, 
Cal'idum anima'le, G. inna'tiim, Biolych'nion,_ 
Flam'mula vita'lis, Therma em'phytum, Thermum 
em'phytum, Ignis anima'lis seu natura'lis seu 
vita'lis, (F.) Chaleur animale, is the caloric con- 
stantly formed by the body of a living animal, 
by virtue of which it preserves nearly the same 
temperature, whatever may be that of the me- 
dium in which it is placed. This formation 
seems to take place over the whole of the body, 
and to be connected with the action of nutrition. 

The following are the natural temperatures of 
certain animals; that of man being 98° or 100°. 


' • | 105 

; J 104 


.... 80 to 84 

" I 102 


Arctic Fox 

Arctic Wolf 




Arctomys citillus, ziiil — in summer. 

Do. when torpid,.. 


Bat, in summer, 


Mannota bobac, — Bobac, • 101 or 102 

House mouse, 101 

Arctomys marmola, marmot, — in summer.. . 101 or 102 

Do. when torpid 43 

Rabbit ! 100 to 104 

Polar Bear 100 

Dog 1 


Swine J> 100 to 103 


Ox J 

Guinea-pit;, 100 to 102 

Arctomys glis 99 

Shrew, 98 

Young wolf, 96 

Fringilla arctica, Arctic finch / ... 

Rubecola, redbreast, \ 

Fringilla linaria, lesser red poll, 110 or 111 

Falco palumbariiis, goshawk, 

Caprimulgus Europa;us, European goat- 

Etnberiza nivalis, snow-bunting, 

Falco lanarius, tanner 

Fringilla carduelis, goldfinch, 

Corvus corax, raven, 

Turdus, thrush, (of Ceylon,) I 

Tetrao perdix, partridge, J 

Anas clypeata, shoneler, °) 

Tririga pugnax, ruffe, I 

Scolopax, limosa. lesser godwit | 

Tetrao tetrix, grouse I 

Fringilla brumalis, winterfinch, f 

Loxia pyrrhula, 

Falco nisus, yparrowhawk 

Vultur barbatus 

A riser piilchricollis, s 

Colymbus aiiiitus, dusky grebe ! 

Tringa vanellus, lapwing, wounded f 

Tetrao lagopus, ptarmigan, J 

Fringilla domestica, house sparrow 107 to U! 


109 to no 





Animals. Temperature. 

Firix [i.isserina, little owl, ■) 

Hsiuatopua ostralegus, sea-pie 

Anas penelope, widgeon ^ 106 

Anas strepera, gadvtall 

Peiecanua carbo, 

Falco ossifraniis, sea-eagle, 

Fulica atra. coot, J. 105 

Anas acuta, pintail-duck ) 

Falco inilviis, kite, (wounded,) ) .„, 

Merops api aster, bee-eater, j 





Anlea stellaris, 

Falco albicollis, J. 103 

Picus major, $ 

Cossus ligiiiperda, 89 to 91 

Shark, 83 

Torpedo marmorata, 74 


Animal Kingdom, (F.) Regne Animal, com- 
prises all animated beings. 

Animal Layer, see Tache embryonnai re. 
Animal Magnetism, see Magnetism, animal. 
—a. Spermatica, Spermatozoa. 

ANIMAL'CULE, Animal' cidum ; diminutive 
of animal. A small animal. An animal well 
Been only by means of the microscope. 

a. Spermatic, Spermatozoa. 

ANIMAL'CULIST, An'imalist. One who at- 
tempts to explain different physiological or pa- 
thological phenomena by means of animalcules. 
ANIMALCULUM, Animalcule. 
ANIMALIST, Animalculist. 
ANIMAL'ITY, Animal'itns. Qualities which 
distinguish that which is animated. That which 
constitutes the animal. 

ANIMALIZA'TION, Animalisa'tio. The 
transformation of the nutritive parts of food into 
the living substance of the body to be nourished. 
To AN'IMATE, Anima're. To unite the living 
principle with an organized body. The French 
use it in the sense of, — to excite or render active; 
as, animer un vSsicatoire : to excite a blister to 
ANIMATIO F03TUS, see Quickening. 
ANIM A'TION, Zoo' sis, Anima'tio, from anima, 
'the soul or mind.' The act of animating. The 
Etate of being enlivened. 

Animation, Suspended, Asphyxia. 
AN'IME, Gum an'ime, Amina'a, Can'camy, 
Gummi an'ime, Can'camum. A resin obtained 
from the trunk of Hymen'aa cour'baril. It has 
been given as a cephalic and uterine. It is not 
used. Thejplant is also called Cour'baril. 

ANIME, (F.) An epithet applied to the 
countenance, when florid, in health or disease 
ANIMELLvE, Parotid. 

Lquium, Syncope— a. Pathemata, Passions. 

AN'IMIST, from anima, 'the soul.' One who, 
following the example of Stahl, refers all the 
phenomena of the animal economy to the soul 

The soul, according to Stahl, is the immediate 
and intelligent agent of every movement, and of 
every material change in the body. Stahl there- 
fore concluded, that disease is nothing more 
than a disturbance or disorder in the government 
of the economy, or an effort by which the soul 
attentive to every morbific cause, endeavours to 
expel whatever may be deranging the habitual 
order of health. See Stahlianism. 
ANIMUS, Anima, Breath. 
ANIS, Pimpinella anisum— a. Aigre. Cuminum 
Cyminum-a. de la Chine, Illicium anisatum -a 

'T^A^Tf - /- Et °\ U ' IUicium anisatum. 
AHIbA TUM, from Anisum, 'Anise.' A sort 

of medicated wine, formerly prepared with honey, 
wine of Ascalon, and aniseed. 

ANISCALPTOR, Latissiinus dorsi. 
ANLSCHURIA, Enuresis. 
ANISE, Pimpinella anisum — a. Star, Illicium 
anisatum, I. Floridanum — a. Tree, Florida, Illi- 
cium Floridanum — a. Tree, yellow-flowered, Illi- 
cium anisatum. 

ANISEED, see Pimpinella anisum. 
ANISI SEMINA, see Pimpinella anisum. 
ANISO'DUS LU'RLDUS, Nican'dra anom'. 
ala, Phy'salis stramo'nium, Whit/e'ya stramo'ni- 
folia A plant of Nepal, possessed of narcotio 
properties, and resembling belladonna and to- 
bacco. It dilates the pupil, and is used in dis- 
eases of the eye like belladonna. It is given in 
alcoholic tincture (dried leaves ^j. to alcohol 
f 3 viij). Dose, 20 drops internally in the 24 hours. 
phorbia Ipecacuanha. ' 

ANISOS'THENES, JncBqua'li rob'ore pollens. 
That which is unequal in strength : from a, priv., 
lo-oj, 'equal,' and aScvoc, 'strength.' An epithet 
applied particularly to the muscular contractility 
which, in the sick, is sometimes augmented in 
certain muscles only, — in the flexors, for example. 
ANISOT'ACHYS, from a, priv., htos, 'equal,' 
and Ta%vs, 'quick.' An epithet for the pulse, 
when quick and unequal — Gomeus. 

ANISUM, Pimpinella anisum — a. Africanum 
frutescens, Bubon Galbanum — a. Fruticosum gal- 
banifcrum, Bubon galbanum — a. Oflicinale, Pim- 
pinella anisum — a. Sinense, Illicium anisatum — 
a. Stellatum, Illicium anisatum — a. Vulgare, 
Pimpinella anisum. 
ANKLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 
ANKUS, Ancus. 

A N K Y LOBLEPH'ARON, Ancylobleph' aron, 
Palpebrarum coal'itus, from ayxvXn, 'contrac- 
tion,' and pXefapov, 'eyelid.' A preternatural 
union between the free edges of the eyelids. 
Likewise called Symbleph'aron, Symblepharo'sis, 
and Pros'physis. 

Also, union between the eyelids and globe of 
the eye. — Aetius. 

ANKYLODON'TIA, from ay K v\oc, 'crooked,' 
and oSovs, 'a tooth.' An irregular position of the 
teeth in the jaws. 

ANKYLOGLOS'SIA, Ancyloglos'sia, Concre'- 
tio lingua, from ayicvXos, ' crooked,' or ' con- 
tracted,' and y\o)caa, 'the tongue.' Impeded mo- 
tion of the tongue in consequence of adhesion 
between its margins and the gums; or in conse- 
quence of the shortness of the freenum : the latter 
affection constituting Tongue-tie, Olopho'nia /in'- 
gucs frana'ta. It merely requires the frasnum to 
be divided with a pair of scissors. 

ANKYLOGLOSSOT'OMUM, from ankyloglos. 
sict, ' tongue-tie,' and ropr,, 'incision.' An' instru- 
ment used in the operation for tongue-tie. 

ANKYLOME'LE, Ancylome'le, from ayn Uc, 
crooked,' and ^Ai,, ' a probe.' A curved probe. 
— Galen. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS, Ancylomeris'mus, 
from aynvXn, ' a contraction, and utpoc, 'a part.' 
Morbid adhesion between parts. 
ANKYLOPS, vEgilops. 

ANKYLOSIS, Anc.ylo'sis, Anehylo'sis, An'. 
cyle, Stiff Joint, from ayxvXoc, -crooked.' An 
affection, in which there is great difficulty or 
even impossibility of moving a diarthrodial arti- 
culation. It is so called, because the limb com- 
monly remains in a constant state of flexion. 
Anchylosis is said to be complete or true, when 
there is an intimate adhesion between the syno- 
vial surfaces, with union of the articular extremi- 
ties of the bones. In the incomplete or false an- 
chylosis, there is obscure motion, but the fibrous 




parts around tho joint are more or less stiff and 
thickened. In the treatment of this last state, 
the joint must be gently and gradually exercised; 
and oily, relaxing applications be assiduously em- 

Ankylosis Spuria, Rigiditas articulorum. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS,Ai!cyfot'oi»,M > fromoy. f «Aoj, 
crooked,' and tzuvuv, 'to cut.' Any kind of 
curved knife.— Paulus. An instrument for di- 
viding the frfenum linguae. — Scultetus. 

ANNEAU, Ring— a. Crural, Crural canal— a. 
Dtaphragmatique, Diaphragmatic ring— o. Femo- 
ral, Crural canal — a. Inguinal, Inguinal ring — a. 
Ombilical, Umbilical ring. 

ANNEXE, Accessory, Appendix. 

ANNI CRITICI, Climacterici (anni)— a. De- 
cretorii, Climacterici (anni)— a. Fatales, Climac- 
terici (anni) — a. Genethliaci, Climacterici (anni) 
a. Gradarii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Hebdomadici, 
Climacterici (anni) — a, Heroici, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Natalitii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Sca- 
lares, Climacterici (anni)— a. Scansiles, Climacte- 
rici (anni). 

ANNOTA'TIO, Episma'sia. Under this term 
some have included the preludes to an attack of 
intermittent fever — as yawning, stretching, som- 
nolency, chilliness, &c. 

ANNOTTO, see Terra Orleana. 

AN'NUAL DISEASES, Morbi an'nui, M. an- 
niversa'rii, (F.) Maladies annuelles. A name 
given, by some, to diseases which recur every 
year about the same period. Febrie annua, (F.) 
Fiivre annuclle, is a term used for a fancied in- 
termittent of this type. 

ANNUENS, Rectus capitis internus minor. 

ANNUIT"IO, Nodding, from ad, 'to/ and 
nutus, ' a nod.' A gesture denoting assent in 
most countries. Also, the state of somnolency, 
when the individual is in the erect or sitting 
posture, with the head unsupported, in which 
the power of volition over the extensor muscles 
of the head is lost, and the head drops forward. 

AN'NULAR, Annula'ris, Cricoi'des, (annus, 
'a circle.') Any thing relating to a ring, or 
which has the shape or fulfils the functions of a 
ring; from annulus, 'a ring,' itself. 

Annular Finger, Ring Finger, Dig"itus an- 
nula'ris, Param'esos. The fourth finger, so called 
from the wedding ring being worn thereon. 

Annular Ganglion, see Ciliary ligament. 

Annular Lig'ament, Transverse ligament, 
Oru'cial ligament. A strong ligamentous band, 
which arches across the area of the ring of the 
atlas, from a rough tubercle upon the inner sur- 
face of one articular process, to a similar tubercle 
on the other. It serves to retain the odontoid 
process of the axis in connexion with the ante- 
rior arch of the atlas. 

An'nular Lig'ament or the Ra'dius, is a very 
strong fibro-cartilaginons band, which forms, with 
the lesser sigmoid cavity of the cubitus, a kind 
of ring, in which the head of the radius turns 
with facility. 

An'nular Lig'aments of the Carpus, Ar- 
mil'la manus membrano'sas, are two in number. 

The one, anterior, is a broad, fibrous, quadri- 
lateral band, extending transversely before the 
carpus, and forming the gutter, made by the 
wrist, into a canal. It is attached, externally, 
to the trapezium and scapho'ides; and internally 
to the os pisiforme and process of the unciforme. 
It keeps the tendons of the flexor muscles, me- 
dian nerve, &c, applied against the carpus. 

The posterior ligament is situate transversely 
behind the joint of the hand, and covers the 
sheaths of the tendons, which pass to the back 
of the hand. Its fibres are white and shining, 
ftjid arc attached, externally, to the inferior and 

outer part of the radius ; internally to the ulna 
and os pisiforme. 

An'nular Lig'aments of the Tarsus are two 
in number. The anterior is quadrilateral, and 
extends transversely above the instep. It is at- 
tached to the superior depression of the os calcis, 
and to the malleolus internus. It embraces the 
tendons of the extensor muscles of the toes, the 
tibialis anticus, and peroneus anticus. The inter- 
nal is broader than the last. It descends from 
the malleolus internus to the posterior and inner 
part of the os calcis, with which it forms a kind 
of canal, enclosing the sheaths of the tendons of 
the tibialis posticuso flexor longus digitorum pedis, 
and F. longus pollicis pedis, as well as the plantar 
vessels and nerves. 

Annular Vein, Vena annula'ris, is situate 
between the annular finger and the little finger. 
Aetius recommends it to be opened in diseases of 
the spleen. 

ANNULARIS, Cricoid: see Digitus — a. Ani, 
Sphincter ani. 

Cartilaginosi Tracheae, see Trachea. 

Lumbricales manus. 

ANNULUS, Dactylius, Vulva— a. Abdominis, 
Inguinal ring — a. Albidus, see Ciliary (body) — 
a. Cellulosus, Ciliary ligament — a. Ciliaris, Cili- 
ary ligament — a. Fossae ovalis : see Oralis fossa 
— a. Gangliformis, see Ciliary (body) — a. Repens, 
Herpes circinatus — a. Umbilicalis, Umbilical ring 
—a. Ventriculi, Pylorus — a. Vieussenii, see Ova- 
lis fossa. 

ANO, avu>. A prefix denoting ' above, up.' 

ANOCHI'LUS, from avu>, ' above,' and %aAos, 
'lip.' The upper lip. Also, one who has a large 
upper lip. 

ANOCCELIA, Stomach. 

ANO'DIA, from av, priv., and ubn, 'song.' 
An unconnected or dissonant mode of speech. 

ANOD'IC, Anod'icus, from avoi, 'above, up,' 
and 'oioi, ' a way.' Tending upwards. An epi- 
thet applied by Dr. Marshall Hall to an ascend- 
ing course of nervous action. 

AN ODIN, Anodyne. 

ANODIN'IA, from a, av, privative, and todn, 
' a labour pain.' Absence of labour pains. 

ANODMIA, Anosmia. 

ANODUS, Edentulus. 

AN'ODYNE, Anod'ynus, Antod'ynus, Antid'- 
ynous (improperly,) Parcgor'icus, Anet'icus, Ant. 
al'gicus, Acesod'ynes, (F.) Anodin ou Anodyn, 
from a, av, privative, and oSwr/, 'pain.' Anodynes 
are those medicines which relieve pain, or cause 
it to cease; as opium, belladonna, Ac. They act 
by blunting the sensibility of the encephalon, so 
that it does not appreciate the morbid sensation. 

ANODYN'IA, Indolen'tia. Cessation or ab- 
sence of pain. Vogel has given this name to :v 
genus of diseases, characterized by a cessation 
of pain, and the exasperation of other symptoms; 
as we see in gangrene. 

ANODYNUM MINERALE, Potassa? nitras 
sulphatis paucillo mixtus. 

ANCE'A, Anoia, from a, privative, and voo<^ 
'mind.' Delirium, imbecility. See Dementia and 

ANOESIA, Dementia. 

Anopsia Adstricta, Melancholy. 

ANOIA, Ancea. 

ANOMAL, Anomalous. 

ANOMALES, Anomalous. 

ANOMA'LIA, from av, privative, and o;<a>9c, 
'regular.' Abnor'mitas, Alicna'tio. Anomaly, 
abnormity, irregularity. In Pathologv, anomaly 
means something unusual in the symptoms pro- 
per to a disease, or in the morbid appoaiaucei 
presented by it. 




Avohalia Nervorum, Nervmis diathesis. 

ANOMALOTROPH1ES, from av, privative, 
oftaXus, 'regular/ and rpo<j>jj, 'nourishment.' A 
class i which consist in modifications 

in the nutrition of organs. — Gendrin. 

ANOM'ALOUS, Anom'alus, Anom'ales ; the 
same etymon. Irregular ; contrary to rule. (F.) 
Anomal. In Medicine, a disease is called ano- 
malous, in whose symptoms or progress there is 
something unusual. Affections are also called 
anomalous, which cannot be referred to any 
known species. 

ANOMALOUS, Irregular. 

ANOMMATUS, Anophthalmus. 

ANOMOCEPH'ALUS, from a, priv., vopos, 
'rule,' and KtcpaXrt, 'head.' One whose head is 
deformed. — Geoffroi Saint-Hilaire. 

ANOM'PHALUS, from av, priv., and ofiipaXos, 
'the navel.' One devoid of navel. Many writers 
have endeavoured to show that Adam and Eve 
must have been avopupaXoi, as they could not have 
had umbilical vessels. 

ANO'NA TRIPET'ALA. A tree of the family 
Anoneas or Anonaceae ; Sex. Syst. Polyandria 
polygynia, from fifteen to twenty feet high, na- 
tive of South America, which bears a delicious 
fruit called Oftirimoya. Both the fruit and flowers 
emit a fine fragrance, which, when the tree is 
covered with blossom, is almost overpowering — 

ANONIS, Ononis. 

ANONYME, Innominatum. 

ANON'YMOUS, Anon'ymus, Innomina'tns, (F.) 
Anonyme, from av, privative, and ovopa, ' name.' 
That which has no name. 

The word has been applied to many parts of 
the body : — to the Anonymous bone or Os inno- 
minatum: — the Anonymous foramen or Foramen 
innominatum, &c. 


ANOPHTHAL'MUS, Anom'matiu, from av, 
privative, and oi/iflaA/joj, 'an eye.' A monster 
devoid of eyes. 

ANOPS'IA, from av, priv., and w\l/, ' the eye.' 
A case of monstrosity in which the eye and orbit 
axe wanting. 


ANOR'CHIDES, from av, priv., and op^is, 'a 
testicle.' They who are without testicles. — For- 
tunatus Fidelis. 

ANOREX'IA, from av, priv., and ope^t;, 'ap- 
petite. Inappeten'tia, Lima' sis expers, (F.) Perte 
d'appetit. Absenco of appetite, without loathing. 
Anorexia or want of appetite is symptomatic of 
most diseases. Also, Indigestion, Dyspepsia. 

Anorexia Exhausto'rum, Frigidity of the 
Stomach — a. Mirabilis, Fasting. 

ANORGANIC, see Anhistous, and Inorganic. 

ANORMAL, Abnormous. 

ANOS'IA, from a, priv., and vooos, 'disease.' 
Health. Freedom from disease. 

ANOS'MIA, from a, privative, and oaun, 
odour.' Loss of smell. Diminution of the sense 
of smell. Called, also, Anosphre'sia, Anospkra'- 
eia, Anophre'sia, Paros'mia, Anod'mia, Anosmo'- 
lia, Olfactiis amis' sio, 0. defic'Hens, Dysasthe'sia 
olfacto'ria, Anwsthe'sia olfacto'ria, Odora'tus de- 
per'dkus, (F.) Perte de I'Odorat. 

ANOSMOSIA, Anosmia. 



ANSE (F.,) Ansa (L.,) sigmnes, properly, the 
nandle of certain vessels, usually of an arched 
form. By analogy, it has been applied to that 
Which is curved in the form of such handle. 
Thus, the French speak of Anse intestinale to 
ilgnify a portion of intestine, supported by its 

mesentery, and describing a curved line: — alio, 
of Anse nerveuse, Anse anastomotique, Ac. 

Anse de fil is used, in Surgery, to designate a 
thread, curved in the form of an Anse. 

ANSERINA, Potentilla anserina. 

ANSERINE, Chenopodium ambrosioides — a. 
Anthelmintique, Chenopodium anthelniinticum — 
a. Bon Henri, Chenopodium Bonus Ilenricus — a. 
Botrys, Chenopodium Botrys — a. Fitide, Cheno- 
podium vulvaria — a. Vermifuge, Chenopodium 

ANTACIDS, Anti-acids, Antiac"ida, Inver- 
ten'tia, from anti, 'against,' and acid a, 'acids.' 
Remedies which obviate acidity in the stomach. 
They are chemical agents, and act by neutralizing 
the acid. Those chiefly used are ammonia, calcis 
carbonas, calx, magnesia, magnesia; carbonas, 
potassa, potassse bicarbonas, p. carbonas, sudaa 
bicarbonas, and s. carbonas. They are, of course, 
only palliatives, removing that which exists, not 
preventing the formation of more. 

ANTAG'ONISM, Antagonis'mus, Antis'tasis, 
from avrt, ' against,' and aywvifytv, ' to act.' Ac- 
tion in an opposite direction. It applies to the 
action of muscles that act in a contrary direc- 
tion to others. In estimating the force of the 
muscles, this antagonism must be attended to. 

ANTAG'ONIST, Antagonis'ta. A muscle 
whose action produces an effect contrary to that 
of another muscle. Every muscle has its anta- 
gonist, because there is no motion in one direc- 
tion without a capability of it in another. 


ANTAPHRODIS'IAC, Antaphrodit'ic, Anta- 
phrodisiacus, Anaphrodisiacus, Anaphrodisiac, 
Anterot'icus, from avrt, 'against,' and atypoSioiaKos, 
' aphrodisiac' A substance capable of blunting , 
the venereal appetite. 

ANTAPHRODITIC, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTAPOD'OSIS, from avrano&t&uut, 'I return 
in exchange.' The succession and return of the 
febrile periods. — Hippocrates. 

ANTAPOPLECTICUS, Antiapoplectic. 

ANTARTHRITIC, Antiarthritic. 


ANTASTHMATICUS, Antiasthmatic. 

ANTATROPH'IC, Antatroph'icus, Antat'ro- 
plius, Antiatroph'icus, from avn, 'against,' and 
aTpo0<a, ' atrophy.' A remedy opposed to atro- 
phy or consumption. 

ANTEBRACHIAL, see Antibrachial. 

ANTECENDEN'TIA. The precursory or 
warning symptoms of a disease. 

ANTELA'BIA, Prochei'la, from ante, 'before,' 
and labia, ' the lips.' The extremity of the lips. 

ANTELOPE, Antilopus. 


ANTEM'BASIS, from a^n, and V /Wui, 'I 
enter.' Mu'tuus ingres'sus. The mutual recep- 
tion of bones. — Galen. 

ANTEMETIC, Antiemetic. 

ANTENDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTENDIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTENEAS'MUS, from avrt, 'against,' and 
vcav, 'audacious.' One furious against himself. 
Mania, in which the patient attempts his own 
life. — Zacchias. 

oi'cum, Hispid'ula, Pes cati, Elichry'sum monta'- 
num, Dice'eious Everlast'ing, Vatsfoot, (F.) Pied 
4c chat. A common European plant, which has 
been advised in hemorrhage, diarrhoea, <fec. 

ANTEPHIALTIC, Antiephialtic. 

ANTEPILEPTIC, Antiepileptic. 

ANTEPONENS, Anticipating. 

ANTEREI'SIS, from avn, 'against,' and tpw 
$w, ' I support.' The resistance— the solidity— 
of bones. — Hippocrates. 


tympani — a. de I' Oreille, Anterior auris. 

^ANTE'RIOR, Anti'cus, from ante, 'before.' 
Situate before. Great confusion has prevailed 
with anatomists in the use of the terms before, 
behind, &c. Generally, the word anterior is ap- 
plied to parts situate before the median line, the 
body being in the erect posture, with the face 
and palms of the hands turned forwards; and 
the feet applied longitudinally together. 

Ante'rior Au'ris ( Muscle,) Auricula' 'ris ante'- 
rior, At'trahens auric' ulam (F.) Auriculaire ante- 
rieur, Anterieur de I'oreille, Zygomato-oriculaire. 
A small muscle, passing .from the posterior part 
of the zygoma to the helix. Use, to draw the ear 
forwards and upwards. 

Anterior Mallei, Laxator tympani. 

ANTEROTICUS, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTEUPHORBIUM, Cacalia anteuphorbium. 

ANTEVER'SION, Antever'sio, Antrover'sio, 
from ante, 'before,' and vertere, versum, 'to turn.' 
Displacement of the uterus, in which the fundus 
is turned towards the pubes, whilst its orifice is 
towards the sacrum. It may be caused by extra- 
ordinary size of the pelvis, pressure of the viscera 
on the uterus, &c. ; and is recognised by exami- 
nation per vaginam. See Retroversio uteri. 

ANTHEM OPTYICUS, Antihcemoptyicus, 
from avrt, ' against,' and hemoptysis, ' spitting 
of blood.' Against spitting of blood. A remedy 
for spitting of blood — antihcemopty'icum (reme- 

ANTH.EMORRHAGICUS, Antihemorrhagic. 

ANTHECTICUS, Antihectic. 

ANTHELIT'RAGUS, (¥.) Anthelitragien. 
One of the proper muscles of the pavilion of 
the ear. 

ANT'HELIX, Anti-helix, from avn, ' before,' 
and 'tX<£, ' the helix.' An eminence on the car- 
tilage of the ear, in front of the helix, and ex- 
tending from the concha to the groove of the 
helix, where it bifurcates. 

ANTHELMI N'T I C, Antihelmin'ticus, Anti- 
scol'icus, Anthelmin'thicus, Antiscolet' icus, Hel- 
■min'thicus, Helminthago'gus, Antivermino'sus, 
Vermif ugus, Ver'mifuge, from avrt, 'against,' 
and 'tkyiivs, 'a worm.' A remedy which de- 
stroys or expels worms, or prevents their for- 
mation and development. The chief anthel- 
mintics are, Chenopodium, Mucu'na, Oleum ani- 
mate Dippelii, Oleum Terebinthinae, Sodii Chlo- 
ridum. Spigelia, and Pulvis Stanni. See Worms. 


AN'THEMIS COT'ULA,fromav0£o>, 'Iflower.' 
A.fcet'ida, Cot'ula, 0. fie'tida, Oota, Cynan'the- 
mis, Chariueme'lum fce'tidum, An'themis Nove- 
boracen'sis, Chamomil'laspu'ria seu / as' tida, May- 
flower, Mayweed, Stinking Chamomile, Wild 
" Cham'omile, Dog's fennel, Dilly, Dilweed, Field- 
weed, Pissweed. Nat. Ord. Composite Corym- 
biferae. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Superflua. (F.) 
Maroute, Oamomille fetide, Camomille puante. 

This plant has a very disagreeable smell : and 
the leaves have a strong, acrid, bitterish taste. 
It is reputed to have been useful in hysterical 

Anthemis Fcetida, A. cotula. 

An'themis No'bilis, A. odora'ta,'- 
lum, Chamemce'lum No'bile, Ohamomil'la Boma'- 
na, Euan'thcmon, An'themis, Chamceme'lum odo- 
ra'tum, Lencan'themum, Matrica'ria, (F.) Oamo- 
mille Bomaine. The leaves and flowers — Anthe- 
mis, Ph. U. S. — have a strong smell, and bitter, 
nauseous taste. The flowers are chiefly used. 
They possess tonic and stomachic properties, ami 
are much given as a pleasant and cheap bitter. 
A simple infusion is taken to produce, or to assist 


vomiting. Externally, they are often used in 

The O'leum Anthem'idis possesses the aromatio 
properties of the plant, but not the bitter aid 
tonic. Consequently, the 'Chamomile Drops,' as 
sold by the druggists, must be devoid of the lat- 
ter qualities. They are made by adding OL 
anthem, f ^j. to Sp. vini rectif. Oj. 

Anthemis Noveboracensis, A. Cotula. 
Anthemis Odorata, A. cotula. 
An'themis Py'rethrum, Py'rethrum, Anacyc'- 
lus pyrethrum, Pyrethrum verwn, Buphthal'mum 
Cre'ticum, Denta'ria, Herba saliva'ris, Pes Alex- 
andri'nus, Spanish Chamomile, Pellitory of Spain. 
(F.) Pyrethre, Bacine salivaire, Pied d' Alexan- 
dre. The root is hot and acrid, its acrimony re- 
siding in a resinous principle. It is never used 
except as a masticatory in toothache, rheumatism 
of the face, paralysis of the tongue, <tc. It acts 
as a powerful sialogogue. 

The Pellitory of the shops in Germany is said 
to be derived from Anacyc'lus offieina'rum. ; a 
plant cultivated in Thuringia for medicinal pur- 

An'themis Tincto'ria, Buphthal'mi Herba, 
Dyer's Chamomile, a European plant, has a bitter 
and astringent taste, and has been regarded sto- 
machic and vulnerary. (F.) Camomille des Tein- 
turiers, (Eil de Baiuf. 

Anthemis Vulgaris, Matricaria Chamomilla, 

ANTHE'RA, from av6>>pos, 'florid,' so called 
from its florid colour. A remedy compounded of 
several substances, myrrh, sandarac, alum, saf- 
fron, <fcc. It was used under the form of lini- 
ment, collyrium, electuary, and powder. — Celsus, 


ANTHORA, Aconitum anthora — a. Vulgaris, 
Aconitum anthora. 

ANTHORIS'MA, from avn, 'against,' and 
opta/ta, ' boundary.' Tumor diffu'sus. A tumor 
without any defined margin. 

ANTHOS : see Rosmarinus — a. Sylvestris, 
Ledum sylvestre. 

ANTHRA'CIA, from av§pa£, 'coal.' Carbun'- 
cular Exan'them. An eruption of tumours, im- 
perfectly suppurating, with indurated edges, and, 
for the most part, a sordid and sanious core. A 
genus in the order Exanthematica, class Ha- 
matica of Good, and including Plague and Yaws. 

Anthracia, Anthracosis — a. Pestis, Plague— 
a. Rubula, Frambcesia. 

ANTHRACION, see Anthrax. 

AN'THRACOID, Anthvaco'des, from avSpaf, 
'coal,' and ctSos, 'resemblance.' (F.) Charbon- 
neux. As black as coal. Accompanied by or 
resembling anthrax. 

ANTHRACOMA, Anthrax.- 




ANTHRACO'SIS, Anthra'cia, Carbo Palpe. 
bra'rum, from av^paf, ' a coal.' A species of car- 
buncle, which attacks the eyelids and globe of 
the eye. — Pa.ulus of iBgina. Also, a carbuncle 
of any kind. It has been used for the "black lung 
of coal miners," which is induced by carbona- 
ceous accumulation in the lungs. Pseudo-mel<>- 
not'ic formation, (Carswell). When ulceration 
results from this cause, black phthisis, (F.) Phthi- 
sie avec Melanose, exists. See Melanosis. 

Anthracosis Pulmonum, see Melanosis. 


ANTHRAKOK'ALI, Lithanthrakok'ali, from 
avBpa.%, ' coal,' and kali, 'potassa.' An article in- 
troduced as a remedy in cutaneous diseases. It 
is formed by dissolving carbonate of potasea in 
10 or 12 parts of boiling wa'«r and adding at 


much slacked lime as will separate the potassa. 
The filtered liquor is placed on the fire in an iron 
vessel, and suffered to evaporate, until neither 
froth nor effervescence occurs, and the liquid pre- 
sents a smooth surface like oil. To this, levigated 
coal is added in the proportion of 160 grammes 
to 192 grammes of potassa. The mixture is 
stirrel. and removed from the fire, and the stir- 
ring is continued, until a black homogeneous 
powder results. A sulphuretted antkrakokali is 
made by mixing accurately 16 grammes of sul- 
phur with the coal, and dissolving the mixture in 
the potassa as directed above. The dose of the 
simple and sulphuretted preparations is about 
two grains three times a day. 

ANTHRAX, av0pa£, 'a coal,' Antra.r, Carlo, 
Rubi'nw verus, OodeseVla, Erythe'ma gangrano'- 
8IIIU, Grantris'tum, Prima, Per'sicus Ignis, Pyra, 
txranatris' turn, Phyma Anthrax, Erythema an- 
thrax, Carburi' cuius, Anthraco'sia, Anthraco'ma, 
Ahsces'sns gangrcencs'cens, A.' sus, Fu- 
run' cuius malig'nus, F. gangrano'sus, Carbuncle, 
(F.) Charbon. An inflammation, essentially gan- 
grenous, of the cellular membrane and skin, 
which may arise from an internal or external 
cause. In the latter ease it is called Authra'cion, 
Vesic'ula gangrmnes'cens, Anthracophlyc'tis, Pus- 
tule maligne; Bouton d'Alep, Feu Persique, (Per- 
sian fire), Malvat, Bouton malin, Pure maligne, waA 
is characterized at the outset by a vesication or 
b'el) filled with a sero-sanguinolent fluid, under 
which a small induration is formed, surrounded 
by an areolar inflammation, which becomes gan- 
grenous. It has been thought by some to be in- 
duced altogether by contact with the matter of 
tho carbuncle of animals, or of the exuviao of 
the bodies of such as had died of the disease, 
but it is now known to arise primarily in the 
human subject. This form of carbuncle has re- 
ceived different names, many of them from the 
places where it has prevailed [; — Carbun'culus 
contagio'sus sen Gal'licus seu Hunga'ricus seu 
Polon'u us seu Septentriona'lis, Morbus pustulo' 'sus 
Fin'nicus, Pus'tula gangrenosa seu Liv'ida Es- 
tho'nics, Pemphigus Hunga,r'.icus, 

Anthrax is a malignant boil, and its treatment 
is similar to that which is required in case of 
gangrene attacking a part. 

AiTHRAX PrLVON T r\r, Necropneumonia. 

AVrillUSCUS CEREFOLIUM, Scandix ce- 
ftfo'lium— a. Humilis, Chnerophyllum Sylvestre 
— u. Procerus, Charophyllum Sylvestre. 

ANTI1ROPE. Cutis. 

nvBpuijrog, 'man,' and tarpos, 'a physician.' Me- 
dicine applied to man in contradistinction to 

ANTHROPOCHEMIA, Chymistry (human). 

ANTHROPOCHYMY, Chymistry, (human). 

ANTHROPOGEN'IA, Anthropogen'esis, An- 
thropog"eny, from av^purroj, 'man/' and yevecs, 
'generation.' The knowlege, or study, or phe- 
nomena of human generation. 

A N T II R P G'R APHY, Anthropograph'ia, 
from avflowTrof, 'man,' and yocvbr,, 'a description.' 
Anthropology. A description of the human body 

AXTHROPOL'ITHUS, from artWoj, 'man,' 
anu Ai0 o? , 'a, stone.' The petrifaction of the 
human body or of any of its parts. Morbid con- 
cretions in the human body. 

ANTnROPOL'OGY, Anthropolog"ia, from 
"vfyw™?, 'man,, and Uyos, 'a discourse.' A 
♦realise on man. By some, this word is used for 
trie science of the structure and functions of the 
human body. Frequently, it is employed synony- 
mously with Natural History and Physiology of 



ANTHRO'POMANCY, AnthropomanU'a, from 

avdpuinos, 'a man,' and uavrua, 'divination.' Di- 
vination by inspecting the entrails of a dead man. 

ANTHROPOM'ETRY, from nvSpwos, 'a man,' 
and ficrpov, 'measure.' Measurement of the di- 
mensions of the different parts of the human 

ANTHROPOMORPHUS, Atropa mandragora. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGUS, (F.) Anthropophage, 
from av$pn>iro;, ' a man,' and <payu>, ' I eat.' A 
name given to one who eats his own species. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGY, Anthropopha'gia, same 
etymon. The custom of eating human flesh. A 
disease in which there is great desire to eat it. 



ANTHROPOTOMY, Andranatomia. 

ANTHUS, Flos. 

ANTHYPNOT'IC, Anthypnot'icus, Antihyp- 
not'ir, Agrypnot'ie, from avn, 'against,' and 
'vitvwtikos, ' stupefying.' A remedy for stupor. 

ANTHYPOCHON'DRIAC, Anthypochondri'- 
aens, from avn, 'against,' and 'vno%ov&piaKos, 'hy- 
pochondriac' A remedy for hypochondriasis. 

ANTHYSTER'IC, Antihyster'ic, Antihyster'- 
iens, from avn, ' against,' and 'vanpa, ' the ute- 
rus.' A remedy for hysteria. 

ANTI, avn, as a prefix, in composition, gene- 
rally means ' opposition.' 

ANTIADES, Tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANTIADON'CUS, from avnaits, 'the tonsils,' 
and oyKoi, ' tumour.' A swelling of the tonsils. 
— Swediaur. Anti'ager has a similar meaning. 
_ Antiadoncus Inflammatorius, Cynanche ton- 

ANTIAPOPLEC'TIC, Antiapoplec'ticus, Anta- 
poplec'ticns, Apoplec'ticus, from avn, 'against,' 
and aTTovXi^ta, 'apoplexy.' A remedy for apo- 


ANTIARTHRIT'IC, Antarthrit'ic, Antiar- 
thrificus, Antipodag'ric, from avn, 'against,' and 
apSptns, 'the gout,' (F.) Antigoutteux. A re- 
medy tor gout. 

ANTIASTHEN'IC, Antiasthen'icus, from avn, 
' against,' and aaQcvua, ' debility.' A remedy for 

ANTIASTHMATIC, Antiasthmatics, An- 
tasthmat'icus, from avn, 'against,' and acSua, 
' asthma.' A remedy for asthma. 



ANTIBDELLA, Antlia sanguisuga. 

ANTIBRA'CHIAL, Antibraehia'Us. That 
which concerns the fore-arm. — Bichat. J. Clo- 
quet suggests that the word should be written an- 
tebrachial, from ante, 'before,' and braehium, 
' the arm :'— as antebrachial region, antebrachial 
aponeurosis, <fec. 

Antebrachial Aponettro'sis, (F.) Aponlv- 
rose antebrachials, is a portion of the aponeurotic 
sheath which envelops the whole of the upper 
hmb. It arises from the brachial aponeurosis, 
from a fibrous expansion of the tendon of the 
biceps muscle, from the epicondyle, epitrochlea, 
and, behind, from the tendon of the triceps bra- 
chials. Within, it is inserted into the cubitus, 
&c. ; and, below, is confounded with the two an- 
nular ligaments of the carpus. It is covered by 
the skm, by veins, lymphatics, and by filaments 
of superficial nerves; it covers the muscles of the 
fore-arm, adheres to them, and sends between 
them several fibrous septa, which serve them for 
points of insertion. 





ANTIBRO'MIC, Antibro'micus, from avn, 
'against,' and [Ipwuos, 'foetor.' A Deo' dorizer. 
An agent that destroys offensive odours — as 
chloride of zinc, simple sulphate of alumina, Ac. 

ANTICACHEC'TIC, Aniieachee'tieus, Antica- 
cochym'ic, from avn, 'against,' and Ka^ia, 'ca- 
chexy.' A remedy against cachexy. 

ANTICACOCHYMIC, Anticachectic. 

ANTICAN'CEROUS, Anticancero'aw, Anti- 
cancro'sus, Anticarcinom'ntous, Antiscir'rhous, 
from avn, ' against,' and KapKiviopa, ' cancer,' car- 
cinoma. Opposed to cancer. 

ANTICANCROSUS, Anticancers. 


ANTICARDIUM, Fossette du cceur, Scrobicu- 
lus cordis. 

ANTICATAR'RHAL, Anticatarrha'lis, Anti- 
catarrhoicus, from avn, 'against/ and Karappos, 
' catarrh.' A remedy for catarrh. 

ANTICAUSOD'IC, Anticausot'ic, Anticausod'- 
icus, from avn, 'against,' and xavaog, 'a burning 
fever.' A remedy for causus or inflammatory fever. 

AMTICAUSOTIC, Anticausodic. 

ANTICHEIR, Pollex, see Digitus. 

ANTICH03RADICUS, Antiscrofulous. 

ANTICHOLERICA, Sophora heptaphylla. 

ANTICIPATING, Antic"ipans, Autcpo'nens, 
Prolept'icus. A periodical phenomenon, recur- 
ring at progressively shorter intervals. An an- 
ticipating intermittent is one in which the inter- 
vals between the paroxysms become progressively 


ANTIOCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

ANTICOL'IC, Anticol'icus, from avn, 'against/ 
and kioXikos, ' the colic' That which is opposed 
to colic. 

ANTICOMMA, Oontre-coup. 

ANTICOPE, Oontre-coup. 

ANTICRUSIS, Contre-coup. 

ANTICRUSMA, Oontre-coup. 

AXTICUS, Anterior. 

AN Til) A R TR E U X, Antiherpetic. 

ANTIDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTIDIARRHCE'IC, Antidiarrhw'icm. A 
remedy for diarrhoea. Opposed to diarrhoea. 

ANTID'INIC, Antidin'icus, Din'icus, from avn, 
'against.' and Sivos, 'vertigo.' Opposed to vertigo. 

AN'TIDOTAL, Antidota'lis, same etymon as 
antidote. Relating to an antidote; possessed of 
the powers of an antidote. 

AXTIDOTA'RIUM, from avnSorov, 'an anti- 
dote.' A dispensatory. A pharmacopoeia or for- 

AN'TIDOTE, Antid'otnm, from avn, 'against/ 
and &iSu>ni, 'I give.' Originally this word signi- 
fied an internal remedy. It is now used synony- 
mously with counter-poison, Antiphar'macivm, and 
signifies any remedy capable of combating the 
effect of poisons. 

A Lint of Substances reputed as Antidotes. 

1. Metals. 
Iron Filings. 
Zinc Filing's. 

2. Acids. 
Tannic Acid. 
Acetic or Citric Acid. 

3. Salts. 
Alkaline or Earthy Sul- 

Cnlorifie of Sodium. 
Hypochlorite of Soda or 
of Lime. 

4. Alkalines. 

Carbonates of Ammonia. 
Carbonates of Soda. 

Carbonate of Magnesia. 
Lime Water. 



Sulphuretted Hydrogen, 

dissolved in water. 
Sulplmret of Potassium. 

6. Haloids. 

7. Metallic Oxides. 
Hytlrated Sesqni-oxide of 

Mixed Oxides of Iron. 
8. Oroanic Substances. 
A Ibn mi nous Substances, 

(Albumen, Casein, and 

Animal Charcoal. 

macos — a. Mithridatium, Mithridate. 

ANTIDYNAMICA, Debilitants. 


ANTIDYSENTER'IC, Antidysenter'icus, from 
avn, 'against/ Svs, 'with difficulty/ aDd evrtpov, 
'intestine.' Opposed to dysentery. 

A N T I E M E T ' I C, Ailtemet'ic, Antiemet'icus, 
from avn, ' against/ and e/itriKos, ' emetic' A 
remedy for vomiting. 

Antiephial'ticus, from avn, 'against/ and t^taA- 
rcf, 'nightmare.' A remedy for nightmare. 

Antiepilep'ticus, from avn, 'against/ and jtti- 
Xr/ipia, 'epilepsy.' A remedy for epilepsy. 


ANTIGALAC'TIC, Antigalac'ticus, Antilac'- 
teus, from avn, 'against/ and ya\a, 'milk.' (F.) 
Antilaiteux. Opposed to the secretion of milk, 
or to diseases caused by the milk. 

collyrium of Antig'onus. It was composed of 
cadmia, antimony, pepper, verdigris, gum Arabic, 
and water. 

ANTIGUA, see West Indies. 

ANTIHiEMOPTYICUS, Anthaemoptyicus. 

ANTIHEC'TIC, Antithec'ticns. Authec'tictis, 
from avn, 'against,' and 'tfij, 'habit of body.' 
The Antihec'ticum Pote'hii is the white oxyd of 
antimony ; also called Diaphoret'icum Jovia'le. 

ANTIHELIX, Anthelix. 


ANTIHEMORRHAG"IC, Antihmmorrlag"- 
icus, Anthcrmorrha<)"icus ; from avn, 'against/ 
and ' ' ai^oppayia. 'hemorrhage.' That which is 
against hemorrhage; an antihemorrhagic re- 

ANTIHEMORRHOIDS, Antihamorrhdi- 
da'lis, from avn., 'against/ and 'a</<oppoi<5«s, 'he- 
morrhoids.' A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

ANTIHERPET'IC, Antiherpet'icus, from avrt, 
' against/ and 'tpTTEs, 'herpes.' (F.) Antidartreux. 
A remedy for herpes. 

ANTIHYDROPHOB'IC, AntihydrophoViewi, 
Antylis'eus, Aly.t'sus, from avn, 'against/ 'vSwp, 
'water,' and ipofios, 'dread.' A remedy for hy- 

ANTIIIYDROP'IC, Antinydrop'icns, Hydrop'- 
ievs, from avn, 'against/ and 'vSpm\p, 'dropsy/ 
A remedy for dropsy. 

ANTIHYPNOTIC, Anthvpnotic. 

ANTIHYSTERIC, Antihysteric. 

ANTI-ICTERIC, Anti-icter'icm, Icter'icus, 
from avn, 'against/ and ncnpos, 'jaundice.' A 
remedy for inundice. 

Liquor Hydranrvri oxymuriatis. 

ANTILABIUM, Prolabium. 

ANTILACTEUS, Antigalactic 

ANTILAITEUX, Antigalactic. 

ANTILEP'SIS, Apprehcri 'sio, from avrt\ap- 
(iavm, 'I take hold of.' The mode of attaching 
a bandage over a diseased part, by fixing it upon 
the sound parts. — Hippocrates. The mode of 
securing bandages, Ac, from slipping. Treat- 
ment bv revulsion or derivation. 

ANTILETHAR'GIC, Antilethar'gicus, from 
avn, 'against/ and Xt/Oapyocof, 'affected with 
lethargy.' A remedy for lethargy. 

ANTILITH'ICS, Antilith'iea, Lith'ica, from 
avn, 'against/ and A ( 0<k, 'a stone.' A substance 
that prevents the formation of calculi in the 
urinary organs. 

The chief antilithics — according as the calculi 
are lithic acid or phosphatic— are alkalies or 
acids; with revellents, especially change of air; 
tonics, as diosma crennta, (?) and uva ursi.(?) 



celebrated French medicinal spring, near M6aux, 
in Franco. The waters have not been analyzed ; 
but astonishing and chimerical effects have been 
ascribed to thein. 

ANTILOBIUM. Antiiragns, Tragus. 

ANTILOI'MIC, Antiloi'nUcua, Antilce'mic, An- 
tipesti/cntia'lia, from avn, ' against/ and Aoi/ioj, 
' the plague.' A remedy for the plague. 

AXTIL'OPUS. The An'telope. (F.) Gazelle. 
An African animal, whose hoofs and horns were 
formerly jriven in hysteric and epileptic cases. 

ANTILYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

ANTIMEL'ANCHOLIC, Antimelanchol'icus, 
from avn, ' against,' and /uAay^oAta, ' melan- 
choly.' A remedy for melancholy. 

ANTIMEPHIT'IC, Antimephit'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and mephitic. A remedy against me- 
phitic or deleterious gases. 

ANTIMOINE, Antimonium — a. Beurre a", 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Ohlorure d', Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Oxide d', Algaroth — a. Oxide 
blann d', Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. Sou/re 
dore d', Antimonii sulphuretum praecipitatum — 
a. Su/fure d', Antimonium — a. Sulfure, hydrosul- 
phure rouge d', Antimonii sulphuretum rubrum 

— a. Verre d', Antimonii vitrum. 
ANTIMO'NIAL, Antimonia'lis, Stibia'lia, from 

antimonium, 'antimony.' A composition into 
which antimony enters. A preparation of anti- 

Antimo'nial Powder, Pulvia antimonia'lis, 
Ox'idum antimo'nii cum phos'phate calcis, Phos- 
phaa ca/cis atibia'tus, P. Cal'cicum stibia'tum, 
Puivis Jame'sii, Puivis atibia'tus, Pulvia de phos'- 
phate calcia et atib'ii compos'itus, Factitious 
James's Powder, Schwanberg's Fever Powder, 
Chenevix's Antimonial Powder, (F.) Poudre 
antimoniale composee OU de James. A peroxide 
of antimony combined with phosphate of lime. 
( Take of oommon sulphuret of antimony, Ibj ; 
hartshorn shavings, Ibij. Roast in an iron pot, 
until they form a gray powder. Put this into a 
long pot, with a small hole in the cover. Keep 
it in a red heat for two hours, and grind to a fine 
powder.) This preparation has long been es- 
teemed as a febrifuge : but it is extremely un- 
certain in its action. The ordinary dose is 6 or 
8 grains. 


sulphuretum prssoipitaturn — a. Tartar, Antimo- 
nium tartarizatum. 

_ ANTKMONII (BUTYRUM,) Antimonium mu- 
riatum — a. Calx, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Cerussa, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. et Po- 
tassas tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Mu- 
rias, Antimonium muriatum — a. Oleum, Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Oxydulum hydrosulphuratum 
aurantiaeum, Antimonii sulphuretum praecipita- 
tum— a. Oxydum, Algaroth — a. Oxydum auratum, 
Antimonii sulphuratuni praecipitatum — a.Oxidum 
nitro-muriaticum, Algaroth — a. Oxydum cum 
sulphure vitrifactum, Antimonii vitrum — a. Oxy- 
dum sulphuretum vitrifactum, Antimonii vitrum 
— a. Oxysulphuretum, A. sulphuretum preecipi- 
tatum — a. Potassio-tartras, Antimonium tartari- 
zatum— a. Regulus medicinalis, Antimonium me- 
dicinale — a. Sal, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. 
Sulphur auratum, Antimonii sulphuretum prae- 
cipitatum— a. Sulphur praecipitatum, Antimonii 
sulphuretum praecipitatum— a. Sulphuretum, An- 
timonium — a. Tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum 

— a. Tartras et Potassae, Antimonium tartariza- 
tum— a. Vitrum hyacinthinum, Antimonii vitrum. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Precipita'tdm, 
Sulphur antimonia'tum, Hydrosulphure'tum sti- 
!>\o'n.m. cum sul'phure, Oxo'des atib'ii sulphura'- 


turn, Oxyd'ulum antimo'nii hydrosulphura'tum 
auranti'acum, Ox'ydum auro'tum antimo'nii, Sm- 
phure'tum stib'ii oxydula'ti, Hydro-su/furt'tum 
ln'tcum ox'ydi stib'ii sulfura'ti, Sulphur nntitno'- 
nii prcecipita' 'turn, Sulphur aura'tum antimo'nii, 
Golden Sulphur of Antimony. 

Antimo'nii Sulphurr'tnm I'ra'cipitatum, A.Oxy- 
sulphuretum, (F.) Son/re dori d'Antimoine, of the 
London Pharmacopoeia, is nearly the same as the 
old Kermes Mineral. It is a powder of an orange 
colour, of a metallic, styptic taste. It is emetic, 
diaphoretic, and cathartic, according to the dose ; 
and has been chiefly used in chronic rheumatism, 
and in cutaneous affections. Dose, gr. j. to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Sulphuretum Praecipitatum of tho 
United States Pharmacopoeia, is made by boiling 
together Sulphur et of Antimony, in fine powder, 
Solution of Pota.isa, and distilled water ; strain- 
ing the liquor while hot, and dropping into it 
Diluted Sulphuric Acid so long as it produces a 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tusi Rubrum, Red Sul'- 
phuret of An'timony, Hydrosulfure' turn stib'ii 
rubrum, Sub-hydrosul'fas stib'ii, Hydro-sulphure' - 
turn rubrum stib'ii sulphura'ti, Puivis Oarthusi- 
ano'rum, Kermes mineral, (F.) Hydrosulfure 
rouge d'Antimoine sulfure, Vermilion de Provence, 
Properties the same as the last. Dose, gr. j. to 
gr. iv. 

Antimo'nii Vitrum, Glass of Antimony, Anti- 
mo'nii ox'ydum sulphure'tum vitrifac'tum, Ox'- 
ydum atib'ii aemiviv ' rewm, Antimo'nium vitrifac'- 
tum, Ox'idum antimo'nii cum aul'phure vitrifac'- 
tum, Vitrum stib'ii, Antimo'nii vitrum hyacin'- 
thinum, Oxyd'ulum atib'ii vitrea' turn, (F.) Verre 
d'Antimoine. (Formed by roasting powdered 
common antimony in a shallow vessel, over a 
gentle fire, till it is of a whitish gray colour, and 
emits no fumes in a red heat ; then melting it, on 
a quick fire, into a clean, brownish-red glass.) 
It has been used for preparing the tartarized 
antimony and antimonial wine. 

ANTIMONIOUS ACID, Antimonium dia- 

ANTIMO'NIUM, from avn, 'against,' and 
uovog, 'alone;' i. e. not found alone : or accord- 
ing to others, from avn, ' against,' and moine, ' a 
monk;' because, it is asserted, certain monks 
suffered much from it. Stibi, Stib'ium, Reg'ulm 
Antimo'nii, Minera'lium, Gyncece'um, Maqne'sia 
Satur'ni, Marcasi'ta plum'bea, Platyophthal'mon, 
Stim'mi, Aurum lepro'aum, Antimo'nium erudum, 
Antimo'nii sulphure'tum, Sulphure'tum stib'ii ni- 
grum, Oommon Antimony, Sulphuret of Antimony, 
(F.) Antimoine, Sulfure d'Antimoine. Sulphuret 
of antimony is the ore from which all the prepa- 
rations of antimony are formed. In Pharmacy, 
it is the native sesquisulphuret of antimony, puri- 
fied by fusion. When prepared for medical use, 
by trituration and levigation, it forms a powder 
of a black, or bluish gray colour, which is inso- 
luble. It is slightly diaphoretic and alterative, 
and has been used in chronic rheumatism, cuta- 
neous diseases, Ac. 

Antimonium Album, Bismuth. 

Antimo'nium Calcinatum, Antimonium dia- 


Antimonium Valcina'tum, Mineral BiaphoreVx 
Matih-e perlce de KERkring, Peroxide of Anti- 
mony, Calx Antimo'nii, Antimo'nium diaphoret'- 
icum lotum, Oerus'sa Antimo'nii, Calx Antimo'nii 
elo'ta, Oxo'des stib'ii album, Ox'idum stibio'aum, 
Deutoxide of An'timony, Ox'idum stib'ii album 
median'te nitro confectnm, Potassce biantimo'nias, 
(F.) Oxide blanc d'Antimoine prepare par le 
moyen du nitre. {Common antimony, Ibj • purified 


nitre, fbiij. — Throw it by spoonfuls into a red-hot 
crucible ; powder and wash. The flowers that 
Btick to the side of the crucible must be carefully 
separated, otherwise they render it emetic.) 
Dose, gr. x. to xxx. 

Antimonium Emeticum, A. tartarizatum. 

Antimo'nium Medicina'le, Reg 1 ulna Antimo'- 
nii Medieina'lis, Medicinal Reg'uUs of Antimony. 
(AnHmon. sulphur. £v. Potass, subcarb. %i. Sodii 
ehlorid. giv. Powder, mix, and melt. When 
cold, separate the scorise at top, powder the mass, 
and wash it well.) It is conceived to be more 
active than common antimony. 

Antimo'nium Muria'tum, Antimo'nii Mu'rias, 
Ohlor'urct of An'timony, Cklorure'tum stib'ii, 
Spuma trium draco' num, Deuto-murias stib'ii 
miblima'tus, Butter of Antimony, Muriate of An- 
timony, Chloride of Antimony, Buty'rum Antimo' 
nil, O'leum Antimo'nii, Buty'rum stib'ii, Gaus'- 
ticum antimonia'le, Antimonium sali'tum, (F.) 
Ohlorure d'Antimoine, Beurre d'Antimoine. (Com- 
mon antimony and corrosive sublimate, of each 
equal parts : grind together, and distil in a wide- 
necked retort, and let the butyraceous matter 
that comes over, run, in a moist place, to a liquid 
oil.) A caustic, but not much used as such. 
Sometimes taken as poison. 

Antimonium Salitum, Antimonium muriatum. 

Antimo'nium Tartariza'tum, Tartris Anti- 
mo'nii, Tartar Antimonia'tum, Sal Antimo'nii, 
Tartras Potas'sm stibio'sus seu stibia'lis, Tartris 
lixiv'ia? stibia'tus, Deuto-tartras potas' see et stib'ii, 
Tar'tarus emet'icus, Tar'tarum emet'icum, Tartras 
antimo' nii, Tartras Antimo'nii et Potasses, Anti- 
mo'nii et Potassa Tartras (Ph. U. S.), Antimo'nii 
potas' sio-tartras, Antimo'nium emet'icum, Tar' - 
tarized An'timony, Tartrate of An'timony and 
potas'sa, Potassio-tartrate of Antimony, Emet'ic 
Tartar, Tartar Emetic, (F.) Tartre stibie, Tartre 
Emetique, Eme'tique ; in some parts of the United 
States, vulgarly and. improperly called Tartar: 
(Made by digesting sulphuret of antimony in a 
mixture of nitric and muriatic acids with the aid 
of heat; filtering the liquor, and pouring it into 
water : freeing the precipitate from acid, by 
washing and drying it; adding this powder to 
bitartrate of potassa in boiling distilled water ; 
boiling for an hour, and after filtering the liquor 
while hot, setting it aside to crystallize. — Ph. U.S.) 
Tartarized antimony is emetic, sometimes ca- 
thartic and diaphoretic. Externally, it is rube- 
facient. Dose, as an emetic, gr. j. to gr. iv. in 
Bolution : as a diaphoretic, gr. one-sixteenth to 
gr. one-quarter. 

The empirical preparation, called Norris's 
Drops, consist of a solution of tartarized anti- 
mony in rectified spirit, disguised by the addi- 
tion of some vegetable colouring matter. 

Antimonium Vitrifactum, Antimonii vitrum. 

ANTIMONY, BUTTER OF, Antimonium mu- 
riatum — a. Chloride of, Antimonium muriatum — 
a. Chloruret of, Antimonium muriatum — a. Deu- 
toxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. Flowers 
of, Algaroth — a. Glass of, Antimonii vitrum — a. 
Golden sulphur of, Antimonii sulphuretum prse- 
cipitatum — a. Medicinal, regulus of, Antimonium 
medicinale — a. Muriate of, Antimonium muria- 
tum — a. Peroxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum 
— a. Potassio-tartrate of, Antimonium tartariza- 
tum — a. Submuriate of, Protoxide of, Algaroth — 
a. Sulphuret of, red, Antimonii sulphuretum ru- 
brum — a. Tartarized, Antimonium tartarizatum 
— a. Vegetable, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

Antimony and Potassa, Tartrate of, Anti- 
monium tartarizatum. 

ANTINEPHRIT'IC, Antinephret'ic, Antine- 
phret'icus, from avri, 'against,' and vt<ppmg, 'ne- 
phritis.' A remedy for inflammation of the kidney. 




ANTINIAD, see Antinial. 

ANTIN'IAL, from avri, 'against,' and tvmv, 
' the ridge of the occiput.' An epithet for an 
aspect towards the side opposite to the inion, or 
ridge of the occiput. — Barclay. Antiniad is used 
adverbially by the same writer, to signify ' to- 
wards the antinial aspect.' 

ANTI'OCHI HI 'ERA. A preparation ex- 
tolled by the ancients in melancholy, hydropho- 
bia, epilepsy, <fcc. It was formed of germander, 
agaric, pulp of colocynth, Arabian stoechas, opo- 
ponax, sagapenum, parsley, aristolochia, white 
pepper, cinnamon, lavender, myrrh, honey, <fcc. 

Antiochi Theriaca. A theriac employed by 
Antiochus against every kind of poison. It was 
composed of thyme, opoponax, millet, trefoil, 
fennel, aniseed, nigella sativa, &c. 

ANTIODONTAL'GIC, Antodontal' gic, Anto- 
dontal'gicus, Odontalgic, Odont'ic, Antiodontal'- 
gicus, from avri, 'against,' and oiovraXyia, 'tooth- 
ache.' A remedy for toothache. 

ANTIORGAS'TIC, Antiorgas'ticus, from avri, 
'against,' and opyaw, 'I desire vehemently.' A 
remedy for orgasm or erethism, and for irritation 
in general. 

ANTIPARALYT'IC, Antiparalyt 'ictis, from 
avri, 'against,' and napaXvcns, 'palsy.' Opposed 
to palsy. 

ANTIPARASITIC, Antiparasit' icus, And- 
phtheiriacus, Phthi'rius, Parasit'icide; from avri, 
' against,' and xapaoiTos, ' a parasite.' An agent 
that destroys parasites, as the different vermin 
that infest the body. The chief antiparasitics 
are Oocculus, Staphisagria, Veratrum album, and 
certain of the mercurial preparations. 

ANTIPARASTATI'TIS, from avn, 'opposite,' 
and irapaaraTris, 'the epididymis;' also, 'the pros- 
tate,' and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflam- 
mation of Cowper's glands. 

ANTIPATHI'A, from avn, 'against,' and 
vadog, ' passion, affection.' Aversion. A natural 
repugnance to any person or thing. 

ANTIPATH'IC, Antipath'icus, (F.) Antipa- 
thique. Belonging to antipathy. Opposite, con- 
trary, — as humeurs antipathiques ; humours op- 
posed to each other. Also, palliative. 

tip'ater. A farrago of more than 40 articles : 
used as an antidote against the bites of serpents. 

ANTIPERIOD'IC, Antiperiod'icus, Antityp'- 
icus, from avn, 'against,' and izepio&os, 'period.' 
A remedy which possesses the power of arresting 
morbid periodical movements; — e. g. the sulphate 
of quinia in intermittents. 

ANTIPERISTALTIC, Antiperistaltics, An- 
tivermic'ular, from avn, 'against,' and KtpioTeWta, 
'I contract.' An inverted action of the intestinal 

ANTIPERIS'TASIS, from avn, 'against,' and 
ncpiaraan, 'reunion, aggregation.' A union of 
opposite circumstances : the action of two con- 
trary qualities, one of which augments the force 
of the other. The peripateticians asserted, that 
it is by Antiperistasis, that fire is hotter in winter 
than in summer. Theophrastus attributes the 
cause, which renders man more vigorous, and 
makes him digest more readily in winter, to' the 
augmentation of heat caused by Antiperistasis. 

ANTIPER'NIUS, from avn, 'against,' and 
Pernio, 'a chilblain.' A remedy against chil- 
blains; — as Unguen'tum antiper'nium, an oint- 
ment for chilblains. 
ANTIPERTUSSIS, see Zinci sulphas. 
ANTIPHARMACUS, Alexipharmic. 
ANTIPHLOGISTIC, Antiphlogis'ticus, from 


avn, 'against,' and <p\cyo>, 'I burn.' Opposed 
to inflammation j — as Antiphlogistic remedies, A. 
regimen, &c. 

ANTIPHTHEIRIACA, Antiphtkiriaca, from 
avn, 'against,' and (pSctptaw, 'I am lousy.' A 
remedy used to destroy lice. 

ANTIPHTHIS'ICAL, Antiphthis'icus, from 
avn, ' against/ and <pSnris, ' consumption.' Op- 
posed to phthisis. 

ANTIPHYSICA, Carminatives. 

ANTIPHYS'ICAL, Antiphys'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and <pvocu), 'I blow.' An expeller of 
wind : a carminative. 

It has also been used for any thing preterna- 
tural; here, the derivation is from avn, 'against,' 
and (f,vat(, 'nature.' The French sometimes say, 
'in i/out antiphysique,' 'an unnatural taste.' 

ANTIPLAS'TIC, Antiplas'ticus, Plastilyt'ic, 
Blast ilyt'icus, from avn, ' against,' and i:\aanKos, 
' formative.' Antiformative. An agent that dimi- 
nishes the quantity of plastic matter — fibrin — in 
the blood. 

ANTIPLEURIT'IC, Antiplenret'icus, Anti- 
pletiret'ic, from avn, 'against,' and irhtvpms, 
' pleurisy.' Opposed to pleurisy. 

ANTIPNEUMON'IC, Antipneumon'icus, from 
avn, ' against,' and Trvcvjxwvta, ' disease or inflam- 
mation of the lungs.' A remedy for disease or 
inflammation of the lungs. 

ANTIPODAGRIC, Antiarthritie. 

ANTIPRAX'IS, from avn, 'against,' and 
wpaaau), ' I act.' A contrary state of different 
parts in the same patient: e. g. an increase of 
heat in one organ, and diminution in another. 

ANTIPSOR'IC, Antipso'ricus, Antisca'bious, 
from avn, 'against,' and \pupa, 'the itch.' (F.) 
Antigaleux. Opposed to the itch. 

ANTIPUTRID, Antiseptic. 

ANTIPY'IC, Antipy' icus, from avn, 'against/ 
and irvov, ' pus.' Opposed to suppuration. 

ANTIPYRETIC, Febrifuge. 

ANTIPYROT'IC, Antipy rot' icus, from avn, 
'against/ and irvp, 'fire.' Opposed to burns or 
to pvrosis. 

ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM, Antiquar' tium. A 
remedy formerly used against quartan fever. 

ANTIQUUS, Chronic. 

ANTIRHACHIT'IC, Antirhachit' icus, from 
avn, 'against/ and rachitis. Opposed to rachitis, 
or rickets. 

ANTIRHEUMATIC, Antirrheumat'icus; from 
owt, 'against/ and ptvpa, 'rheumatism.' A re- 
medv for rheumatism. 

ria — a. Auriculatum, A. Elatine. 

Antirhi'num Elati'ne, A. auricula' turn, E. 
hasta'ta, Elati'ne, Lina'ria elati'ne, Cymbala'ria 
elati'ne, Fluellen or Female Speedwell, was for- 
merly used against scurvy and old ulcerations. 

Antirhi'num Hederaceum, A. Linaria — a. 
Hederaefolium, A. Linaria. 

Antirhi'num Lina'ria, A. hedera'ceum seu 
Kederafo'liwm seu acutan'gulum, Lina'ria, L. 
vulga'ris seu cymbala'ria, Elati'ne cymbala'- 
ria, Oymbala'ria mura'lis, Osy'ris, Urina'ria, 
Common Toad Flax, (F.) Linaire. The leaves 
have a bitterish taste. They are reputed to be 
diuretic and cathartic. An ointment made from 
them has been extolled in hemorrhoids 

ANTISCABIOUS, Antipsoric. 

ANTISCIRRHOUS, Anticancerous. 

ANTTSCOLETICUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCOLICUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCORBU'TIC, Antiscorbu 'ticus, from 
avn, ' against/ and scorbutus, ' the scurvy.' Op- 
posed to Rcurvy. 

ANTISCROF'ULOUS, Antiscroph'ulous, An- 
Uscro/ulo'sus, Antistrumo'sus, Antichcerad'icus. 
Opposed to scrofula. 


ANTISEP'TIC, Antisrp'ticns, Antipu'trid, 
from avn, 'against/ and witto;, 'putrid.' Anti- 
putredino'sus. Opposed to putrefaction. The 
chief antiseptics, internally or externally em- 
ployed, are Acidum Muriaticum, Acidum Nitri~ 
(■dm, Acidum Su/phuricum, Alumina: sulphas, 
Oarbo Ligni, Calx Chlorinata, Chlorinum, Cin- 
chona and its active principles, Creosote, Baud 
Radix, Fermentum Cerevisiw, Soda Chlorinata, 
and Zinci Chloridum. 

ANTISIAL'AGOGUE, Antisialago'gus, Anti. 
si'alus, from avn, ' against/ and cia\ov, ' saliva." 
A remedy against ptyalism. 

ANTISPASIS, Derivation, Revulsion. 

ANTISPASMODIC, Antispasmodics, Anti. 
spas'ticus, from avn, 'against/ and anaw, 'I con- 
tract.' Opposed to spasm. The whole operation 
of antispasmodics is probably revulsive. The 
following are the chief reputed antispasmodics. 
yEther Sulphuricus, Asafcetida, Castoreum, Dra- 
contium, Moschus, Oleum Animate Dippelii, and 
Valeriana — with the mental antispasmodics, ab- 
straction, powerful emotions, fear, Ac. Of direct 
antispasmodics, we have no example. 

ANTISPASTICUS, Antispasmodic, Deriva- 

ANTISTASIS, Antagonism. 

ANTISTERIG'MA, from avn, 'against/ and 
arnpvyna, 'asupport.' A fulcrum, support, crutch. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANTISTER'NUM, from arvt, 'against/ and 
aripvov, ' the sternum.' The back. — Ilnfus. 

ANTISTRUMOUS, Antiscrofulons. 

ANTISYPHILIT'IC, Antisyphilit'icm, from 
avn, 'against/ and syphilis, 'the venei jal dis- 
ease.' Opposed to the venereal disease. 

ANTITASIS, Counter-extension. 

ANTITHENAR, Opponens pollicis, Adductor 
pollicis pedis. 

ANTITHERMA, Refrigerants. 

ANTITHORA, Aconitum anthora. 

ANTITRAG'ICUS, Antitra'gew, (F.) Muscle 
de I'Antitragus, 31. aniitragien. — (Ch.) Belong- 
ing to the antitragus. A small muscle is so 
called, the existence of which is not constant. 
It occupies the space between the antitragus and 

ANTITRAGIEN, Antitragicus. 

ANTIT'RAGUS, from avn, 'opposite to/ and 
rpayos, 'the tragus/ Antilo'bium, QMo'lium. A 
conical eminence on the pavilion of the ear, op- 
posite the tragus. 

ANTITYP'IA, from avn, 'against/ and rvirno, 
'I strike.' Resistance. Hardness. Reperctusion. 

ANTITYPICUS, Antiperiodic. 

ANTIVENE'REAL, Antivene'reus, from hvti, 
'against/ and Venus, ' Venus.' TLe same as An- 
tisyphilitic. Formerly it was used synonymously 
with Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTIVERMICULAR, Antiperistaltic. 

ANTIVERMINOSUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANT'LIA or ANTLI'A, from o*r\tiv, 'to 
pump out.' A syringe; a pump. Hence, Antlia 
lac' tea, Lactisu'gium, a breast-pump; and Antlia 
sanguisu'ga, Antibdella, Lfiru'do artificia'lis, the 
exhausting syringe used in cupping. 

Antlia Gastrica, Stomach-pump. 

ANTODONTALGIC. Antiodontalgic. 

ANTODYNUS, Anodyne. 

ANTRAX, Anthrax. 

ANTRE, Antrum— a. d'Hyghmore, Antrum 
of Highmore. 

ANTROVERSIO, Anteversio. 

/■dA N 7 RUM '/ A cavern '' Cavern'a, Bar'athrum, 
(K.) Autre. A name given to certain cavities in 
bones, the entrance to which is smaller than the 

Antrum Auris, Tympanum — a. Buccinosum, 




Cochlea, Labyrinth — a. Dentale, see Tooth — a. 
Pylori, see Stomach. 

Antrum op Highmore, Antrum Highmoria'- 
tium, Antrum Gence, Antrum maxilla're vel max- 
H'Icb superio'ris, Genyan'trum, Max'illary Sinus, 
Sinus Geitm pituita'rius, (F.) Autre d'Hyghmore, 
Sinus Maxillaire. A deep cavity in the sub- 
stance of the superior maxillary bone communi- 
cating with the middle meatus of the nose. It 
is lined by a prolongation of the Schneiderian 

ANULUS, Fossette. 

ANURESIS, Ischuria. 

ANURIA, Ischuria. 

ANUS, 'a circle,' Podex, Potex, Mol'yne, Mo- 
lyn'ie, Dactyl' ios, Oath'edra, Oyr'ceon, Oys'saros, 
Oysthos, Aph'edra, Aph'edron, Hedra, Proctos, 
Archos, Sedes, Cuius, Ou'leon. The circular open- 
ing situate at the inferior extremity of the rectum, 
by which the excrement is expelled. The funda- 
ment. The seat. The body. The seat, (F.) Siege. 

Anus also signifies the anterior orifice of the 
Aqueduct, of Sylvius. By some, this Anus, called 
also, For a' men commu'ne poste'rius, has been 
supposed to form a communication between the 
back part of the third ventricle and the lateral 
ventricles. It is closed up, however, by the tela 
choroidea, and also by the fornix, which is inti- 
mately connected with this. The foramen is 
situate between the commissura mollis of the 
optic thalami and the pineal gland. 

Anus, Artificial. An opening made artifi- 
cially, to supply the natural anus. The term is 
often used to include preternatural anus. 

Anus, Contracted, (F.) Anus retreci. A state 
of the anus when, from some cause, it is con- 

Anus, Imperforate. A malformation, in 
which there is no natural anus. See Atresia ani 

Anus, Preternat'ural, (F.) Anus contre na- 
ture, A. anormal. An accidental opening which 
gives issue to the whole or to a part of the faeces. 
It may be owing to a wound, or, which is most 
common, to gangrene attacking the intestine in 
a hernial sac. 

This term is also employed, as well as Anus 
devie, devious anus, to the case where the anus, in- 
stead of being in its natural situation, is in some 
neighbouring cavity, as the bladder, vagina, &e. 

ANXI'ETY, Anxi'etas, Anxi'etude, Admmo'- 
nia, Dyspho'ria anxi'etas, Alys'mus, Al'yce, AV- 
ysis, Ase, from angere, Gr. ayx uv > 'to strangle, 
to suffocate.' A state of restlessness and agita- 
tion, with general indisposition, and a distressing 
sense of oppression at the epigastrium. Inquie- 
tude, anxiety, and anguish, represent degrees of 
the same condition. 

ANYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AOCHLE'SIA, from a, priv., and ox^ot, 'dis- 
turbance.' Tranquillity. Calmness. 

AOR'TA, Arte'ria magna, A. crassa, A. max'- 
ima, Ifcemal Axis, of Owen. (F.) Aorte. This 
name was given by Aristotle to the chief artery 
of the body. It may have been derived from 
aopTtopcu, 'I am suspended,' as it seems to be 
suspended from the heart; or from arjp, 'air,' and 
rnpcu), ' I keep,' because it was supposed to con- 
tain air. It is probable that Hippocrates meant 
by aoprai the bronchia and their ramifications. 
The aorta is the common trunk of the arteries of 
the body. It arises from the left ventricle of the 
heart, about opposite to the fifth dorsal vertebra, 
passes upwards (ascending Aorta,) forms the great 
arch of the Aorta, and descends along the left 
of the" spin-, (descending Aorta,) until it reaches 
the middle of the fourth or fifth lumbar vertebra, 
where it bifurcates, to give origin to the common 

iliacs. The aorta is sometimes divided into the 
Thoracic or pectoral, and the Abdominal. For 
the arteries which arise from it, &c, see Artery. 

AORTEURYS'MA, from aoprn, 'the aorta,' 
and cvpvs, ' dilated.' Aneurism of the Aorta, (F.) 
Anevrysme de V Aorte, Aortiectasie. By carefully 
auscultating over the dorsal vertebrae, a bellows' 
sound, with a deep and not always perceptible 
impulse, may be detected. 

AOR'TIC, Aor'ticus. Relating to the Aorta. 
The Aortic ventricle, (F.) Ventricle Aortique, is 
the left ventricle. The Aortic valves are the sig- 
moid valves at the origin of the Aorta, &c. 

AOKT1EUTASIE, Aorteurysma. 

AORTI'TIS, Inftamma'tio Aor'ta, from Aorta, 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of the aorta. 

AORTRA, Aortron. A lobe of the lungs. — 

AO'TUS, from a, privative, and on;, 'an ear.' 
A monster devoid of ears. — Gurlt. 

APAGr'MA, Apoclas'ma, Apocecaxdis'menon, 
from euro, ' from,' and ayw, ' I remove.' Separa- 
tion, abduction. Separation of a fractured bone. 
— Galenus, Foesius. 

APAGOGE, Defecation, Inductio. 

APALACHINE, Ilex vomitoria — a. d Feuillea 
de Prunier, Prinos — a. Gallis, Ilex vomitoria. 

APAL'LAGE, Apallax'is, from airaAarra), ' I 
change.' Mutation, change. It is generally 
taken in a good sense, and means the change 
from disease to health. — Hippocrates. 

APALLAXIS, Apallage. 

APALOT'ICA, from anaXorc;, 'softness, ten- 
derness.' Fortuitous lesions or deformities affect- 
ing the soft parts. The first order in the class 
Tychica, of Good. 

APANTnESIS, Apanthismus. 

APANTHIS'MUS, Apanthe'sis, from aito, 
'from,' and avfltu, 'I flower.' The obliteration 
of parts previously inservient to useful purposes, 
as of the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, 
which are essential to foetal existence, but are 
subsequently unnecessary. See, also, Stuprum. 

APANTHRO'PIA, from airo, 'from,' and av- 
■Spwro?, 'man.' Detestation of man; desire for 
solitude. — Hippocrates. One of the symptoms of 

APAPHRISMOS, Despumation. 

APARACH'YTUM VINUM, from a, priv., 
and Trajjaxytii, 'I pour over.' The purest wine: 
that which has not been mixed with sea-water. — 

APARINE, Galium aparine — a. Hispida, Ga- 
lium aparine. 

APARTHROSIS, Diarthrosis. 

AP'ATHY, Apathi'a, Ameli'a, from a, priva- 
tive, and jraSof, 'affection.' (F.) Apathie. Ac- 
cidental suspension of the moral feelings. It 
takes place in very severe diseases, particularly 
in malignant fevers. 

APECHE'MA, from axo, 'from,' and nx°s> 
'sound.' Properly the action of reflecting sound. 
In medicine, it is synonymous with the Latin 
Oontrafissura, a counter-fissure, a counter-blow. 
— Gorrreus, Celsus. 

APECTOCEPHALUS, Acephalothorus. 

APEL'LA, Appel'la, Leipoder'mos, Recuti'tus, 
from a, priv., and pellis, ' skin.' One whose pre- 
puce does not cover the glans. — Galenus, Lin- 
naeus, Vogel. Retraction or smallness of any 
other soft appendage. — Sagar. One who is cir- 

APEPSTA, Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIENT, Ape'riens, Aperiti'vus, from ape • 
rire, (ad and pario,) 'to open.' Rei'erans. A 
laxative. (F.) Aperitif. A medicine which 
gently opens the bowels. The term had for- 



merly a much more extensive signification, and, 
like Catah/t'icum, was given to a substance sup- 
posed to have the power of opening any of the 
passages, and even the blood-vessels. 

APERIS'TATON, Aperis'tatum, from a, pri- 
vative, and -cptarniu, 'I surround.' An epithet 
for an ulcer not dangerous nor considerable, nor 
surrounded by inflammation. 

APERITIF, Aperient. 
- APERITIVUS, Aperient. 
" APERTOR OCULI, Levator palpebrae superi- 

APERTO'RIUM, from aperio, ' I open. An 
instrument for dilating the os uteri during labour. 

APERTURA, Mouth— a. Anterior ventriculi 
tertii cerebri, Vulva (cerebri)— a. Pelvis superior, 
gee Pelvis. 


APEX, Mucro. The point or extremity of a 
part : — as the apex of the tongue, nose, &c. 

Apex Linguae, Proglossis. 

APHiERESIS, Apheresis, Extirpation. 

APHALANGFASIS, from a, 'intensive,' and 
(pa\ay£, ' phalanx.' The fourth stage of Oriental 
leprosy, which is recognised chiefly by a gangre- 
nous condition of the lingers. 

APHASSOM'ENOS, from a<paa<rw, ' I touch, I 
feel.' The touching of the parts of generation 
of the female as a means of diagnosis. — Hippo- 
crates. See Esaphe. 


APHEDRIA, Menses. 


APHELI'A, a(f>e\rit, 'simple.' Simplicity. 
The simple manners of the sect of Methodists in 
teaching and practising medicine. 

APHELX'IA, from atpeXxta, 'I abstract.' Vo- 
luntary inactivity of the whole or the greater 
part of the external senses to the impressions of 
surrounding objects, during wakefulness. lie- 
very, (F.) Reverie. Dr. Good has introduced 
this into his Nosology, as well as Aphelx'ia so- 
cors or absence of mind — A. inten'ta or abstrac- 
tion of mind : and A. otio'sa, Stu'dium ina'ne, 
broirn study or listless musing. 

APHEPSEMA, Decoction. 

APHEPSIS, Decoction. 

APIIE'RESIS, Aphce.' resis, from a<patpeu>, ' I 
take away.' An operation by which any part of 
the body is separated from the other. Hippo- 
crates, according to Foesius, uses the expression 
Aphce' rest's San'guinis for excessive hemorrhage; 
and Sennertus, to express the condition of an 
animal deprived both of the faculties of the mind 
and of the mind itself. 

APH'ESIS, from atptniii, 'I relax.' A remis- 
sion. This word expresses sometimes the dimi- 
nution or cessation of a disease ; at others, lan- 
guor and debility of the lower extremities. See 
Languor, and Remission. 

APHILAN'THROPY, Aphilanthro'pia, from a, 
privative, <pi\tu, 'I love,' and av$t>wiros, 'a man.' 
Dislike to man. Love of solitude. Vogel has 
given this name to the first degree of melancholy. 


APIIODEUMA, Excrement. 

APHODUS, Excrement. 

APHOXETUS, Aphonus. 

APHO'NIA, Liga'tio lingua", Loque'la abol'ita, 
Defec'tus loque'lce, Dyspho'nia, (of some,) Aph'- 
ony, (F.) Aphonie, Perte de la Voix, from a, pri- 
vative, and <pu>vr;, ' voice.' Privation of voice, or 
of lie sounds that ought to be produced in the 
glottis. When aphonia forms part of catarrh or 
of ' cold,' it is commonly of but little consequence ; 
but when produced by causes acting on the ner- 
vous system, as by some powerful emotion, or 
without any appreciable lesion of the vocal appa- 


ratus, (Laryngo-paralysis,) it frequently resists 
all remedies. 

Aphonia, Catalepsy — a. Surdorum, Mutitas 

APHONICUS, Aphonus. 

APHO'NUS, Apho'nicus, Apho'netus; same 
etymon. Relating to aphonia. 

APHONY, Aphonia. 

APIIORIA, Sterilitas. 

APHORICUS, Sterile. 

APHORUS^ Sterile. 
• APHOR'ME, a<t>opiiT), 'occasion.' The exter- 
nal and manifest cause of any thing. The occa- 
sional cause of a disease. — Hippocrates. 

APHRO'DES, 'frothy,' from a<ppos, 'foam,' 
and tiSo;, 'resemblance.' Applied to the blood 
and the excrements. — Hippocrates. 

APHRODISIA, Coition, Puberty. 

APHRODIS'IAC, Aphrodisiacus, from A<ppo- 
dtrti, 'Venus.' (F.) Aphrodisiaque. Medicine 
or food believed to be capable of exciting to the 
pleasures of love; as ginger, cantharides, <fcc. 
They are generally stimulants. 



APHRODISIOG'RAPHY, from AtppoSirv, 'Ve- 
nus,' and ypa(pu>, 'I describe.' Etymologically, 
this term means a description of the pleasures of 
love, but it has been placed at the head of a work 
describing the venereal disease. 

APHROG'ALA, from atppos, 'foam,' and ya\a, 
' milk.' Lac spumo'sum. A name formerly given 
to milk rendered frothy by agitation. 

APHRONIA, Apoplexy. 

APHRONITRUM, Natrum, Soda. 

APHROSYNE, Delirium, Insanity. 

APHTHAE, Aphtm, Apthce, from anTto, 'I in- 
flame.' Thrush or sore mouth, Aphtha lactu'ci- 
men, A. Infan'tum, Lactu'cimen, Lactucim'ina, 
Al'colce, Lactu'mina, Em'phlysis aphtha, Vlcera 
serpen'tia oris, Pus'tula oris, Febris aphtho'sa, 
Angi'na aphtho'sa, Vesic'ulce gingiva' rum, Sto- 
muti'tis exsudati'va, S. vesiculo'sa infan'tum, Sto- 
map'yra, S. aphtha, Prunel'la, White Thrush, 
Milk Thrush. Aphthae consist of roundish, pearl- 
coloured vesicles, confined to the lips, mouth, 
and intestinal canal, and generally terminating 
in curd-like sloughs. In France, the Aphthae of 
children, Aphthes des Enfans, is called Muguet, 
Millet, Blanchet, Oatarrhe buccal and Stomatite 
cremeuse pultacee, Pttltaceous inflammation of 
the Mouth ; and generally receives two divisions 
— the mild or discreet, (F.) Muguet binin ou dis- 
crct, and the malignant, (F.) Muguet malin ou 
confluent, the Black Thrush. Common Thrush is 
a disease of no consequence, requiring merely 
the use of absorbent laxatives. The malignant 
variety, which is rare, is of a more serious cha- 
racter, and is accompanied with typhoid symp- 
toms, — Typhus aphthoideus. 

Aphthje Adultorum, Stomatitis, aphthous — a. 
Prseputii, Herpes praeputii — a. Serpentes, Cancer 



APHTHEUX, Aphthous. 

APHTHO'DES, Aphthoidcs, Aphthoideus, from 
aphtha:, and tiios, ' resemblance.' Aphthous-like. 
Resembling aphthae. 

APH'THOUS, Aphtho'sus, (F.) Aphtheux. Be- 
longing to aphthae ; complicated with aphthae ; 
as Aphthous Fever. 

A PIASTRUM, Melissa. 

GATA, Corpora striata — a. Digitorum, Pupulae. 

APILEPSIA, Apoplexy. 

APIONTA, see Excretion. 




APIOS, Pyrus communis. 

APIS, Bee. 

API'TES, from amov, 'a pear.' Perry. — Gor- 

APIUM, A. graveolens — a. Ammi, Ammi — a. 
Anisum, Pimpinella anisum — a. Carvi, Carum. 

Apium Graveolens, Apium Paluda'pmm, 
Beli'ttutn, Ses'eli graveolens, Sium graveolens, S. 
a'pium, Smallage, (F.) Ache. Nat. Ord. Um- 
Delliferse. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The 
plants, roots, and seeds are aperient and carmi- 
native. Selery is a variety of this. 

Apium Hortense, A. graveolens — a. Monta- 
num, Athamanta aureoselinum — a. Paludapium, 
A. Graveolens— a. Petrseum, Bubon Macedonicum. 

Apium Petroseli'num, Apium Horten'se seu 
vulga're, Eleoseli'num (?), Grielum, Petroseli'- 
num, Common Parsley, (F.) Persil. The root — 
Petroselinum, (Ph. U. S.) — and seeds are diuretic 
and aperient. 

Apium Sium, Sium nodiflorum — a. Vulgare, A. 

APLAS'TIC, Aplas'ticus, from a, privative, 
and pXaaati), ' I form.' That which is not capable 
of forming ; that which does not serve to form, 
or is not organizable. 

Aplastic Element ; one which is unsuscep- 
tible of any farther amount of organization. — 

APLESTIA, Ingluvies, Intemperance. 

APLEU'ROS, from a, privative, and irXewpot, 
'a rib.' One without ribs. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

APLOT'OMY, Aplotom'ia, from an-Xooj, 'sim- 
ple,' and TCfivu, ' I cut.' A simple incision. 

APNEUSTIA, Apncea, Asphyxia. 

APNCE'A, from a, privative, and irvcu, 'I re- 
spire.' Asphyx'ia, Apneus'tia. Absence of re- 
spiration, Respira'tio abol'ita, or insensible respi- 
ration. Also, Orthopnoea. 

Apncea Infantum, Asthma Thymicum. 


APNUS, a-voo;, same etymon. One devoid of 
respiration. An epithet applied by authors to 
cases in which the respiration is so small and 
slow, that it seems suspended. — Castelli. It is 
probable, however, that the word was always ap- 
plied to the patient, not to the disease. 

APO, airo, a prefix denoting ' from, of, off, out.' 
Hence — 

APOBAMMA, Embamma. 

APOBAINON, Eventus. 



APOBLEMA, Abortion. 

APOBOLE, Abortion. 


APOCAPNISMUS, Fumigation. 

APOCATASTASIS, Considentia, Restauratio. 




APOCENO'SIS, Aposceno' sis, from airo, 'out,' 
and kcvuhtis, 'evacuation.' A partial evacuation, 
according to some, in opposition to Cenosis, which 
signifies a general evacuation. — Cullen and Swe- 
diaur apply it to morbid fluxes. 

Apocenosis, Abevacuatio — a. Diabetes melli- 
tus, Diabetes — a. Ptyalismus mellitus, see Saliva- 
tion — a. Vomitus pyrosis, Pyrosis. 

APOCHOREON, Excrement. 


APOCHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 

APOCH'YMA, from airoxe", ' I P our out -' -^ 
gort of tar, obtained from old ships, which is im- 
pregnated with chloride of sodium. It was used 
as a discutient of tumours. — Aetius, Paulus, 


APOCLASMA, Abduction, Apagma. 

APOCLEISIS, Asitia, Disgust. 

APOCOPE, from airo, and koittuv, 'to cut' 
Abscission. A wound with loss of substance. 
Fracture with loss of part of a bone. Amputa- 

APOCOPUS, Castratus. 

APOCRISIS, Contagion, Excrement, Secre- 

APOCROUS'TIC, Apocrous'tica seu Apocrus'. 
tiea, (remed'ia,) from airo, 'out,' and Kpovu. 'I 
push.' An astringent and repellent. — Galenus. 

APOCRUSTICA, Apocroustic. 

APOCYESIS, Parturition. 

into, and kvwv, ' a dog,' because esteemed, of old, 
to be fatal to dogs. Dog's Bane, Bitter Bog's 
Bane, Milkweed, Bitterroot, Honeybloom, Catch' 
fly, Flytrap, Ip'ecac, (F.) Apocin gobe-movche, 
A. amer. Nat. Ord. Apocyneae. Sex. Syst. Pent- 
andria Digynia. The root of this plant is found 
from Canada to Carolina. Thirty grains evacu- 
ate the stomach as effectually as two-thirds of 
the amount of Ipecacuanha, by which name it is 
known in various parts of the eastern states. It 
is in the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States. 

Apoc"ynum Cannab'inum, Indian Hemp. This 
American plant possesses emetic, cathartic, dia- 
phoretic and diuretic properties, and has been 
strongly recommended in dropsy. It has been 
given in decoction, — g\j of the root boiled in 
three pints of water to two. A wine-glassful for 
a dose. 

Apocynum Nov^e Anglic Hirsutum, Ascle- 
pias tuberosa — a. Orange, Asclepias tuberosa — a. 
Scandens, Allamanda. 

APODACRYT'ICUS, Delachrymati'vus, from 
airo, 'from,' and iaKpvto, ' I weep. A substance, 
supposed to occasion a flow of the tears, and then 
to arrest them. — Columella, Pliny, Galenus. 


APOD'IA, from a, privative, and irovs, 'a foot.' 
Want of feet; hence Apous or Apus, one who has 
no feet. 

APODYTE'RIUM, Coniste'rium, Spoliato'- 
rium, Spolia'rium, from airolvo), 'I strip off.' The 
ante-room, where the bathers stripped themselves 
in the ancient gymnasia. 



APOGETJSIS, Ageustia. 

APOGEUSTIA, Ageustia. 


APOGON, Imberbis. 

APOG'ONUM, from arro, and yivouat, 'I exist.' 
A living fcetus in utero. — Hippocrates. 

APOLEPISIS, Desquamation. 

APOLEPISMUS, Desquamation. 

APOLEP'SIS, Apolep'sia, Apolip'sis, from 
airo\an(iav<j>, 'I retain.' Retention, suppression, 
— Hippocrates. Asphyxia. 

APOLEX'IS, from airo\nyv>, 'I cease.' Old 
age, decrepitude. 

APOLINO'SIS, from airo, and Xivov, 'a flaxen 
thread.' The mode of operating for fistula in 
ano, by means of a thread of Homolinon orLinum 
crudum. — Hippocrates, Paulus. 

APOLIPSIS, Apolepsis. 


APOLUTICA, Cicatrisantia. 

APOLYS'IA, Apol'ysis, from arroAj'O), 'I loosen.' 
Solution. Relaxation. Debility of the limbs or 
looseness of bandages. — Erotian. Expulsion of 
the fcetus and its dependencies. Termination of 
a disease. — Hippocrates, Galen. 




APOMATHE'MA, Apomathe'sis, from airo, and 
mavdavw, ' I learu.' Forgetfulness of things taught. 
■ — Hippocrates. 

APOM'ELI, from airo, 'of,' and /ieAi, 'honey.' 
An oxymel or decoction made of honey. — Galen, 
Aetius, Paulas, etc. 

APOMEXIS, Munctio. 

APOMYLE'NAS, from a-ouvWaivw, 'I make 
awry mouth.' One who pushes his lips forwards, 
pressing them against each other. Occasionally 
a symptom of nervous fever. — Galen, Erotian. 

APOMYTHO'SIS, from a-aouuaau), 'I snore.' 
A disease in which there is stertor. — Sauvages, 

APOMYXIA, Nasal mucus. 

APOXE UROG'RAPHY, Aponeurogra'phia, 
from aroitupioffij, an 'aponeurosis,' and ypa<p>], 
'a description.' A description of the Aponeu- 

A P X E IT R L'O G Y, Aponeurolog"ia, from 
anoi-evpwcts, 'an aponeurosis.' and Aoyoj, 'a dis- 
course.' Aponeurosiol'ogy. The anatomy of the 

APOXE UROSIOLOGY, Aponeurology. 

APOXE URO'SIS, Aponevro' sis, from ano, 
'from,' and vivpov, 'a nerve.' Pronerva'tio, l)e- 
nerva'tio, Enerva'tio, Expan'sio nervo'sa, (F.) 
Aponeurotic, Aponcvrose. The ancients called 
every white part vtvpov, and regarded the Apo- 
neurosis as a nervous expansion. The Aponeu- 
roses are white, shining membranes, very resist- 
ing, and composed of fibres interlaced. Some 
are continuous with the muscular fibres, and differ 
only from tendons by their flat form. They are 
called Aponeuroses of insertion, (F.) Aponevroses 
d'insertion, when they are at the extremities of 
muscles, and attach them to the bone ; — Aponeu- 
roses of intersection, (F.) Aponevroses d'intersec- 
tion, if they interrupt the continuity of the mus- 
cle, and are continuous on both sides with mus- 
cular fibres. Others surround the muscle, and 
prevent its displacement: they are called envelop- 
ing Aponeuroses, (F.) Aponevroses d'enveloppe. 

Aponeurosis, Fascia — a. Crural, Fascia lata — 
a. Femoral, Fascia lata — a. Iliac, Fascia iliaca. 

APONEUROSITIS, from aponeurosis, and 
itis, 'denoting inflammation.' Inflammation of 
an aponeurosis. 

APONEUROTIC, Aponeurot'icus. "What re- 
lates to Aponeuroses : — thus, we say Aponeurotic 
expansion, Aponeurotic muscle, &c. 

APONEUROT'OMY, Aponeurotom'ia, from 
anovevpbitjis, 'aponeurosis,' and tcjivu, 'I cut.' 
Anatomy of aponeuroses. 

Aponeurotomy has, also, been proposed for the 
division, {debridement) of filaments, <fec, in apo- 
neurotic openings, and for the section of fascia?. 

Aponeurosis — a. Superficielle de V Abdomen et de 
la Cuisse, Fascia superficialis. 

APOXEVROSIS, Aponeurosis. 

APOX'IA, from a, privative, and novo;, 'pain.' 
Freedom from pain. 

APOXIPSIS, Ablution. 

APOPALLE'SIS, Apopal'sis, from axoiraMu, 
«T throw off.' Expulsion. Protrusion.— Hippo- 
crates. Also, Abortion. 

APOPATE'MA, Apop'athos, Apop'atus. The 

excrement, and the place where it is deposited. 

Dioscorides, Erotian. 

APOPEDASIS, Luxation. 

rhine — a. per Os, Sialogogue. 

ton'ta, Apophlegmatia'mi, from a™, 'out,' and 
jteyim, ' phlegm.' Medicines which facilitate the 
upward expulsion of mucus from the mucous 

membrane of the digestive or air passages; as 
gargles, masticatories, <fec. 

APOPHLEG'MATISM, Apophlegmatis'mus. 
Tin 1 action of Apophlegmatisantia. — Galen. 

APOPHLEGMATISMI, Apophlegmatisantia. 

APOPII'RADES, from a-rroQpas, 'unlucky.' 
An epithet applied to unlucky days, {dies ne- 
fandi.) Days on which a favourable change 
is not expected to occur in a disease. — A. Lau- 

APOPHRAXIS, Amenorrhcea. 

APOPHTHAR'MA, Apoph'thora, from airo, 
and <p$upu>, 'I corrupt.' Abortion, as well as a 
medicine to procure abortion. 

APOPHTHORA, Abortion. 


APOPHY'ADES, from a™, 'from,' and </>vh>, 
' I spring.' The ramifications of veins and arte- 
ries. — Hippocrates. 

APOPHYSE BASIL AIRE, Basilary process 
— a. Engainunte ou vaginale, Vaginal process — 
a. Pyramidale, see Temporal Bone — a. Petree, 
see Temporal Bone. 

cesses of the vertebrae. 

APOPH'YSIS, from airo, 'from,' and <pvw, 'I 
rise,' Ec'physis, Processus, Appendix, A process 
of a bone, Prominentia ossis contin'ua. When 
the apophysis is yet separated from the body of 
the bone by intervening cartilage, it is called 
Epiphysis. The apophyses or processes are, at 
times, distinguished by epithets, expressive of 
their form : as A. styloid, A. coracoid, &c. Others 
are not preceded by the word apophysis ; as Tro- 
chanter, Tuberosity, &C. 

Apoph'ysis of Ingras'sias is a term applied 
to the lesser ala of the sphenoid bone. 

Apophysis of Rau, Grele apophyse du llar- 
teau : see Malleus. 

Apophysis Zygomatica, Zygomatic process. 

APOPIES'MA, from airoim.^ta, ' I compress.' 
Hippocrates uses the term to signify a fancied 
expression or forcing out of humours by the 
application of bandages in wounds and frac- 

APOPLAXESIS, Error loci. 

APOPLECTIC, Apoplec'ticus. Referring to 
Apoplexy. This word has various significations. 
It is applied, 1. To individuals labouring under 
apoplexy : 2. To remedies proper for combating 
apoplexy : 3. To the constitution, temperament, 
or make, Architectu'ra apojilec'tica, Hab'itu* 
apoplec'ticus, which predisposes to it, and, 4. To 
the symptoms which characterize apoplexy; as 
Apoplectic sleep, A. stroke, A. stertor, &c. The 
jugular veins have also, by some, been called 
Apoplectic veins, Vena apoplec'tivm. 

APOPLECTICUS, Antiapoplectic, Apoplectic 

Apoplectic Cell. A cavity remaining in the 
enccphalon, after the effusion of blood and its 
subsequent absorption. 

APOPLEXIA, Apoplexy— a. Catalepsia, Cata- 
lepsia— a. Cerebralis, see Apoplexy— a. Cerebri, 
see Apoplexy — a. Cordis, Haemocardiorrhagia— 
a. Hydrocephaliea, Hydrocephalus in t emus— a. 
Hepatica, Hepatorrhagia — a. Medullars, Apo- 
plexia myelitica— a. Meningaea, Apoplexy, me- 

Apoplexia Myelit'ica; A. Medulla'ris, A. 
bpina'lts, A.Rachia'lis, Hamor'rhaehis, Myelor- 
rhag" ta , Myelapoplex' ia, (F.) Apoplexie de la 
Motile epxnxlre, Hemorrhagic de la Moelle epini- 
ere, Hemato-mySlie, Hemo-mye'lorrhar/ie, IWma- 
torrhachis. Hemorrhage into the spinal marrow. 

Apoplexia Nervosa, Apoplexy, nervous— a. 
Nervosa traumatica, Concussion of the brain — a. 
Pituitosa, see Apoplexy— a. Pulmonalis, see Hae- 
moptysis— a. Pulmonum, see Haemoptysis — a. 




Renalis, Apoplexy, renal — a. Rachialis, A. mye- 
litica — a. Sanguinea, see Apoplexy — a. Serosa, 
Bee Apoplexy — a. Simplex, Apoplexy, nervous — 
a. Spasinodica, Apoplexy, nervous — a. Spinalis, 
Apoplexia myelitica — a. Temulenta, see Temu- 

rebri — a. Cerebrate, Apoplexy, Hemorrhagic cere- 

dering Apoplexy.' A form of apoplexy, which 
is intense and rapidly fatal. 

ningeal — a. Be la Motile Epiniere, Apoplexy, 

AP'OPLEXY, Apoplex'ia, from avoTrXriTrtiv, 
'to strike with violence.' At the present day, 
the term apoplexy is employed by many writers 
to signify interstitial hemorrhage, (F.) Hemor- 
rhagic interstitielle, or every effusion of blood, 
which occurs suddenly into the substance of an 
organ or tissue. Hence, we speak of cerebral 
apoplexy, pulmonary apoplexy, <fcc. &c. For- 
merly it was always — and still is by many — 
used in a restricted sense, to signify, in other 
words, the train of phenomena, which cha- 
racterize cerebral apoplexy. This disease, Hce- 
inorrha'gia Cer'ebri, Aphro'nia, Carus Apoplex'ia, 
Coma Apoplex'ia, Apoplex'ia cer'ebri sanguin'ea, 
A. cerebra'lis, Encephalorrhag"ia, San'guinis 
ictus, Hcematenceph 1 alum, Pulpez'ia, Sidera'tio, 
Apilepz'ia, Morbus atton'itus, Gutta, Theople'gia, 
Theoplex'ia, (F.) Apoplexie, A. cerebrate, Hema- 
toencephalie, Coup de sang, is characterized by 
diminution, or loss of sensation and mental ma- 
nifestation ; by the cessation, more or less com- 
plete, of motion ; and by a comatose state, — cir- 
culation and respiration continuing. It generally 
consists in pressure upon the brain ; either from 
turgescence of vessels, or from extravasation of 
blood : hence the terms Hmmenceph' alus, Hemor- 
rhagic cerebrate, and Hemoencephalorrhagie, ap- 
plied to it by some. The general prognosis is 
unfavourable ; especially when it occurs after the 
age of 35. When Apoplexy is accompanied with 
a hard, full pulse, and flushed countenance, it is 
called Apoplexia sanguin'ea, Cataph'ora coma ; 
when with a feeble pulse and pale countenance, 
and evidences of serous effusion, Apoplex'ia se- 
ro'sa, A. pituito'sa, Serous Apoplexy, Cataph'ora 
hydrocephal'ica, Encephaloch'ysis seni'lis, Hydro- 
ceph'alus acu'tus senum, Hydroencephalorrhee, 
(Piorry), Hydropisie cerebrate suraigu'e, Hydror- 

In Nervous Apoplexy, Apoplex'ia nervo'sa seu 
tpasmod'ica, A. simplex, Simple apoplexy, no le- 
sion whatever may be perceptible on dissection, 
although the patient may have died under all the 
phenomena that are characteristic of apoplexy. 

Apoplexy of the Heart, Haemocardior- 

Apoplexy, Meninge'al, Apoplex'ia menin- 
gm'a, (F.) Apoplexie meningee, Hemorrhagic me"- 
ningie. Hemorrhage from the meninges of the 
brain or spinal marrow, generally into the great 
cavity of the arachnoid. 

Apoplexy, Nervous, see Apoplexy — a. Pul- 
monary, see Haemoptysis — a. Simple, A. Nervous. 
Apoplexy, Renal, Apoplex'ia rena'lis. A 
condition of the kidney, characterized by knotty, 
irregular, tuberculated eminences, some of a deep 
black colour. Effusion of blood into the sub- 
stance of the kidney. 

Apoplexy, Serous, see Apoplexy — a. Spinal, 
Apoplexia mvelitica. 

APOPNEUSIS, Exhalatio. 
APOPNIXIS. Suffocation. 

APOPNOE, Exspiratio. 

APOPNCEA, Exspiratio. 


APOPTO'SIS, from 07:0*17™, 'I fall down.' 
A relaxation of bandages. — Erotian. 

APORRHOE, Aporrhoea. 

APORRHCE'A, Apor'rhoe, Apor'rhysis, Deflu'- 
vium, from turoppiti), ' I flow from.' An emana- 
tion, effluvium, contagion. — Moschion. A falling 
off of the hair, according to some. 

APORRHYSIS, Aporrhoea. 

APOSCEM'MA, Aposcep'sis, from a*OBicr)Tti*. 
' I lie down, I direct myself towards.' Afflux of 
fluids towards a part. Metastasis. The first 
word has been applied to the excrements. — Hip- 
pocrates, Galen. 

APOSCENOSIS, Apocenosis. 

APOSCEPARNIS'MUS, Heascia'tio, from a*o 
and oKtnapvov, ' a hatchet.' Wound of the cra- 
nium, by a cutting instrument, in which a piece 
of the bone has been cut out, as with a hatchet. 
— Gorraeus. 

APOSCEPSIS, Aposcemma. 

APOS'CHASISi Aposchas'mus, from a-noo-xafa, 
' I scarify.' Scarifica'tion. A slight superficial 
incision in the skin. Also, blood-letting. — Hip- 

APOS'IA, Sitis de/ec'tus, from a, privative, 
and TTOffts, ' drink.' Want of thirst, absence of 
desire for liquids. 

APOSI'TIA, from cnro, ' from,' and cito;, ' food.' 
Aversion for food. — Galen. See Disgust. 

APOSIT'IC, Aposit'ieus ; the same etymology. 
Any substance which destroys the appetite, or 
suspends hunger. 

APOSPAS'MA, from aicooTTao>, ' I tear or lace- 
rate.' (F.) Arrachement. A solution of conti- 
nuity, especially of a ligament; lihegma liga- 1 
menta're, Lacera'tio tig amenta' ria. 

APOSPHACEL'ISIS, Aposphacelis'mus, from 
arro, and o<paictKos, 'mortification.' Gangrene in 
wounds and fractures, owing to the bandages 
being too tight. — Hippocrates. 

APOSPHINX'IS, anoctpiyfc, constriction, 
compression. The action of a tight bandage. — 

APOSPONGIS'MTTS, the act of sponging for 
any purpose. — Gorraeus. 

APOSTALAG'MA, Apostag'ma, from arro, 
'from,' and oraXafa, 'I drop.' The ancient name 
for the saccharine liquor which flows from grapes 
when not yet pressed. 

APOS'TASIS, from airo, and (orn/u, ' I stop.' 
The ancients had different significations for this 
word. It was most commonly used for an ab- 
scess. The separation of a fragment of bone by 
fracture. Removal of disease by some excre- 
tion, &c. 

APOSTAX'IS, from avoara^, ' I distil from.' 
Staxis. The defluxion of any humour, as of 
blood from the nose. — Hippocrates. 

APOSTE'MA, from ano, 'from,' and to-mui, 'I 
settle,' or from a<j>ioTnui, ' I recede from.' This 
word is used by the ancients somewhat vaguely. 
It meant an affection in which parts, previously 
in contact, are separated from each other by a 
fluid collected between them. The moderns re- 
gard it as synonymous with Abscess. Some, even 
of the moderns, have applied it to any watery 
tumour, and even to tumours in general. 

Apostema Cerebri, Encephnlopyosis— a. Em- 
pyema, Empyema— a. Parulis, Pnrulis — a. Pha- 
langurn, Fourche—a. Psoaticum, Lumbar abscess. 

APOSTERIG'MA, from ,o t r, fl ( M , ' I sup- 
port.' Any thing that supports a diseased part, 
as a cushion, a pillow, &c. — Galen. A deep. 

seated and inveterate disease of the intestines. 





APOS'THIA, Leipoder'mia, from a privative, 
and noaQia, ' prepuce.' Want of prepuce. 

phar'macum, Ointment of the Apostles. So called, 
because as many solid ingredients entered into 
its composition as there were apostles. It con- 
tained several resins and gum-resins, yellow wax, 
oil, vinegar, verdigris, &c, and was formerly em- 
ployed as a vulnerary. 

APOS'TROPHE, from airo, and (rrprtfw, 'I 
turn.' An aversion or disgust for food. — Paulus. 
Also, the direction of humours towards other parts. 

APOSYRMA, Abrasion, Desquamation. 

APOTELES'MA, from otto, and rcXtana, 'com- 
pletion.' The result or termination of a disease. 
See, also, Amuletum. 

APOTHANASIA, see Death. 

APOTHE'C A, Pharmace'um,Pharmacopo'lium, 
from airo, and r&npi, ' to place.' Any place where 
things are kept, and therefore 'a shop,' and par- 
ticularly a wine cellar. A place or vessel wherein 
medicines are kept. See Pharmacopolium. 

APOTHECARIES' HALL. The Hall of the 
Corporation or Society of Apothecaries of Lon- 
don, where medicines are prepared and sold 
under their direction, &c. This Company ob- 
tained a charter of incorporation in the 15th year 
of James the First. No general practitioner can 
establish himself in England or Wales, without 
having obtained a license from the Court of Ex- 
aminers of the Company. 

APOTH'ECARY, Apotheca'rius, Dispensa'tor, 
Pharmacopo' la, Pigmenta' rius, Pharmacopoe' us, 
Phanna' ecus, Pharmaceu'ta, Rhizot'omus, My- 
ropo'les, Myropo'lus, Pharmacter, Pharmaeur'- 
gicus, Pharmacur' gus, Pharmaceu'tist, same deri- 
vation, (F.) Apothicaire, Pharmacien, Pharma- 
copole. In every country except Great Britain, 
it means one who sells drugs, makes up prescrip- 
tions, &c. In addition to these offices, which, 
indeed, they rarely exercise, except in the case 
of their own patients, the Apothecaries in Eng- 
land form a privileged class of practitioners — a 
kind of sub-physician. 

APOTHERAPEI'A, Apotherapi'a, Apoihera- 
peu'sis, from (ntoStpatnvui, (aizo and 6cpairevtj>,) 'I 
cure.' A perfect cure. — Hippoc. In the ancient 
Gymnastics, it meant the last part of the exer- 
cises : — the friction, inunction, and bathing, for 
the purpose of obviating fatigue, or curing dis- 
ease.— Galen, Gorrseus. 

APOTHERAPEUSIS, Apotherapeia. 

APOTHER'MUM, from a™, and Sepw, 'heat.' 
A pickle made of mustard, oil, and vinegar. — 

APOTH'ESIS, from airortSnut, 'I replace.' 
The position proper to be given to a fractured 
limb, after reduction. 

APOTHICAIRE, Apothecary. 

APOTHICAIRERIE, (F.) from a-Ko$ V Kv, 'a 
warehouse, shop.' The same as Apotheca; also, 
a gallipot. 

APOTHLIM'MA, from m , and SAi/Jw, 'I 
press from.' Anciently, the dregs, and some- 
times the expressed juice, Suceus expres'sus, of 
plants. — Gorrasus. 

APOTHRAU'SIS, from anoSpavo, 'I break.' 
Fracture of a bone, with spicula remaining. Ex- 
traction of a spiculum of bone. — Gorrseus. Also, 

APOTILMOS, Evulsion. 

APOT'OKOS, from airo, and tiktoi, 'I bring 
forth.' An abortive foetus. — Hippocrates. 

APOTOME, Amputation. 

APOTOMIA, Amputation. 

APOTROPiEUM, Amuletum. 

APOTROPE, Aversion. Also, deviation — as 
#f a limb — Parat'rope. 

APOXYSMUS, Abrasion. 

APOZEM, Decoction. 

APOZESIS, Decoction. 

APPARA'TUS, Parasceu'e, from ad and pa- 
rare, 'to prepare.' This word signifies a collec- 
tion of instruments, <fcc, for any operation what- 
ever. (F.) Appareil. 

In surgery, it means the methodical arrange- 
ment of all the instruments and object.-; necessary 
for an operation or dressing. By extension, the 
French give the name Appareil, Oapsa chirur'- 
gica, to the case or drawers in which the appara- 
tus is arranged. 

Apparatus has likewise been applied to the 
different modes of operating for the stone. — See 

In Physiology, Apparatus {Appareil) is ap- 
plied to a collection of organs, all of which work 
towards the same end. A system of organs com- 
prehends all those formed of a similar texture. 
An apparatus often comprehends organs of very 
different nature. In the former, there is analogy 
of structure ; in the latter, analog}' of function. 

Apparatus Altus, see Lithotomy. 

Apparatus Immov'able, (F.) Appareil immo- 
bile, Immovable Bandage, Permanent Bandage. 
An apparatus for fractures, which is generally 
formed by wetting the bandages in some sub- 
stance, as starch or dextrin, which becomes solid, 
and retains the parts in situ. 

Apparatus Lateralis, see Lithotomy — a. 
Major, see Lithotomy — a. Minor, see Lithotomy. 

APPAREIL, Apparatus, Boitier — a. Grand, 
see Lithotomy — a. Hant, see Lithotomy — a. Im- 
mobile, Apparatus, immovable — a. Lateralise, see 
Lithotomy — a. Petit, see Lithotomy — a. Pig- 
mental, Pigmental apparatus. 

admits, in the brain, two kinds of fibres ; the 
one, divergent, proceeding from the cerebral pe- 
duncles to the convolutions, and constituting 
what he calls appareils deformation: the other, 
convergent, and proceeding from the convolutions 
to the centre of the organ, constituting what he 
calls appareils de reunion. The first, as a whole, 
form the organs of the mental faculties : the latter 
are commissures, which unite parts of the organ 
that are double and in pairs. 

APPAUVRI, Impoverished. 

APPENBICE, Appendix— a. Ccecal, Appen- 
dix vermiformis cajci — a. Digital, Appendix ver- 
miformis ca?ci — a. Sous-sternale, Xiphoid carti- 
lage — a. Siis-spheno'idale du cerveau, Pituitary 
gland — a. Xiphoide, Xiphoid cartilage. 

Appendices Coli Adipose, Appendiculas epi- 
ploicie — Epiploiques, Appendiculae epiploicae. 

— a. Vermiformis caaci, see Appendix — a. Epi. 
ploica, Epiploic appendage. 

loic appendages, Appendic' ulaz Epiplo'icce, Ap- 
pen'dices coli adipo'sce, Omen'tula, (F.) Appen- 
dices Epiploiques. Prolongations of the peri- 
toneum beyond the surface of the great intestine, 
which are analagous in texture and arrangement 
to omenta. 

APPEN'DIX, Ejiiph'ysis, from appendere, (ad 
and pendere, ' to hang,') ' to hang from.' Any 
part that adheres to an organ or is continuous 
with it : — seeming as if added to it. An append- 
age; an apophysis, (F.) Appendice, Annexe. 

Appendix Auriculae, see Auricles of the 

Appendix Cerebri, Pituitary gland — a. ad 
Cerebrum, Cerebellum — a. Cutanea Septa Nnriurn, 
Statica Scpti Narium — a. to the Epididymis, Vas- 
culum aberrans — a. Ventrieuli, Duodenum. 

Appendix Veumifoe'mis, Appendic' ula Vtr- 


mifor'mia Cee'ci, Tubus Vermicula'ris Oceci, Ec'- 
phyas, Add itamen' turn Goli, Appeit'dix Cee'ci, (F.) 
Appendice vermiforme, A. ccecal ou digital. A 
vermicular process, the size of a goose-quill, 
which hangs from the intestine caecum. Its func- 
tions are unknown. 

APPENSIO, see Analeptia. 
AP'PETENCE, Appeten'tia, from appetere, (ad 
and petere,) 'to desire.' An ardent, passionate 
desire for anv object. 

AP PETIT, PERTE D\ Anorexia. I 

AP'PETITE, Appeti'tus, Appeten'tia, Appeti"- 
tia, (ad and petere,) 'to seek,' Cupi'do, Orex'is, 
Orme: same etymology as the last. An internal 
sensation, which warns us of the necessity of ex- 
erting certain functions, especially those of diges- 
tion and generation. In the latter case it is called 
venereal appetite, (P.) Appetit venerien: in the 
former, simply appetite, (P.) Appetit ou Appeti- 
tion. If the desire for food, occasioned by a real 
want, be carried to a certain extent, it is called 
hunger, when solid food is concerned ; thirst, when 
liquid. Appetite and hunger ought not, how- 
ever, to be employed synonymously : they are 
different degrees of the same want. Hunger is 
an imperious desire : it cannot be provoked, like 
the appetite. It is always allayed by eating : but 
not so the appetite ; for, at times, it may be ex- 
cited in this manner. They are very generally, 
however, used synonymously. 

Appetite, Morbid, Limosis. 

Ap'petite, Vene'real, Venereal desire, (F.) 
Le genesique, Amour physique. The instinctive 
feeling that attracts tho sexes towards each other 
to effect the work of reproduction. 

APPETITUS CANINUS, Boulimia— a. Defi- 
ciens, Dysorexia. 

APPLE, ADAM'S, Pomum Adami— a. Bitter, 
Cucumis colocynthis — a. Curassoa, Aurantium 
curassaventium — a. Eye, see Melon — a. May, 
Podophyllum peltatum — a. Boot, Euphorbia co- 

Apple Tea, Apple water. Slice two large, not 
over-ripe apples, and pour over a pint of boiling 
water. After an hour, pour off the fluid, and, if 
necessary, sweeten with sugar. 

Apple Tree, Pyrus malus. 

APPLICA'TA, from applicare, (adandplicare, 
'to fold,') 'to apply.' A word, unnecessarily in- 
troduced into medical language, to express the 
objects which are applied immediately to the sur- 
face of the body, as clothes, cosmetics, baths, &c. 

APPLICATION, Applica'tio, (same etymon,) 
in a moral signification, is synonymous with At- 
tention. Also, the act of applying one thing to 
another; as the application of an apparatus, of 
a bandage, blister, &c. 

APPREHEN'SIO, from ad and prehendere, 
'to take.' This word is employed in various 
senses. It means catalepsy or catoche. — Paul 
Zacchias. A kind of bandage for securing any 
part. Also, a therapeutical indication. 

APP ROCHE, Coition. 

APPBOXIMA'TION, Approxima'tio, from ad 
and proximus, 'nearest.' Ettmuller gave this 
name to a pretended method of curing disease, 
by making it pass from man into some animal or 
vegetable, by the aid of immediate contact. 

APBAC'T A, from a, priv., and trpaoaw, ' I act.' 
Without action. An epithet for the parts of ge- 
neration, when unfit for copulation or generation. 

APBICATIO, Insolation. 

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca. 

APROCTUS, see Atretus. 

APROSO'PIA, Triocephal'ia, from a, priv., 
and wpoauirov, ' the face.' A malformation, which 
oonsists in the face being deficient. 

93 AQUA 

APROSOPTTS, Microprosopus. 
APSINTHIA'TUM, from a^ivSwv, 'worm- 
wood.' A sort of drink made of wormwood. 
— Aetius. 

APSINTHITES, Absinthites. 

APSYCHIA, Syncope. 

APSYXIA, Syncope. 

APTH.E, Aphtha?. 

APTYS'TOS, from a, priv., and Trmui, 'I spit. 
Devoid of expectoration. An epithet given to 
certain pleurisies, in which there is no expectora- 
tion. — Hippocrates. 

APUS, see Apodia. 

APY'ETOS, from a, priv., and irvov, 'pus.' An 
external affection, which does not end in suppu- 

APYIQUE, Apyos. 

AP'YOS, from a, priv., and irvov, 'pus,' (F.) 
Apyique. That which does not afford pus. 

APYRECTIC, Apyretic. 

APYRENOMELE, Apyromele. 

APYRET'IC, Apyret'ieus, Apyrec'tic, Apyrec'- 
ticus, Apyr'etus, from a, priv., and irvp, 'fire, 
fever.' Without fever. This epithet is given to 
days in which there is no paroxysm of a disease, 
as in the case of an intermittent, as well as to 
some local affections which do not induce fever. 
Urticaria is sometimes called an apyretic exan- 

APYREX'IA. The same etymology. Absence 
of fever ; Dialem'ma, Dialeip'ais, Dialip'sis, 
Tempus intercala're, Interval 'lum, Tntermis'sio. 
Apyrexia is the condition of an intermittent 
fever between the paroxysms : the duration of 
the apyrexia, consequently, depends on the type 
of the intermittent. Occasionally, the term has 
been applied to the cessation of the febrile con- 
dition in acute diseases. 

APYROME'LE, Apyrenome'le, from a, priv., 
trvpnv, ' a nut,' and ftn^n, ' a sound.' A sound or 
probe, without a button or nut. It is the 3felo'tis, 
Specil'lum auricula' rium or Auricular sound of 

AQUA, Urine, Water — a. Acidi carbonici, 
Acidulous water — a. Acidula hydrosulphurata, 
Naples water (factitious) — a. Aeris fixi, Acidu- 
lous water (simple) — a. Alkalina oxymuriatica, 
Eau de Javelle — a. Aluminis compositus, Liquor, 
a. c. — a. Aluminosa Bateana, Liq. aluminis com- 
positus — a. Ammonia?, Liquor ammonia; — a. Aee- 
tatis ammonia?, Liquor ammonite acetatis — a. 
Ammonias carbonatis, Liquor ammonias subca.r- 
bonatis — a. Ammonia? caustiaa, Liquor ammonias 
— a. Amnii, Liquor Amnii. 

Aqua Amygdala'rum Concentra'ta, (F.) 
Eau d'Amandes ameres, Water of bitter almonds. 
Made by bruising well two pounds of bitter al- 
monds ; adding, whilst triturating, ten pounds 
of spring water, and four pounds of alcohol ; let- 
ting the mixture rest in a well-closed vessel, and 
then distilling two pounds. Used instead of the 
Aqua Laurocerasi, and the Hydrocyanic acid. 

An Aqua amyg'dalce ama'rae, Bitter Almond 
water, has been introduced into the last edition 
of the Ph. U. S., 1851, (01. amygdal. amar. 
TT^xvj. ; Magnes. Carbon, gj. ; Aqncc Oij.) 

Aqua Anisi Fortis, Spiritus anisi — a. Aquis- 
granensis, see Aix-la-Chapelle — a. Auditoria, 
Cotunnius, Liquor of — a. Aurantii, see Citrus au- 
rantium — a. Azotica oxygenata, Aqua nitrogenii 
protoxydi — a. Balsamica arterialis, Aqua Bi- 
nellii — a. Bareginensis, Bareges water — a. Barytee 
Muriatis, see Baryta, muriate of — a. Bellilucana, 
Balaruc waters — a. Benedicta, Liquor calcis — a. 
Benedicta composita, Liquor calcis compositus— 
a. Benedicta Rulandi, Vinum antimonii lartari- 

Aqua Bine'llii, Acqua Binelli. A. Monterosri, 




Aqua Baham'ica arteria'lis, (F.) Eau de Binclli, 
Eau de Monterossi. A celebrated Italian hsmo- 
statie, invented by one Binelli. Its composition 
is unknown, but its virtues have been ascribed to 
creasote ; although there is reason for believing 
it to possess no more activity than cold water. 

Aqua Brocchie'rii, Acqua Brocchieri, Broc- 
chieri water, (P.) Eau de Brocchieri, Eau styp- 
tique de Brocchieri. A supposed styptic, which 
made much noise at Paris at one time. It is de- 
void of efficacy. Dr. Paris found nothing in it 
but water perfumed by some vegetable essence. 

Aqua Borvonensis, Bourbonne-les-Bains, mi- 
neral waters of — a. Bristoliensis, Bristol water — 
a, Calcarias ustae, Liquor calcis — a. Calcis, Liquor 
calcis — a. Calcis composita, Liquor calcis compo- 
situs — a. Cauiphorae, Mistura camphorae — a. 
Camphorata, Bates's, see Cupri sulphas — a. Car- 
bonatis sodae acidula, Acidulous water, simple — 
a. Catapultarum, Arquebusade, eau d' — a. Chlo- 
rini, see Chlorine. 

Aqua Cinnamo'mt, Cinnamon Water. Distilled 
water of Cinnamon Bark. Prepared also in the 
following manner. 01. Cinnam. fgss; Magnes. 
Carbon, gj ; Aq. destillat. Oij. Rub the oil and 
carbonate of magnesia; add the water gradually, 
and filter. (Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Cinnamomi Fortis, Spiritus Cinnamomi 
—a. Colcestrensis, Colchester, mineral waters of. 

Aqua Colora'ta, ' coloured water.' A name 
given to a prescription in which simple coloured 
water is contained. Used in hospital cases, more 
especially, where a, placebo is demanded. 

Aqua Cupri Ammoniata, Liquor c. a. — a. Cu- 
pri vitriolati composita, Liquor cupri sulphatis 
composita — a. inter Cutem, Anasarca — a. Destil- 
lata, Water, distilled — a. Florum aurantii, see 
Citrus aurantium — a. Fluviatilis, Water, river. 

Aqua Fcenic'uli, Fennel water. The distilled 
water of fennel seed. It may be prepared also 
like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Fontana, Water, spring — a. Fortis, Ni,- 
tric acid — a. Hepatica, Hydrosulphuretted water 
— a. Hordeata, Decoctum hordei — a. Imbrium, 
Water, rain — a. Intercus, Anasarca — a. Inter 
Cutem, Anasarca — a. Juniperi composita, Spiritus 
juniperi compositus — a. Kali, Liquor potassae 
eubcarbonatis — a. Kali caustici, Liquor potassae 
— a. Kali praeparati, Liquor potassae subcarbon- 
atis — a. Kali puri, Liquor potassa? — a. Kali sub- 
carbonatis, Liquor potassae subcarbonatis — a. La- 
byrinthi, Cotunnius, liquor of — a. Lactis, Serum 
lactis — a. ex Lacu, Water, lake — a. Lithargyri 
acetati composita, Liquor plumbi subacetatis di- 
lutus — a. Luciae, Spiritus ammoniae succinatus — 
a. Marina, Water, sea — a. Medicata, Water, mi- 

Aqua Mentha Piperi'™, Peppermint Water. 
The distilled water of peppermint. It may be 
prepared like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Mentha Piperitidis Spirituosa, Spi- 
ritus menthae piperitae — a. Mentha} viridis, Spear- 
mint water; see Aquae menthaj piperitae — a. Men- 
tha; vulgaris spirituosa, Spiritus menthae viridis — 
— a. Mineralis, Water, mineral — a. Mirabilis, Spi- 
ritus pimentas — a. Mulsa, Hydromeli — a. Natri 
Oxmyuriatici, Liquor sodae chlorinatae — a. Nea- 
politana. Naples water, (factitious) — a. Nephrit- 
ica, Spiritus myristica. 

Aqua Nitrogen'h Protox'ydi, Pmtox'ide 
of Ni'troijen Water, Aqua azot'ica oxygena'ta, 
Searle's patent oxyg"enous aerated water. A pa- 
tent solution of protoxide of nitrogen, said to 
contain five times its own bulk of gas. It has 
been recommended as a nervine, and excitant in 
nervous conditions, dyspepsia, &c. It has also 
been used in cholera, and to counteract the evil 
consequences of drunkenness. The dose is f ^vj, 

or^viii, two or three times a day; or, in dys- 
pepsia, as a beverage between meals. 

Aqua Nivata, Water, snow— a. Nucis moscna- 
t», Spiritus myristicaj — a. Ophthalmica, Liquor 
zinci sulphatis cum camphora, — a. Paludosa, 
Water, marsh — a. Pedum, Urine — a. Pericardii, 
see Pericardium — a. Picea, see Pinus sylvestris 
— a. Picis, see Pinus sylvestris — a. Pluvialis, 
Water, rain — a. Potassa\ Liquor potassae — a. 
Pulegii spirituosa, Spiritus pulegii — a. Putealis, 
Water, well— a. ex Puteo, Water, well— a. Rabelli, 
Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Raphani composita, 
Spiritus armoraciffi compositus — a. Regia, Nitro- 
muriatic acid. 

Aqua Ros^5, Rose Water, Rhodostag'mn, 
(Iios. centifol. ibviij : Aqua cong. ij. M. Distil a 
gallon— Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Salubris, Water, mineral — a. Sappha- 
rina, Liquor cupri ammoniata — a. Saturni, Li- 
quor plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Sclopetaria, 
Arquebusade eau d' — a. Seminum anisi compo- 
sita, Spiritus anisi — a. Seminum carui fortis, 
Spiritus carui — a. Sodae effervescens, Acidulous 
water, simple — a. Soteria, Water, mineral — a. 
Stygia, Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Styptica, Liquor 
cupri sulphatis composita — a. Sulphurata sim- 
plex, Hydrosulphuretted water — a. Sulphured 
ammoniae, Liquor fumans Boylii — a. Thediana, 
Arquebusade eau d' — a. Theriacalis Bezoardica, 
Chylostagma diaphoreticum Mindereri — a. To- 
fana, Liquor arsenicalis — a. Tosti panis, Toast 
water — a. Traumatica Thedenii, Arquebusade ean 
d' — a. Vegeto-mineralis, Liquor plumbi subace- 
tatis dilutus — a. Viciensis, Vichy water — a. Vi- 
triolica camphorata, Liquor zinci sulphatis cum 
camphora — a. Vitriolica caerulea, Solutio sulpha- 
tis cupri composita — a. Vulneraria, Arquebusade 
eau d' — a. Zinci vitriolati cum camphora, Liquor 
zinci sulphatis cum camphora. 

AQU.E ACIDULA, Acidulous waters — a, 
Badiguae, Bath, Mineral waters of — a. Badizas, 
Bath, Mineral waters of — a. Bathoniae, Bath, 
Mineral waters of — a. Buxtonienses, Buxton, Mi- 
neral waters of — a. Cantuarienses, Canterbury, 
waters of — a. Chalybeatae, Waters, mineral, cha- 

Aqu.b Destilla't.e, Distilled Waters, Hydro- 
la' ta, (F.) Hydrolats. These are made by put- 
ting vegetable substances, as roses, mint, penny- 
royal, <fec., into a still with water, and drawing 
off as much as is found to possess the aromatic 
properties of the plant. To every gallon of the 
distilled water, 5 oz. of spirit should be added to 
preserve it. The simple distilled waters are some- 
times called Aqua stillatifia sim'plices: the spi- 
rituous, Aqua stillatit" im spirituo'sce, but more 
commonly Spir'itus. 

Aqvje, Waters, mineral, chalybe- 
ate — a. Metus, Hydrophobia — a. Minerales aci- 
dulae, Waters, mineral, gaseous — a. Minerales 
ferruginosa3, Waters, mineral, chalybeate — a. Mi- 
nerales sulphureaa, Waters, mineral, sulphureous 
— a. Stillatitias, Aquae destillatae — a. Solis, Bath, 
mineral waters of. 

AQU^SDUC'TUS, Aq'ueduct, from aqua 'wa- 
ter,' and ducere, ductum, 'to lead.' (F.) Aque- 
dnc. Properly, a canal for conducting water 
from one place to another. Anatomists have 
used it to designate certain canals. 

Aqu^ductus Cerebri, Infundibuhim of the 
brain — a. Cotunnii, Aquaeductus vestibuli. 

AqujEDUc'tus Coch'le.e, (F.) Aqncducdu Li- 
macon; — n very narrow canal, which proceeds 
from the tympanic scala of the cochlea to the 
posterior edge of the pars petrosa. 

Aqu^duc'tus Fallo'pii, Canal spiroHde de 
I'os temporal of Chaussicr, (F.) Aqueduc de F'i- 
lope. A canal in the pars petrosa of the tempo- 




ral bone, which extends from the meatus audito- 
rius internus to the foramen stylo-mastoideum, 
and gives passage to the facial nerve. The 
opening into this aqueduct is called Hia'tus Fal- 

Aqceduc'tus Syl'vii, Cana'lis eminen'tim 
quadrigem'ince, (F.) Aqueduc de Sylvius, Iter ad 
quartiun vcntric'ulum, Cana'lis me'dius, Canal in- 
ter mcdiar e des ventricules of Chaussier. A canal 
forming a communication between the third and 
fourth ventricles of the brain. 

AQUyEDUc'Ttrs Vestib'uli, Aquceductus Ootun' - 
nii, Canal of Cotun'nius, (F.) Aqueduc du vestibule 
ou Aqueduc de Cotugno. This begins in the ves- 
tibule, near the common orifice of the two semi- 
circular canals, and opens at the posterior surface 
of the pars petrosa. 

AQUALICULUS, from aqualis, ' a water-pot.' 
That part of the abdomen which extends from 
the umbilicus to the pubes. See Hypogastrium. 
It has also been applied to the stomach or intes- 
tinal canal. 

AQUAS'TER. A word used, by Paracelsus, 
to express tbe visions or hallucinations of pa- 

A QUEDUC, Aqueduct — a. de Cotugno — Aquae- 
ductus vestibuli — a. de Fallope, Aquaeductus Fal- 
lopii — a. du Limacon, Aquaeductus cochleae — a. 
de Sylvius, Aquaeductus Sylvii — a. du Vestibule, 
Aquaeductus vestibuli. 

AQUEDUCT, Aquaeductus. 

A'QUEOUS, A'queus, Aqno'sus, Hydato'des. 
Hydro' den, from aqua, 'water,' (F.) Aqueux, 
Watery. The absorbents or lymphatics are 
sometimes called, in France, Conduits ou Ca- 
naux aqueux. 

Aqueous Humour of the Eye, Humor aqno'- 
sus, Albugin'eous humour, Ooei'des, Oo'des, Hy- 
dato'i'des, Hydato'des, Ova'tus seu Ovifor'mis 
humor, (F.) Humeur aqueuse. The limpid fluid 
which fills the two chambers of the eye, from the 
cornea to the crystalline, and which is, conse- 
quently, in contact with the two surfaces of the 
iris. Quantity, 5 or 6 grains : s. g. 1.0003. It 
contains albumen, chloride of sodium, and phos- 
phate of lime in small quantity; and is enveloped 
in a fine membrane : — the membrane of the aqueous 
humour, Tunica propria seu Vagi'na humo'ris 
a'quei seu Membra' na Demuria'na seu Hesce- 
met'ii, Membrane of Demours or of Descemet; al- 
though these last terms are by some appropri- 
ated to a third layer of the cornea. 

AQUEUS, Aqueous. 

AQUIDUCA, Hydragogues. 

AQUIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium — a. Foliis 
deciduis, Prinos. 

AQUILA, Hydrargyri submurias, Sulphur. 

The alchymists used this word for sublimed 
sal ammoniac, precipitated mercury, arsenic, sul- 
phur, and the philosopher's stone. See Hydrar- 
gyri Submurias, and Sulphur. 

Aq'uila Ccelest'is; a sort of panacea, of which 
mercury was a constituent. 

Aq'uila Lach'rym^e ; a liquor prepared from 
several ingredients, especially from calomel. 

Aq'uila Philosopho'rum. The alchymists, 
whose terms were always mysterious, called mer- 
cury thus, when reduced to its original form. 

Aq'uila Veneris ; an ancient preparation, 
made by subliming verdigris and sal ammoniac. 

AQUILiE VEN^E, Temporal veins. 

AQUILE'GIA, A. vulga'ris, A. sylves'tris seu 
A J pi'na, Common Colombine or Columbine, (F.) 
Ancolie. The seeds, herb, and flowers were for- 
merly used in jaundice and cutaneous diseases. 
They are still retained in many of the Pharma- 
copoeias of continental Europe. 

Aquilegia Alpina, Aquilegia. 

Aquilegia Canadensis, Wild Columbine, is 

indigenous, and flowers in April and June. The 
seeds are said to be tonic. 

Aquilegia Sylvestris, Aquilegia — a. Vul- 
garis, Aquilegia. 

AQUO-CAPSULITIS, Aquo-membranitis. 

AQVO-MEMBRAKI'TIS, Keratoiri'tis, Jquo- 
capsulitis. Inflammation of the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye. A badly compounded term, de- 
noting inflammation of the capsule or membrane 
of the aqueous humour. 

AQUULA, Ceratocele, Hydatid, Hydroa — a. 
Acustica, Cotunnius, liquor of. 

Aquula seu Aqua Morgagnii. The minute 
portion of water which escapes when an opening 
is made into the capsule of the crystalline. 

ARA PARVA, a small altar; — a kind of band- 
age invented by Sostratus, which represents the 
corners of an altar. — Galen. 

AR'ABE ; a wound, a blow. — Erotian. 

abic Hepat'ic An'tidote. A powder composed of 
myrrh, costus, white pepper, <&c. It was admi- 
nistered in new wine. 

ARAB'ICUS LAPIS. A sort of white marble, 
analogous to alabaster, found in Arabia. It was 
regarded as absorbent and desiccative, and waa 
employed in hemorrhoids. 

ARABIS BARBAREA, Erysimum barbarea. 

AR'ABIS MALAG'MA. An antiscrofulouj 
medicine, composed of myrrh, olibanum, wax, 
sal ammoniac, iron pyrites, &c. — Celsus. 

bians kept the torch of medical science illumi- 
nated during a dark period of the middle ages. 
Before the year of the Hegira, they had schools 
of medicine; but these were most flourishing 
during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. The 
chief additions made by them to medical science 
were in the departments of pharmacy and in the 
description of diseases. Their principal writers 
were Avicenna, Serapion, Averrhoes, Hali Abbas, 
Moses Maimonides, Avenzoar, Rhazcs, Albuca- 
sis, &c. 

ARACACHA, Conium moschatum. 

ARACHIS AFRICANA, A. hypogea— a. Ame- 
ricana, A. Hypogea. 

Ar'achis Hypoge'a, A. America' na, A. Afri- 
ca' na, Arachni'da hypogea, Ground nut, Pea nut, 
Earth almond, (S.) Mane ; erroneously called 
Pistachio nut, in the South; Pindars of the West 
Indies. Cultivated in the Southern States. The 
seeds are oily, and are eaten. A kind of inferior 
chocolate may be made of them. 

ARACH'NE, apa%vn, 'a' spider,' 'a cobweb.' 

ARACHNIDA HYPOGEA, Arachis hypogea. 

ARACHNI'TIS, Arachnoidi'tis, Arachnodei'- 
tis, Inflammation of the Arachnoid. A variety 
of phrenitis. 


ARACHNOID CANAL, see Canal, arachnoid. 

Arachnoid op the Eye. The lining mem- 
brane of a cavity, supposed by some to exist be- 
tween the sclerotic and choroid. 

Arach'noid Membrane, Meninx Mc'dia, 
Arachno'ideus, Arachno'des, from apa^vTj, 'a cob- 
web,' and tiooj, 'form, resemblance;' Tu'nica 
ara'nea, Arachno'des, T. crystal'lina, Menin'- 
gion. A name given to several membranes, 
which, by their extreme thinness, resemble spi- 
der-webs. — Celsus and Galen called thus the 
membrane of the vitreous humour, — the tunica 
hyaloidea. The moderns use it now for one of 
the membranes of the brain, situate between the 
dura mater and pia mater. It is a serous mem- 
brane, and composed of two layers ; the external 
being confounded, in the greater part of its extent, 
with the dura mater, and, like it, lining the inte- 
rior of the cranium and spinal canal; the other 


baing extended over tbs brain, from which it is 
separated by the pin mater, without passing into 
the sinuosities between the convolutions, and 
penetrating into the interior of the brain by an 
opening at its posterior part under the corpus 
callosum. It forms a part of the investing sheath 
of the nerves, as they pass from the encephalic 
cavities. Its chief uses seem to be; — to envelop, 
and, in some measure, protect the brain, and to 
secrete a fluid for the purpose of keeping it in a 
etate best adapted for the proper performance of 
its functions. 

ARACK', Arrack; (East Indian.) A spiritu- 
ous liquor made in India in various ways, often 
from rice, sometimes from sugar fermented along 
with the juice of the cocoa nut; frequently from 
toddy, the juice which flows from the cocoa-nut 
tree by incision, and from other substances. It 
is a strong, heating spirit. 

Arack, Mock, is made by adding ^ij of Ben- 
zoic acid to a quart of rum. The celebrated 
Vauxhall punch is made with such arack. 
ARACOUCHINI, Icica aracouchini. 
AR'ADOS, from apa&tw, 'I am turbulent.' 
The agitation excited in the stomach by the 
coction of aliments of different nature. — Hippo- 
crates> Likewise, the motion produced by ca- 

ARiEOMA, Interstice. 
AREOMETER, Areometer. 
ARiEOT'ICA, from apatou, 'I rarefy.' Medi- 
cines supposed to have the quality of rarefying 
the humours. See Rarefaciens. 
ARAKI, see Spirit. 

ARALIA CANADENSIS, Panax quinquefo- 

Ara'lia His'pida, Dwarf Elder, is said to be 
diuretic, and has been recommended, in decoc- 
tion, in dropsy. 

Ara'lia Nudicatj'lis, Nardus Arnerica'nus, 
Small Spikenard, Wild Liq'uorice, Sweet root, 
Fahc SarsapariV la, (F.) Petit nard. This Ame- 
rican plant is said to be a mild stimulant and 
diaphoretic, and has been recommended as a sub- 
stitute for sarsaparilla. It is used, also as a tonic. 
It is in the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States. 

Ara'lia Racemo'sa, American Spikenard, 
has the same properties as A. Nudicaulis. 

Ara'lia Spino'sa, Angelica Tree, Prickly 
Ash, Toothach Tree, Spikenard Tree, Prickly 
Elder, Shotbush, Pigeon Tree. Its properties 
are not clear. The berries, and a tincture of 
them, have been employed, it is said, successfully 
in toothach. A spirituous infusion has also been 
nsed in colic. 

ARANEA, Aranese Tela — a. Tarentula, see 

ARA'NEj^E TELA, Ara'nea, Ara'neum, Cob- 
web, (F.) Toile d'Araignee. Formerly, this sub- 
stance was much employed, and supposed to pos- 
sess extraordinary virtues, especially when ap- 
plied to the wrists. It has been recently used 
again in intermittents. The spider itself, sof- 
tened into a plaster and applied to the forehead 
and temples, is said by Dioscorides to prevent 
ague. Cobweb is a mechanical styptic, and is 
so applied, at times. 

ARANEO'SA URI'NA. A term applied to 
the urine when loaded with filaments, like cob- 

ARANEO'SUS (PULSUS); a term employed 
to express extreme weakness of pulse; when the 
movements resemble those of a delicate net raised 
oy the wind. 
ARANEUM, Araneae Tela. 


Ara'nettm Ulctts, Astakil'los. A name given 
by Paracelsus to a malignant, gangrenous ulcer, 
extending from the feet to the legs. 

ARARA, Myrobalanus citrina. 

ARASCON, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

ARATRUM, Vomer. 

ARAUCARIA DOMBEYI, Dombeya excelsa. 

ARBOR BENIVI, Benjamin— a. Indica, Lau- 
rus cassia — a. Maris, Coral — a. Thurifera — Juni- 
perus Lycia — a. Uteri Vivificans, Palmae uteri 

Arbor ViTjE, (F,) Arbre de vie. A name 
given to an arborescent appearance, observed on 
cutting the cerebellum longitudinally; and which 
results from the particular arrangement of the 
white substance with the cineritious. Also, the 
Thuya occidentalis. 

Arbor Vit^eUterinus, Palmae uteri plicatpe. 

Arbor Vit^e op the Uterus, Palmae uteri 

AR'BORES. A morbid alteration of the skin, 
which precedes its ulceration. Ruland. 

ARBOUS1ER, Arbutus unedo. 

ARBRE DE VIE, Arbor Vitae. 

SIS, Hypericum bacciferum. 

ARBUTUS, A. Unedo— a. Trailing, A. Uva 
ursi, Epigaea repens. 

Ar'butus Uva Ursi, Arctostaph'ylos Uva 
ursi, Maira'nia uva ursi. Nat. Ord. Ericeae. 
Sex. Syst. Decandria Monogynia. (F.) Busse- 
rolle ou Raisin d' Ours. The leaves — ( Uva Ursi, 
Ph. U. S.) — of this plant are tonic and astringent, 
and have been employed, chiefly, in diseases of 
the urinary organs. Dose of the powder from 
gr. xv. to 3 s s. The English names are Trailing 
Ar'butus, Bear's Whortleberry or Bearberry, 
Mountain-box, Redberry, Upland Cranberry, 
Foxberry, Checkerberry . 

Ar'butus Une'do, Ar'butus, Andrach'ne, Une'- 
do, Une'do papyra' cea, icouapos, (F.) Arbousier. 
A decoction of the leaves is astringent, and has 
been used in diarrhoea. 

ARC, Arch, Arcus. Any part of the body re- 
sembling an arch in form ; as the Arch of the 
colon, (F.) Arc du colon, — the transverse portion 
of that intestine : — Arch of the Aorta, Arcus aor'- 
tas. (F.) Crosse de I'Aorte, &c, the turn which the 
aorta takes in the thorax. 

ARCA ARCANORUM, Hydrargyrum— a. Cor- 
dis, Pericardium. 

tomotic — a. Crurale, Crural arch — a. Inguinale, 
Crural arch — a. Orbitaire, Orhitar arch — «. Pu- 
bienne, Pubic arch — a. Zygomatique, Zygomatic 

ARCADES DENT AIRES, Dental arches— 
a. Palmaires, Palmar arches. 


Baume d'Arcoeus. A kind of soft ointment used 
in sores, contusions, <fec. It is made by melting 
two parts of mutton suet, one part of hog's larifi 
turpentine and rosin, each one part and a half: 
straining and agitating till cold. 

ARCANSON, Colophonia. 
ARCA'NUM, from area, 'a chest.' A secret, 
a nostrum, a quack or empir'ical med'xeine, (F.) 
Arcane. A remedy whose composition is kept 
secret; but which is reputed to possess great 

Arcanum Corallinum, nydrargyri nitrico- 

oxydum — a. Duplicatum, Potassaa sulphas a. 

Tartari, Potassae acetas. 
ARCEAU, Arculus, Cradle. 

ARCEUTHOS, Juniperus communis. 




ARCH, ANASTOMOTIC, (F.) Arcade Anasto- 
motique, is the union of two vessels, which anas- 
tomose by describing a curved line. The vessels 
of the mesentery anastomose in this manner. 

Arch of the Aorta, see Aorta — a. Crural, see 
Crural arch — a. Femoral, see Crural arch — a. 
Gluteal, see Gluteal aponeurosis — a. Haemal, see 
Iltemal arch — a. Inguinal, see Crural arch — a. Or- 
bital, see Orbitar arch — a. of the Palate, see Palate 
bone — a. of the Pubis, see Pubic arch — a. Subpu- 
bic, see Subpubic arch — a. Superciliary, see Super- 
ciliary arches — a. Zygomatic, see Zygomatic arch. 

Arches op the Palate. These are two in 
number on each side of the throat, one of which 
is termed anterior, the other posterior. 

The ant. rior arch arises from the middle of 
the velum palati, at the side of the uvula, and is 
fixed to the edge of the base of the tongue. 

The posterior arch has its origin, likewise, from 
the side of the uvula, and passes downwards to 
be inserted into the side of the pharynx. The 
anterior arch contains the circumflexus palati, 
and forms the isthmus faucium. The posterior 
arch has, within it, the levator palati, and be- 
tween the arches are the tonsils. 

ARCHJE'US, Arche'us, from apxv, ' commence- 
ment,' (F.) Archie. A word invented by Basil 
Valentine, and afterwards adopted by Paracelsus 
and Van Helmont. The latter used it for the 
internal principle of our motions and actions. 
This archaeus, according to Van Helmont, is an 
immaterial principle, existing in the seed prior 
to fecundation, and presiding over the develop- 
ment of the body, and over all organic pheno- 
mena. Besides this chief archaeus, whose seat 
Van Helmont placed in the upper orifice of the 
stomach, he admitted several of a subordinate 
character, which had to execute its orders ; one, 
for instance, in each organ, to preside over its 
functions ; each of them being subject to anger, 
caprice, terror, and every human failing. 

About twenty miles to the north of New Arch- 
angel, Sitka Island, on the N. W. coast of North 
America, are some thermal sulphureous waters, 
the temperature of one of which is upwards of 
153° of Fahr. They are much celebrated. — Sir 
Geo. Simpson. 

ARCHANGELICA, Lamium album. 

Archangelica Officinalis, Angelica. 

ARCHE, apxv, Init"iuin, Prineip'ium, Primor'- 
dium, Ori'go, Inva'sio. The first attack of a dis- 

ARCHECPTOMA, Proctocele. 

ARCHE E, Archaeus. 

ARCHELL, CANARY, Lichen roccella. 

ARCHELOG"IA, from apX'h 'beginning,' and 
\oyos, ' a discourse.' A treatise on fundamental 
principles ; — of medicine, for example. 

ARCHEN'DA. A powder of the leaves of the 
ligustrum, used by the Egyptians after bathing, 
to obviate the unpleasant odour of the feet. — 
Prosper Alpinus. 

ARCHIA'TER, Archia'trus, Protomed'ieus, 
Protia'tros, from apxn< 'authority,' and larpos, 
'physician.' The original signification of this 
word is a matter of dispute. Some consider, with 
Mercurialis, that it meant physician to a prince, 
king, emperor, &c. : others, with C. Hoffman, ap- 
ply it to every physician who, by his situation, 
is raised above his colleagues. The former opi- 
nion seems to have prevailed, — Archiatre des 
Rois de France being applied to the chief physi- 
cian to the kings of France. 

ARCHIG"ENI MORBI. Acute diseases; be- 
cause they hold the first rank : from apxv, ' k*- 
ginning,' and yivouai, 'I am.' 

ARCHIMAGIA, Ohymistry. 

Archingcay is situate in France, three leagues 
from St. Jean d'Angely. The waters are prized 
in all diseases. They seem to contain carbonate 
of lime, a little chloride of sodium, carbonate of 
iron, and some bitumen. 

plectic make. 

ARCHITIS, Proctitis, Rectitis. 

ARCHOCELE, Proctocele. 

ARCHOPTOMA, Proctocele. 

ARCHOPTOSIS, Proctocele. 

ARCHORRHA'GIA, from -apx<>s, 'the anus,' 
and pew, ' I flow.' Archorrhos'a. Hemorrhage 
from the anus. 

ARCHORRHCEA, Archorrhagia. 

ARCHOS, Arcus, Rectum. 

ARCHOSTEGNOMA, Stricture of theRectum. 

ARCHOSTEGNOSIS, Stricture of theRectum. 

ARCUOSTENOSIS, Stricture of the Rectum. 

ARCHOSYRINX, Fistula in ano. 

AR'CIFORM, Arcifor'mis, from arx, arcis, 
'a top or ridge,' and forma, 'shape.' An epi- 
thet given to certain fibres, Fibres arci/orm'es, 
of the anterior pyramids of the medulla oblon- 
gata, which take a curved course around the in- 
ferior extremity of each corpus olivare and ascend 
towards the cerebellum. 

ARCTA'TIO, Arctitu'do, from aroto, 'T make 
narrow ;' Angusta'tio, Ooarcta'tio. Contraction, 
(F.) R&ricisaement, of a natural opening or of a 
canal, and especially of the vulva, of the orifiea 
of the uterus, or of the intestinal canal. Consti- 
pation, (see Stegnosis.) Reunion by suture or 
infibulation. — Scribonius Largus, Paul Zac- 
chias, &c. 

ARC'TITUDO, Arctatio. 

ARCTIUM, A. lappa — a. Bardana, A. lappa. 

Arctium Lappa. The root and seed of the 
Clit'bur, Barda'na, Arctium, A. barda'na se*2 
majus seu minus sen tomento'sum, I'laphes, Lap- 
pa glabra, Lappa major, L. persona! ta, Per sola' - 
ta, Persolla'ta, Persolu'ta, Burdock,, (F.) Bar- 
done, (j'/iiiiteron. Nat. Ord. Compositaa. 6W^ 
Syst. S3'ngenesia ajqualis. Root diuretic : seed 
cathartic. It has been used in decoction in dis- 
eases of the skin and in syphilis. 

Arctium Majus, A. lappa — a. Minus, A. lappa 
— a. Tomentosum, A. lappa. 

can plant, Nat. Ord. Uinbelliferae, which is de- 
mulcent and diuretic, somewhat approaching sar- 
saparilla. The decoction of the root is employed 
in syphilis, lepra, and chronic cutaneous affections 
of all kinds. 

uva ursi. 

ARCTU'RA, from arcto, 'I straighten.' The 
effects of a nail grown into the flesh, Arctu'ra 
unguis. — See Onychogryphosis. 

Arctura Unguium. The growing in or inver- 
sion of the nails. See Onychogryphosis. 

ARCUA'TIO, Goncava'tio. An anterior gib- 
bosity or projection of the sternum. 

cueil is about one league south of Paris. The 
water contains carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
sulphate of lime, chloride of sodium, and some 
deliquescent salts. 

A celebrated society held its meetings at this 
village, of which Berthollet, Humboldt, La Place, 
&.c, were members. 

ARCULA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

ARCUL/E. The Orbitar Fossse : xotXiics.— 
Rufus of Ephe.'-us. 

ARCULUS, diminutive of arcus, 'an arch.' A 
Ismail arch; a cradle, (F.) Arceau, Archet. A 




semicircular box or basket used for preventing 
the bed-clothes from corning in contact with in- 
jured or diseased parts. An ordinance of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany forbade mothers to sleep 
with an infant near them, unless it was put under 
a solid cradle. 

ARCUS MEDULLARIS, Fornix— a. Senilis, 
Gerotoxon — a. Subpubicus, Subpubic arch — a. 
Superciliaris, Superciliary arches — a. Unguium, 
see Nail — a. Zygomaticus, Zygomatic arch. 

ARDALOS, Excrement. 

ARDAS, Excrement. 

ARDENT, Arde-ns, from ardere, 'to burn.' 

Ardent Fever, (F.) Fi&vre ardente. The 
Oausus, Synocha, or inflammatory fever. 

Ardent or Inflamed Eyes, (F.) Yeux ardens. 
The eyes are so called when injected red. 

Ardent Urine, (F.) Urine ardente. Urine of 
a deep red. 

ARDESIA HIBSRNICA, Hibernicus lapis. 

ARDEUR, Ardor — a. du Occur, Cardialgia— 
a. d' Estomac, Ardor ventriculi, Pyrosis — a. de 
la Fievrc, Ardor Febrilis — a. d' Urine, Ardor 

AR'DOR, (F.) Ardeur. Heat. A feeling of 
burning, of violent heat; uEstus, JEstua'tio, Uau- 
ep ma. 

Ardor Febri'lis, (F.) Ardeur de la Fievre. 
The hot period of fever. 

Ardor Stomachi, Pyrosis. 

Ardor Uri'n^e, (F.) Ardeur d' Urine. A scald- 
ing sensation occasioned by the urine in passing 
over the inflamed mucous membrane of the ure- 
thra, or over the neck of the bladder. 

Ardor Venereus, Heat. 

Ardor Ventric'uli, EbullWio Stom'achi, (F.) 
Ardeur d' Estomac. Heartburn. See Cardialgia 
and Pyrosis. 

A'REA, 'a void place,' 'an open surface.' A 
Latin word used by some authors to designate a 
variety of Alopecia, in which the hair changes 
colour, but does not fall off; also, Porrigo de- 

Area Germinativa, Taehe embryonnaire. 

Area Pellu'cida. An elliptical depression in 
the ovum, filled with a pellucid fluid, in the cen- 
tre of which is the germ. 

Area Vasculo'sa, see Circulus venosus. 

ARE'CA. The fruit — Are'ca nut, Betel nut — of 
Are'ca Cat'echu, A. Faufel, Caun'ya ; Nat. Ord. 
Palm*; Sex. Syst. Moncecia Monadelphia; (F.) 
Arec, is astringent and tonic, and enters into the 
composition of the Betel, the great masticatory 
of the Orientals. 

Areca Catechu, «ee Areca. 

Arec A Faufel, see Areca. 

AREFAC'TION, Arefac'tin, Xeran'sis. hpavvis, 
irom arefacere, 'to make dry,' (arere, 'to dry,' 
and faeere, ' to make.') The process of drying 
substr.nees, prior to pulverization. 

ARENA, see Gravel. 

ARENAMEN, Bole Armenian. 

ARENA'TIO, Gliosis, Sand or Earth Bath; 
from arena, 'sand;' Saburra/tio. The applica- 
tion of hot sand to the body. Pedilu^ia of sand 
were formerly used in Ascites 

ARENO'SA URI'NA, Sandy Urine. Urine 
when it deposits a sandy sediment. 

ARENO'SUS, Sabulous. Also, one who passes 
sandy urine. 

ARENULA, see Gravel. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutive of Area, (F.) Aire. 
Anatomists understand by Areola, the inter- 
stices between the fibres composing organs; or 
those existing between lamina;, or between ves- 
sels which interlace with each other. 

Areola is, also, applied to the coloured circle 
Halo, Ifafos, which surrounds the nipple, Are'- 

ola papilla'ris, and which becomes much darker 
during pregnancy; as well as to the circle sur- 
rounding certain vesicles, pustules, Ac, as the 
pustules of the small-pox, the vaccine vesicle, 
<fce. Chaussier, in such eases, recommends the 
word Aure'ola, (F.) Aurtole. 

Areola Papillaris, see Areola. 

Areola, Tubercles of the, see Mamma. 

ARE'OLAR, Areola'ris. Appertaining to an 

Areolar Exhalations are those recremen- 
titial secretions, which are effected within the 
organs of sense, or in parenchymatous struc- 
tures, — as the aqueous, crystalline and vitreous 
humours, &c. 

Areolar Tissue, Cellular Tissue. 

AREOM'ETER, Araom'eter, Gravim'eter, Al- 
coiilom'eter, Aerostat'ic Balance, from apaios, 
'light,' and fitronv, 'measure:' i e. 'measure of 
lightness.' An instrument, so called, because 
first employed to take the specific gravity of 
fluids lighter than water. The Areometer of Bou- 
rne, which is the most used in Pharmacy, particu- 
larly in France, consists of a tube of glass, largely 
expanded towards its inferior extremity, and ter- 
minating, below, by a small ball, containing mer- 
cury or lead, which serves it as a balance, so that 
it may remain upright in the fluid. This tube is 
furnished with a graduated scale. If the fluid 
into which the Areometer is plunged be heavier 
than water, the instrument rises : if lighter, it 
sinks. There are various Areometers, as those 
of the Dutch, of Fahrenheit, Nicholson, &c. The 
Areometer is also called Hydrom'eter, (F.) Are- 
omitre, Pise-liqueur. 

There are some hydrometers which have a gene- 
ral application for determining the specific gra- 
vities of liquids, — as Fahrenheit's, Nicholson's, 
Guyton de Morveau's, and the common glass by 
drometers, including Baume's, Cartier's, Twad- 
dle's, Zanetti's, and the specific gravity beads; 
others intended for special application, — as for 
estimating the comparative strength of spirits; 
the comparative densities of syrups, oils, &c, — 
as Guy Lussac's, Sikes's and Dicat's hydrometers, 
and the saccharometer, urinometer, and elasometer. 

scale of baume's areometer with corre- 
sponding specific gravities. 

1. Ascending Scale for light liquids. 

Scale of 











819 , 
P27 I 


Id. 1 
923 r 

935 > 
948 ) 


Pure hydrocyanic acid — Gay Lus 

Very pure sulphuric el her. 
The same concentrated. 

Equal parts of alcohol and ethpr. 
Very pure alcohol for phamaceuti- 

cal purposes. 
Pure alcohol. Naphtha. 
Alcohol of commerce. 
Essential oil of turpentine. 

Hydrocyanic arid of Scheele and 
pure hydrocyanic acid, mixed 
with an equal portion of water. 
(Robiquet ) 

Acetic ether. 

Nitric ether. 
Muriatic ether. 
Liquid ammonia. 
Olive oil. 


Burgundy wine. 

Bordeaux wine. 
Distilled water. 




Descending Scale for heavy liquids. 

Scale of 









1007 I 

1075 J 
1091 ) 
1180 I 
1-210 J 

1321 | 




Common distilled water. 
Distilled vinegar. 
Common vinegar. 
Cow's milk. 

Concentrated acetic acid. 

Liquid hydrochloric acid. 
Roiling syrup. 
Cold syrup. 
Common nitric acid. 

Concentrated nitric acid. 

Phosphoric acid for medical use. 

Very concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Very concentrated phosphoric acid. 

_ ARES. A term invented by Paracelsus to de- 
signate the principle on which depends the form 
of mercury, sulphur, and salt. These the alchy- 
mists regarded as the three bodies that give birth 
to every other. 

AR'ETE, apery, 'virtue.' Mental or corporeal 
vigour. — Hippocrates. 

ARETHU'SA. A. bulbo'sa ; indigenous. Order, 
Orchidaceaj. The bruised bulbs are used in 
toothach ; and as cataplasms to tumours. 

A'REUS. A pessary mentioned by Paulus of 

ARGEL, Cynanchum oleaefolium. 

AR'GEMA, Ar'ijemon, Ar' genius, from apyog, 
'white.' Fos'sula, (F.) Encavure. A white spot 
or ulceration of the eye. — Hippocrates. See Leu- 

Prickly Poppy, Yellow Thistle. A native of 
Mexico, but naturalized in most parts of the 
world. Nat. Ord. Papaveraceae. Sex, Syst. Po- 
lyandria Monogynia. The juice resembles gam- 
boge, and has been used as a hydragogue. The 
seeds are employed in the West Indies as a sub- 
stitute for ipecacuanha. They are also used as 

chalybeate situate at Argenson in Dauphiny : 
used in cases of obstruction, jaundice, &o. 

ARGENT, Argentum — a. Vhlorure d', see Ar- 
gentum — a. Cyaniire d', see Argentum — a. et 
d' Ammoniaque, chlorure d', see Argentum — a. 
Iodure d', see Argentum — a. Oxide d', see Ar- 

ARGENTERIA, Potentilla anserina. 

ARGENTI CHLORIDUM, see Argentum— a. 
et Ammoniae chloridum, see Argentum — a. et 
Ammoniac chloruretum, see Argentum — a. Cya- 
nidum, see Argentum — a. Cyanuretum, see Ar- 
gentum — a. Iodidum, see Argentum — a. Iodurc- 
tum, see Argentum. 

Argen'ti Nitras, Argen'tum Nitra'tum, Snl 
argen'ti, Argentum Nit'ricwm, (F.) Nitrate d' Ar- 
gent, Azotate d' Argent, Nitrate of Silver. This 
preparation is sometimes kept in crystals, the 
Nitras Argen'ti in crystal'los concre'tus, Nitrate 
d' Argent crystallise of the Codex of Paris, Luna 
potab'ilis, GrystaUi Luna;, Argen'tum nit'rieum 
cry stallisa' turn, Nitras argenti crystal' linus, Ni- 
trum luna're, Hydrago'gnm Boy'lei. Generally, 
however, it is in the fused state : and it is this 
which is admitted into most Pharmacopoeias, and 
which, besides Ihc name Nitras Argenti, is called 
Ni'tras argen'ti fusus, Oaus'ticum luna're, Lapis 

inferna'lis, Argen'tum nit'rieum fusum, and lunar 
(■miotic, (E.) Nitrate d' argent fondu, Pierre in- 

In the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, it 
is directed to be prepared as follows : — Take of 
silver, in small pieces, 3J.; nitric acid, f^vij., 
distilled tenter, fsjij. Mix the acid with the 
water, and dissolve the silver in the mixture in 
a sand bath ; then crystallize, or gradually in- 
crease the heat, so that the resulting salt may be 
dried. Melt this in a crucible over a gentle fire, 
and continue the heat until ebullition ceases; 
then immediately pour it into suitable moulds. 

The virtues of nitrate of silver are tonic, and 
escharotic. It is given in chorea, epilepsy, &c. ; 
locally, it is used in various eases as an escharotic. 
Dose, gr. 1-8 to gr. 1-4 in pill, three times a day. 

When silver is combined with iodine, it is said 
to have the same effect as the nitrate, and not to 
produce the slate colour of the surface, which is 
apt to follow the protracted use of the latter. 

Argenti Oxidum, see Argentum. 


AR'GENTINE, Argento'sus, same etymon as 
the next. Pertaining to silver; as an 'argentine 
solution,' or solution of a salt of silver. 

Argentine, Potentilla anserina. 

ARGEN'TUM, Ar' gyrus, from apyog, 'white,' 
Silver', Luna, Dia'na, (F.) Argent. A solid metal 
of a shining white appearance; insipid; inodor- 
ous ; highly sonorous ; malleable and ductile ; 
somewhat hard ; crystallizable in triangular py- 
ramids ; fusible a little above a red heat, and 
volatizable ; s. g. 10.4. Not used in medicine, 
unless in some places for silvering pills. Silver 
Leaf, Argen'tum. folia' turn, is the state in which 
it is used for this purpose. 

Argentum Divi'sum, metallic silver, in very 
fine powder, has been recommended internally in 

The Chloride (Argen'ti chlo'ridum, Argen'- 
tum muriat'icum, A. chlora'tum, A. sali'tum. 
Chlorure' turn Argen'ti, Chlor'nret or Mu'riate of 
Silver, (F.) Chlorure d'Argentj) the Cyanuret; 
the IODIDE (Argen'ti lo'didum, Argen'tum Ioda'- 
tum, Iodure' turn Argen'ti, lod'uret of Silver, (F.) 
Iodure d'Argentj) the Oxide (Argen'ti ox'idum, 
Argen'tum oxyda'tum, (F.) Oxide d' Argent, and 
the Chloride of Ammonia and Silver (Argen'ti 
et Ammo'nim chlo'ridum, Argen'tum muriat'icum 
ammonia' turn, Chlorvre'tum Argen'ti et Ammo'- 
nice, Chlo'ruret of Silver and Ammonia, Ammo- 
nio-chloride of Silver, (F.) Chlorure el' Argent et 
d' Ammoniaque, have been used in syphilis. At 
first, these different preparations were adminis- 
tered iatraleptically on the gums ; the chloride, 
the cyanide and the iodide in the dose of ]-12th 
of a grain; the chloride of silver and ammonia 
in the dose of l-14th of a grain, and the oxide of 
silver and divided silver in the dose of l-8th and 
l-4th of a grain. M. Serre, of Montpellier, who 
made many trials with them, soon found that 
these doses were too small; he therefore raised 
that of the chloride to 1-1 Oth, and of the iodide 
to l-8th of a grain, without any inconvenience 
resulting. The dose of the other preparations was 
likewise increased in a similar ratio. M. Serre 
extols the preparations of silver — used internally 
as well as iatraleptically— as antisyphilities, but 
they are not to be depended upon. 

The Oyanuret or Cyanide of Silver, Argen'ti 
Cyanurc'tum, A. Cyan'idum, Argen'tum eyanoge- 
na'tum, (V.) Oyanure d'argent, is thus directed 
to be prepared in the Ph. U. S. C1842.) Argent, 
Nit. Sfxv. Acid Eydrocyan., Aq. destillat. aa Oj. 
™ dissolved the nitrate of silver in thu 


water, add the hydrocyanic acid, and n»lx ih*m. 




Wash the precipitate with distilled water and dry 
it. In the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia, 
(1851,) it is directed to be prepared as follows: — 
-A it rate of Silver, dissolved in distilled water, is 
put into a tubulated glass receiver; Feroeyanuret 
of Potassium, dissolved in distilled water, is put 
into a tubulated retort, previously adapted to the 
receiver. Dilute Sulphuric Acid is added to the 
solution in the retort; and, by means of a sand- 
bath and a moderate heat, distillation is carried 
on until the liquid that passes over no longer 
produces a precipitate in the receiver. The pre- 
cipitate is then washed with distilled water, and 

The Oxide of Silver, Argen'ti Ox'idum, has 
been introduced into the last edition of the Ph. 
U. S. (1851.) It is made by precipitating a solu- 
tion of the Nitrate of Silver by solution of Po- 
tassa, drying the precipitate. 

Argentum Chloratum, see Argentum — a. 
Oyanogenatum, see Argentum — a. Fugitivum, 
Hydrargyrum — a. Fusum, Hydrargyrum — a. 
lodatum, see Argentum — a. Liquidum, Hydrar- 
gyrum — a. Mobile, Hydrargyrum — a. Muriati- 
cum, see Argentum — a. Muriaticum Ammonia- 
tum, see Argentum — a. Oxydatum, see Argentum 
—a. Salitum, see Argentum — a. Vivum, Hydrar- 

ARGIL, PURE, ArgiUa pura. 
*. Bolus rubra, Bole Armenian — a. Ferruginea 
rubra, Bole Armenian — a. Kalisulphurica, Alu- 
inen — a. Palida, Bolus alba. 

Argilla Pura, Terra Alu'minis, T. bola'ris, 
8eu argilla'cea ^)i<m, Alu'mina depura'ta, pure 
Argil or Alumina, (F.) Alumine factice. This sub- 
stance, which is prepared by drying alum and 
exposing it, for twenty or twenty-iive minutes, to 
a red heat, until the sulphuric acid is driven off, 
has been recommended in indigestion as antacid, 
as well as in vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied 
with acidity. The dose to a very young child is 
from ^ss to ^j >' to older children from gj to ^U- 
Argilla Sulphurica Alcalisata, Alumen 
— a. Sulphurica usta, Alumen exsiceatum — a. 
Supersulphas alcalisatum, Alumen — a. Vitriolata, 

ARGILLA ACETAS, Aluminae aeetas — a. 
Sulphas, Aluminae sulphas. 

ARGOL, RED, Potassos supertartras impurus 
—a. White, Potassas supertartras impurus. 
ARGY'RIA, from apyvpos, 'silver.' The dis- 
coloration of the skin occasioned by the internal 
use of nitrate of silver. 

ARGYROCH^TA, Matricaria, 
ARGYROPH'ORA, from apyvpos, 'silver,' and 
<pcpo>, ' I bear.' A name given, by Myrepsus, to 
an antidote which he regarded as extremely pre- 

ARGYRUS. Argentum. 

ARHEUMAT'IC, Arheumat'iem, from a, pri- 
vative, and pev/na, 'fluxion or rheumatism.' One 
•without fluxion or rheumatism. 
ARIA, Crataegus aria. 

ARICI'NA, Ciw'conin, Cusco- Oincho'nia, so 
called from Ariea in South America, the place 
where it is shipped. An alkali found in Cusco 
Bark, which is very similar in many of its pro- 
perties to Cinchonia. Cusco was the ancient 
residence of the Incas. 

ARIC'YMON, from apt, an intensive particle, 
and Kvtiv, 'to conceive.' A name given to a 
female who conceives readily. — Hippocrates. 
ARIDE'NA, A Latin word employed to de- 

signate the leanness of any part. — Ettmuller, 

ARID'ITY, Arid' Has. (F.) Ariditi, from arere, 
'to dry.' The French use the word Ariditi to 
express the dryness of any organ, and particu- 
larly of the skin and tongue, when such dryness 
is so great as to render the organ rough to the 
touch. Aridite also means the lanuginous ap- 
pearance of the hair in some diseases in which 
they seem covered with dust. 

AltlDU'RA. Wasting or emaciation of the 
whole or of any part of the body ; Marasmus, 

Aridura Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. 
Hepatis, Hepatrophia. 
ARIKA, see Spirit. 
ARISTOLOCHI'A, from apioros, 'very good,' 
and Xo^cia, 'parturition;' so called, because the 
different varieties were supposed to aid parturi- 
tion. Birthwprt, (F.) Aristoloche. Several va- 
rieties were once in use. 

Aristolochia Cava, Fumaria bulbosa. 
Aristolochi'a Cleiiati'tis, Aristolochi'a Vul- 
ga'ris seu Ore'tica, Adra Jiiza, Aristolochi'a ten'- 
uis, (F.) Aristoloche ordinaire, Upright Birth- 
wort. The root has been considered stimulant 
and emmenagogue, and as such has been used in 
anienorrhoea, chlorosis, and cachexia, 

Aristolochia Cretica, A. Clematitis — a. Fa- 
bacea, Fumaria bulbosa. 

Aristolochi'a Longa, and A. Rotun'da, (F.) 
Aristoloche longue et ronde, Long and Bound 
Birthicort. Virtues the same as the preceding. 

Aristolochi'a Pistolochi'a, Pistoloehi' a Aris- 
tolochi'a, Polyrrhi'za. This variety has an aro- 
matic odour, and an acrid and bitter taste. (F.) 
Aristoloche crenelee. 

Aristolochi'a Serpenta'ria, Soyenta'ria, 
Vipera'ria, Viperi'na Virginia' na, Oolubri'na 
Virginia'na, Oontrayer'va Virginia' na, S. Vir- 
ginia'na, (F). Serp>entairc et Aristoloche serpen- 
taire de Virginie, Ooluvrine de Virginie, Vir- 
ginia Snakeroot, Snakeroot Birthicort, Snake- 
weed, Snagr el. Virtues — tonic, stimulant; and, 
as such, employed in debility, intermittents, &c. 
Aristolochia Tenuis, A. Clematitis — a. Tri- 
fida, A. Trilobata. 

Aristolochi'a Triloba'ta, A. trif'ida, (F.) 
Aristoloche trilobee. A plant of Surinam and 
Jamaica; possessing the general virtues of the 
Aristolochife. The other varieties of Aristolo- 
chia have similar properties. 

Aristolochi'a Vulgaris Rotunda, Fumaria 

ARISTOLOCH'IC, Aristoloch' icus. Same ety- 
mology. An old term for remedies supposed to 
have the property of promoting the flow of the 
lochia. — Hippocrates, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 

VUM. These names were formerly given to 
pharmaceutical preparations, used in phthisis, 
tormina, and fever. — Avicenna. 

ARISTOPHANEI'ON. A sort of emollient 
plaster, prepared with four pounds of pitch, two 
of apochyma, one of wax, an ounce of opoponax, 
and half a pint of vinegar. — Gorrseus. Not 

About 5 miles from the Washita river, and about 
a quarter of a degree north of the Louisiana line, 
there are about 70 of those springs. They are 
thermal, varying from 1.38° to 150° Fahrenheit, 
and are employed in rheumatism, cutaneous af- 
fections, &<i. 
ARLADA, Realgar. 




mal sulphureous springs in the department of 
Pyrenees Orien tales, France. Their temperature 
is 103° to 145° of Fahr., aud they contain sul- 
phohydric acid. 

ARM, Brachium. 

ARMA. Penis — a. Ventris, Penis. 

ARMAMENTARIUM, Arsenal— a. Chirurgi- 
cum, see Arsenal. 

ARMATORY UNGUENT, Hoplochrysma. 

ARMATURA, Amnios. 

ARME, from apw, 'I adapt.' Any physiolo- 
gical or mechanical junction or union of parts. — 
Hesychius. A suture, as of the cranium.— Galen. 

niaca — a. Mains, Apricot. See Prunus — a. 
Vulgaris, Prunus Armeniaca. 

ARMENIAN STONE, Meloehites. 

ARMENITES, Meloehites. 

nular ligaments of the carpus. 

ARMOISE BLANCHE, Artemisia rupestris 
— a. Commune, Artemisia vulgaris — a. Estragon, 
Artemisia dracunculus — a. Ordinaire, Artemisia 

ARMONIACUM, Ammoniac, gum. 

ARMORA'CIA. In the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, the fresh root of Cochlearia ar- 

Armoracia Rusticana, Cochlearia armoracia 
—a. Sativa, Cochlearia armoracia. 

ARMOUR, Condom. 

ARMURE BES JAMBES, see Cornu am- 

ARMUS, Humerus — a. Summus, Acromion. 

AR'NICA MONTA'NA. Derivation uncer- 
tain. Arnica, Leopard's Bane, Boron' icum Ger- 
man'icum sen Oppositifo'lium, D. Ar'nica, Alis'- 
tna, Ac"yrus, Biuret' tea, Arnica Plauen'sis, Pa- 
nace'a lapno'rum, Ptar'mica rnonta'na, Caltha 
seu Calen'dula Alpi'na, (P.) Arnique, Betoine 
des Montagues, Tabac des Vosges, Tabac ou Be- 
toine des Savoyards, Doronic d'Allemagne. Sex. 
St/st. Syngenesia Polygamia superflua. Nat. 
Ord. Synanthereae. The plant and flower are 
considered, or have heen considered, narcotic, 
stimulant, emmenagogue, &c; and, as such, have 
been given in amaurosis, paralysis, all nervous 
affections, rheumatism, gout, chlorosis, &c. Dose, 
gr. v to x, in powder. In large doses, it is dele- 

Arnica Spuria, Inula dysenterica — a. Sueden- 
eis, Inula dysenterica. 


ARNOTT'S DILATOR, see Dilator, Arnott's. 

ARO'MA, Ar'tyma, 'perfume :' (apt, 'very,' 
and oa/xr] or oS/xn, 'odour.') Spir'itus Rector, (F.) 
Arome. The odorous part of plants. An ema- 
nation — frequently imponderable, from bodies — 
which acts on the organ of smell, and varies with 
the body exhaling it. 

AROMAT'IC, Aromat'icus, (V.)Aromate. Any 
odoriferous substance obtained from the vegetable 
kingdom which contains much volatile oil, or a 
light and expansible resin. Aromatics are used 
in perfumes, in seasoning, and embalming. In 
medicine they are employed as stimulants. Gin- 
ger, cinnamon, cardamoms, mint, Ac, belong to 
this class. 

AROMATOPO'LA, from ap^a, 'an odour,' 
and TrwXtoj, ' I sell.' An apothecary or druggist. 
One who sells spices. 
ARON, Arum. 

AROPH. A barbarous word, which had vari- 
ous significations with the ancients. Paracelsus 
employed it to designate a lithonthriptic remedy. 
The mandragora, according to some. Also, a 
mixture of bread, saffron and wine. — Van Hel- 

Aroph Paracelsi, Ferrum ammoniatum. 

ARQUEBUSABE EAU B', Aqua traumat- 
ica Thede'nii, Aqua Thedia'na, Aqua sclopeta'- 
ria, Aqua vulnera'ria, Aqua catapulta'rum, Jlis- 
tu'ra vulnera'ria ac"ida. A sort of vulnerary 
water, distilled from a farrago of aromatic plants. 
Rosemary Ibiss, millefoil, thyme, each Ibss. 
Proof spirit 2 gallons — distil a gallon. This is 
one form. 

ARRABON, Arraphon. 

ARRACHEMENT, (F.) from arracher, 'to 
tear out,' Apospas'ma, Abrup'tio, Avul'sio. Act 
of separating a part of the body by tearing it from 
the bonds connecting it with others. Evulsion. 

Arrachement is applied to certain operations, 
as to the extraction of a tooth, the extirpation of 
a poh/pus, <fec. 

ARRACK, Arack. See Spirit. 

AR'RAPHON, Ar'rabon, from a, priv., and 
pa<bv, 'a suture,' — 'without suture.' A term 
applied to the cranium when it presents no su- 

ARRECTIO, Erection. 

ARREPTIO, Insanity. 

ARRESTA BOVIS, Ononis spinosa. 

ARR1>T B'HILBAN, Remora Ilildani. 

ARRj^TE B(EUF, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRHffi'A, from a, privative, and peu>, 'I flow/ 
The suppression of any flux. Amenorrhoea. 



ARRHOSTIA, Disease, Infirmity. 

ARRHYTHMUS, Cacorrhythmus. 

ARRIBA, Geoffrsea vermifuga. 

ARRIERE-B UCHE, Pharynx — a. - Bent, 
see Dentition — a.-Faix, Secundines. 

ARRIERE-GOUT, (F.) 'after taste.' The 
taste left by certain bodies in the mouth for some 
time after they have been swallowed, owing per- 
haps to the papillae of the mouth having imbibed 
the savoury substance. 

ARRLERES NARINES, Nares, posterior. 

ARROCLTE, Atriplex hortensis — a. Puant, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ARROSEMENT, Aspersion. 

ARROWHEAD, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW LEAF, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW POISON. This differs with different 
tribes of Indians. By some, the poison capsicum, 
and infusions of a strong kind of tobacco, and of 
euphorbiaceise are mixed together, with the poi- 
sonous emmet, and the teeth of the formidable 
serpent, called by the Peruvian Indians Miua- 
maru or Jerqon, — Lachesis picta of Tschudi. 

ARROW ROOT, Fec'ula Maran'ta, Am'ylurn, 
maranta'ceum, A. America' num. The fecula of 
the rhizoma of Maran'ta Arundina' cea, which, 
like all fecula;, is emollient and nutritive, when 
prepared with water, milk, &c. 

Dr. Carson has shown, that Florida arrow-root 
is derived from Za'mia intetjrifo'lia or Z. pu'mila, 
Sugar pine ; Bermuda arrow root being i btained 
from Maranta arundinacea. Florida arrow root, 
as well as the farina, is known in the Southern 
States under the name Ooonti or Coontie. 

According to Dr. Ainslie, an excellent kind of 
arrow root is prepared in Travancore from the 
root of Curcuma angustifolia. 

Arrow root mucilage is made by rubbing arrow 
root, powder with a little cold water, in a basin, 
by means of the back of a spoon, until it is com- 
pletely mixed with the water; then pouring boil- 
ing water over it, stirring assiduously until a soft, 
gelatinous, tenacious mucilage is formed; and, 
lastly, boiling for five minutes. A tablespoonful 
of arrow root powder is sufficient to make a pint 




of mucilage. It may be moderately sweetened ; 
and wine or lemon juice may be added. 

With milk also it forms a blaud and nutritious 
article of diet. 

Au row Root, Brazilian. The fecula of Ja- 
tropha Manihot. 

Arrow Root, Common, see Solanum tubero- 

Arrow Root, East Indian. The fecula of 
the tubers of Curcuma angustifolia or narrow- 
leaved Turmeric. 

Arrow Root, English, Arrow root, common. 

ARROW WOOD, Euonymus, Viburnum den- 

AllS CABALISTICA, Cabal— a. Chymiatrica, 
Chymiatria — a. Clysmatica nova, Infusion of me- 
dicines — a. Coquinaria, Culinary art — a. Cosme- 
tica, Cosmetics — a. Culinaria, Culinary art — a. 
Einpiriea, Empiricism — a. Hermetica, Chymistry 
— a. Homoeopatbica, Homoeopathy — a. Hydria- 
trica, Hydrosudotherapeia — a. Infusoria, Infu- 
sion of medicines — a. Machaonia, Medicina — a. 
Majorum, Chymistry — a. Medica, Medicina — a. 
Obstetricia, Obstetrics — a. Sanandi, Art, healing 
— a. Separatoria, Chymistry — a. Spagirica, Chy- 
mistry — a. Veterinaria, Veterinary Art — a. Zoia- 
trica. Veterinary Art. 

ARSALTOS, Aspbaltum. 

ARSATUM, Nymphomania. 

ARSENAL, (F.) Chirapothe'ca, Armamenta'- 
riitm, A. chirur'gieym. A collection of surgical 
instruments. A work containing a description 
of surgical instruments. 

ARSEN'IATE, Arsen'ias. A salt formed by 
a combination of arsenic acid with a salifiable 

Arsf.niate of Ammonia, Arsen'ias Ammo'nice, 
Ammo'nium Arsenic' icum, (F.) Arseniate d'Am- 
moniaque. This preparation is highly extolled 
in cutaneous diseases. A grain of the salt may 
be dissolved in an ounce of distilled water, and 
20 to 25 drops be commenced with as a dose. 

Arseniate op Iron, Arsen'ias Ferri, Ferrum -nin'ttiin, F. Ar sen' icum oxydula'tum, (F.) 
Arseniate de Fer. This preparation has been 
applied externally to cancerous ulcers. An oint- 
ment may be made of gss of the arseniate, ^U °f 
the phosphate of iron, and gyj of spermaceti 
ointment. The arseniate has also been given in- 
ternally in cancerous affections, in the dose of one- 
sixteenth of a grain. 

Arseniate of Protox'ide of Potas'sium, 
Proto-arsen'iate of Potas'sium, Arsen'iate of Po- 
tassa, Arsen'ias Potasses, Arseuias Kali. Pro- 
perties the same as those of arseuious acid. 

Arsrniate of Quinta, Quinise Arsenias. 

AR'SENIC, Arsen'icum. A solid metal; of a 
steel-gray colour; granular texture; very brittle; 
volatilizing before melting; very combustible and 
acidifiable. It is not dangerous of itself, and only 
becomes so by virtue of the facility with which it 
absorbs oxygen. 

A RSENIO BLANC, Arsenicum album. 
Arsenic, Iodide of, Arsen'ici lo'didum seu 
Teriud'idum, A. Iodure'tum, Arsen'icum Ioda' - 
tum : formed by the combination of arsenious 
arid and iodine. This preparation, applied ex- 
ternally, has been highly extolled in various cu- 
taneous affeotions. An ointment may be made 
of three grains of iodide to ^j of lard. It has 
also been given internally in the dose of a tenth 
of a grain in similar affections. 

Arsenic, Oxide of, Arsenicum album — a. Ox- 
ide of, White, Arsenicum album — a. White, Arse- 
nicum album. 

Arsenic and Mercury, Iodide of, Hydrar'- 
yyri et Arsen'ici lo'didum, Double I'odide of 
Mcr'cury and Ar'senic, lodo-arsenitc of Mer'cury. 

A compound, which has been proposed as more 
efficacious than either the iodide of arsenic or the 
iodide of mercury. It is made |>\ triturating 0.03 
grains of metallic arsenic ,■ I 1.82 grains of raw, 
cury ; 49 of iodine, with a fluidrachm of alcohol, 
until the mass has become dry, and from being 
deep brown has become pale red. Fight ounces 
of distilled (ruler are poured on, and, after tritu- 
ration for a few moments, the whole is transfer- 
red to a flask; half a drachm of hydriodie acid, 
prepared by the acidification of two grains of 
iodine, is added, and the mixture is boiled for a 
few moments. AVhen the solution is cold, make 
the mixture up to f^viij with distilled water. 
This is called by Mr. Donovan, the proposer, 
Liquor Arsen'ici et Hydrar'gyri Io'didi, each 
drachm of which by measure consists of water 
gj, arsenious acid gr. l-8th; peroxide of mercury 
gr. l-4th, iodine converted into hydriodie acid 
gr. 3-4ths. In the last edition of the Ph. U. S. 
it is directed to be made of Arsen'ici Jodidum and 
Hydrargyri lodiditm ruhrum, each gr. xxxv; and 
Aqua destillata Oss; dissolving by rubbing, heat- 
ing to the boiling point, and filtering. 

The dose of Donovan's Solution, is from (T^xy 
to f 3 SS f wo or three times a day. 

It has been used successfully in inveterate cu- 
taneous diseases. 

ARSEN'ICAL PASTE, (F.) Pate Arsenicale. 
This application to cancers is formed of 70 parts 
of cinnabar, 22 of dragon's blood, and 8 of arse- 
uiniis acid ; made into a paste with saliva, when 
about to be applied. 

ARSENICI IODIDUM, Arsenic, Iodide of— 
a. Ioduretum, Arsenic, Iodide of — a. Teriodidum, 
Arsenic, iodide of. 

ARSENICISM'US, Intoxica'tio Arsenica'lis. 
Poisoning by arsenic. 

ARSEN'ICUM ALBUM; White Ar'senic, Ox- 
ide of Ar'senic, Ratsbane, Arsen'ici ox'ydum al- 
bum, Calx Arsen'ici alba, Ac" ill inn Arsenico' ewm t 
A. Arsenic)' 'sum (Ph. U. S.), Arsen'ious acid. White 
oxide of arsenic, (F.) Arsenic blanc. An acid 
which is met with in commerce, in compact, white, 
heavy, fragile, masses ; of a vitreous aspect, opake, 
and covered with a white dust ; of an acrid and 
nauseous taste; without smell when cold; vola- 
tilizable by beat, and exhaling the odour of gar- 
lic : soluble in water, alcohol and oil; crystalli- 
zable in regular octahedrons. It is this that is 
meant by the name arsenic, as commonly used. 

Arsen'icum Album Sublima'tum, Sublimed 
Oxide of Arsenic, is the one employed in medi- 
cine. It is tonic and eseharotic, and is the most 
virulent of mineral poisons. It is used in in- 
termittents, periodical headachs, neuroses, <tc. 
Dose, gr. one-tenth to one-eighth in pill. See 
Poisons, Table of. 

Arsenicum Iodatum, Arsenic, Iodide of — a. 
Rubrum Factitium, Realgar. 

ARSENIS POTASS.E, Arsenite of protoxide 
of potassium — a. Potassse aquosus, Liquor arse- 
nicalis — a. Potassa? liquidus, Liquor arscnicalis. 

AR'SENITE, Ar'senis. A salt, formed by a 
combination of the arsenious acid with a salifi- 
able base. 

Ar'senite of Protox'ide of Potas'sium, Pro- 
to-ar'senite of Potas'sium, Ar'senite of 1'otassa, 
Ar'senis /'ntassce. An uncrystallizable and co- 
lourless salt, which forms the basis of the liquor 
arsenicalis, v bich see. 

Arsenite of Quinia, Quinise arsenis. 

ARSE-SMART, Persicaria — a. Biting, Poly- 
gonum hydropiper. 

ART, HEALING, Ars Sanan'di, dfedioi'na. 
The appropriate application of the precepts of 
the best physicians, and of the results of experi- 
ence to the treatment of di 




Art, Veterinary, Veterinary art. 

AR'TABE, aj>To/3)7. Name of a measure for 
dry substances, in use with the ancients, equal 
at times, to 5 modii : at others, to 3; and at 
Others, again, to 7. — Galen. 


These German waters have been much recom- 
mended in hysteria, gout, palsy, &c. Their 
physical or chemical properties have not been 

ARTEMIS'IA, Anacti'rion. Called after a 
queen of the name, who first employed it; or 
from Aprf^ij, 'Diana;' because it was formerly 
used in diseases of women, over whom she pre- 
sided. The Gauls called it Bricumum. 

Artemis'ia Abrot'anum, Abrot'anum, Abrot'- 
onum, Abrot'anum Cathsum, Abrot'anum mas, 
Abrathun, South' ernwood, Oldman, (F.) Aurone, 
Aurone mule, Aurone des jardins, Garderobe, 
Citronelle. Supposed to be possessed of stimu- 
lant properties. 

Oil of Southernwood, O'leum Abrot'ani, (F.) 
Huile d' Aurone, possesses the aromatic proper- 
ties of the plant. 

Artemis'ia Absin'thium, Absin'tliium, Absin'- 
thium vulga're, Apsin'thinm, Barypi'cron, Com- 
mon Wormwood, (F.) Absinthe. Properties: — 
tonic and anthelmintic. The Oil of Wormwood, 
O'leum Absin'thii, (F.) Huile d' Absinthe, contains 
the aromatic virtues of the plant. 

Artemisia Afra, a South African species, is 
tonic, antispasmodic and anthelmintic; and has 
been used in debility of the stomach, visceral ob- 
structions, jaundice and hypochondriasis. It is 
taken in infusion, decoction and tincture. A 
strong infusion is used by the Cape Colonists as 
a collyrium in weakness of the eyes ; and the 
pounded leaves and stalks are employed as dis- 
cutients in oedema and sugillations. 

Artemisia Alba, A. Santonica — a. Balsamita, 
A. Pontica. 

Artemisia Bien'nis, Biennial Wormwood ; in- 

Artemisia Botrys, Chenopodium ambrosi- 

Artemis'ia Campes'tris, Field Southernwood, 
(F.) Aurone des Chumps. This possesses the 
same properties as A. Abrot'anum. 

Artemisia Chenopodium, Chenopodium bo- 

Artemisia Chinen'sis, A. In'dica, A. Moxa. 
From this the Chinese form their moxas. 

Artemisia Contra, A. Santonica. 

Artemisia Draoun'culus, Tar' agon, (F. ) 
Armoise estragon. Virtues: — the same as the 

Artemis'ia Glacia'lis, Silky Wormwood; 

Artemisia Indica, Artemisia Chinensis, A. 

Artemisia Leptophylla, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Marit'ima, Absin'thium Mari'nwm 
seu Ma r it' i mum, Sea Wormwood, Maritime South- 
ern wood ; 

Artemisia Moxa, A. Chinensis; 

Artemis'ia Pon'tica, A. Roma'na sou Tenui- 
fo'lia seu Balsami'ta seu Leptophyl'la, Absinthi- 
um Pon'ticum seu Roma'num, Roman Wormwood, 
Lesser Wormwood, possess like virtues ; — as well 

Artemisia Romana, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Rubra, A. Santonica; and 

Artemis'ia Rupes'tris, Creeping Wormwood, 
Gen'ipi album, (F.) Armoise blane, Genipi blanc. 
This variety has aromatic virtues, and is used in 
intennittents, and in amenorrhoea. 

Artemis'ia Santon'ica, Santon'icum, Arte- 

mis'ia contra, Semen contra Vermes, Semen con~ 
tra, S. Zedoa'ria, Canni Herba, Cham&cedris, 
Chamcecyparis'sus, Semen Cina, Hagiospcr' 'mum, 
Sane' turn Semen, Absin'thium Santon'icum, Se- 
an nti'na, Xantoli'na, Scheba Ar'abum, Artemis'ia 
Juda'ica, Sina seu Cina Levan'tica, Wormseed, 
Tartarian Southernwood, (F.) Barbotine. Vir- 
tues : — anthelmintic and stimulant. Dose, gr. x. 
to 3J i Q powder. 

Artemisia Tenuifolia, A. Pontica. 

Artemis'ia Vulg a' his, Artemis' ia rubra et alba, 
Oin'gulum Suncti Joan'nis, Mater Herba' rum, Be- 
renisecum, Bubastecor' dium, Cunopa'cia, Mug- 
wort, (F.) Armoise ordinaire, A. Commune, Herba 
de Saint Jean. This, as well as some other 
varieties, possesses the general tonic virtues of 
the Artemisia;. Artemisia vulgaris has been 
highly extolled by the Germans in cases of epi- 
lepsy. Dose of the powder, in the 24 hours, from 

3 SS t0 35- 

ART ERE, Artery — rr. Braehial, Brachial ar- 
tery — a. Brachio-cephalique, Innominata arteria 
— a. Bronchique, Bronchial artery — a. Ciliaire, 
Ciliary artery — a. Glitorienne: see Clitoris — a. 
Ocecale: see Colic arteries — a. Collate rale du 
coude, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a Collate- 
ral externe, Arteria profunda humeri — a. Colla- 
teral interne, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. 
Goronaire des levres, Labial artery — a. Coronaire 
Stomachique, Coronary artery — a. Crurale, Crural 
artery — a. Deuxieme des thoraciqucs, Arteria tho- 
racica externa inferior — a. Epineusc, Meningeal 
artery, middle— a. Femoro-poplitee, Ischiatic artery 
— a. Fessiere, Gluteal artery — a. Gastrique droite, 
petite, Pyloric artery — a. Gutturo-maxillaire, 
Maxillary artery, internal — a. Honteuse externe, 
Pudie, external, artery — a. Honteuse interne, Pu- 
dic, internal, artery — a. Humerale profonde, Ar- 
teria profunda humeri — a. Iliaque primitive, Iliao 
artery — a. Innominee, Innominata arteria — a. 
Irienne, Ciliary artery — a. Jschio-penienne : see 
Pudic, internal, artery — a. Mediane anterieure, 
Spinal artery, anterior — a. Mediane poslerieure 
du rachis, Spinal artery, posterior — a. Meninges 
moyenne, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Menton- 
niere, Mental foramen — a. Mesocephalique, Basi- 
lary artery — a. Mesoculiqne : see Colic artery — 
a. Muscu/aire du bras, Arteria profunda humeri 
— a. Musculaire du bras, grande: see Collateral 
arteries of the arm — a. Musculaire grande de la 
cuisse, Arteria profunda femoris — a. Ojiisthogas- 
trique, Coeliac artery — a. Orbitaire, Ophthalmic 
artery — a. de I'Ovaire, Spermatic artery — a. 
Pelvi-crurale, Crural artery — a. Pelvi-crurale, 
Iliac artery — a. Pclvienne, Hypogastric artery — 
a. i'lemiere des thoraeiques, Arteria thoracica 
externa superior — a. Radio-carpienne trunsver- 
sale palmaire, Radio-carpal artery — a. Scrotale, 
Pudic, external, artery — a. Sous-elavihre, Sub- 
clavian artery — a. Sous-pubio-fimorale, Obturator 
artery — a. Sous-pubienne, Pudic, internal, artery 
— a. Sous-sternal, Mammary, internal — a. Sphe- 
no-epineuse, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Stomo- 
gastrique, Coronary artery — a. Sus-carpienue: 
see Sus-caipien — a. Sus-maxillaire, Alveolar 
artery — a. Sus-maxillaire, Buccal artery — a. 
Sus-metatarsienne, Metatarsal artery — a. Sus- 
pubienne, Epigastric artery — a. Testiculaire, 
Spermatic artery — a. Thoracique humerale, Acro- 
mial artery — a. Trachelocervical : see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Trochanterienne, Circumflex artery 
of the thigh — a. Troisihne des thoraeiques, Acro- 
mial artery — a. Tympanique, Auditory artery, 
external — a. Uveale: see Ciliary artery — a. VuU 
vaire, Pudic, external, artery. 

ARTERIA, Artery— a. Ad Cutem Abdominis, 
see Ad Cutem abdominis, (arteria) — a. Anonyma, 




Innomiuata artery — a. Aspera, Trachea — a. Ce- 
rebralis, Carotid, internal — a. Cervicalis, Basilary 
artery — a. Coronaria dextra, Pyloric artery — a. 
Crassa, Aorta — a. Externa cubiti, Radial artery 
— a. Dorsalia metacarpi, Metacarpal artery — a. 
Durse matris media maxima, Meningeal artery, 
middle — a. Encephalica, Carotid, internal — a. 
Gastrica superior, Coronary artery — a. Ilio-colica : 
see Colic arteries — a. Iliaca interna, Hypogastric 
artery — a. Iliaca posterior, Hypogastric artery — 
a. Magna, Aorta — a. Magna pollicis, Princeps 
pollicis — a. Malleolaris externa : see Tibial arte- 
ries—a. Malleolaris interna : see Tibial arteries — 
a. Mammaria externa, A. Thoraciea externa, in- 
ferior — a. Maxima, Aorta — a. Media anastoinoti- 
ca : see Colic arteries — a. Meningaja media, Me- 
ningeal artery, middle — -a. Muscularis femoris, A. 
Profunda femoris — a. Pharyngea suprema, Ptery- 
goid artery — a. Profunda eerebri : see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Pudenda communis, Pudic, internal, 
artery — a. Pudica, Pudic, internal, artery — a. 
Ramulus ductus Pterygoidei, Pterygoid artery — 
a. Spheno-spinosa, Meningeal artery, middle — a. 
Spinalis, A. Profunda humeri — a. Sternalis, Mam- 
mary, internal — a. Supra-orbitalis, Frontal ar- 
tery — a. Sylviana : see Cerebral arteries — a. 
Thoraciea axillaris vel alaris, Scapular artery, 
inferior — a Thoraciea humeralis, Acromial artery 
— a. Transversalis colli: see Cerebral arteries — 
a. Transversalis humeri, Scapular artery, superior 
— a. Ulnaris, Cubital artery — a. Uterina hypo- 
gastric, Uterine artery — a Vasta posterior, A. 
Profunda femoris. 

ARTE'RIAC, Arteri'acua. A medicine pre- 
scribed in diseases of the windpipe. Also arte- 

ARTE'RI^E ADIPO'S.E. The arteries which 
secrete the fat about the kidneys are sometimes 
so called. They are ramifications of the capsular, 
diaphragmatic, renal, and spermatic arteries. 

Arterle Apoplectics, Carotids — a. Capitales, 
Carotids — a. Ciliares, Ciliary arteries — a. Corporis 
callosi cerebri, Mesolobar arteries — a. Jugulares, 
Carotids — -a. Lethargical, Carotids — a. Mesolobi- 
c«5, Mesolobar arteries — a. Prseparantes, Sper- 
matic arteries — a. Somniferje, Carotids — a. Sopo- 
rales, Carotids — a. Soporariae, Carotids — a. Ve- 
nosae, Pulmonary veins. 

ARTE'RIAL, Arteri'acua, Arterio'aua. Be- 
longing to arteries. 

Arterial Blood, (E.) Sang art&riel. Red 
blood is so called because contained in the arte- 
ries. The pulmonary veins, however, also con- 
tain red blood: hence the name arterial veina, 
(F.) Veines arteriellee, applied to them. 

Arte'rial Duct, Gana'lis arterio' aua, Dnctua 
arUrio'sua, El. Botal'lii, (P.) Canal arteriel, C. 
Pulmo-aortique, is the portion of the pulmonary 
artery which terminates in the aorta in the foetus. 
When this duct is obliterated after birth, it is 
called Arte'rial Lig' anient, (F.) Ligament arteriel. 
Arterial .System includes all the arteries, 
irom their origin in the heart to their termina- 
tion in the organs. See Vascular System. 


AR TERIARGTIE,, from aprnpia, 'artery,' and 
arcto, 'I straiten.' Contraction of an artery. 
ARTERIECTOP'IA, from aprnpia, 'artery,' 
and cktottos, ' out of place. Dislocation of an 

ARTERIITIS, Arteritis. 
\RTERIOG'RAPHY, Arteriogra'phia : from 
aprnpia, 'artery,' and ypatyn, 'a description.' A 
description of the arteries. 

ARTERIOLA. A small artery. 

AB.TEB.IQL' OGY,Arteriolog"iaj from aprnpia, 
'artery,' and Aoyof, 'a discourse.' A treatise on 
the arteries. 

ARTE'RIO-PITU'ITOUS. An epithet ap- 
plied to vessels which creep along the interior 
of the nostrils. — Ruysch. 

ARTERIORRHEXIS, seo Aneurism. 

ARTERIOS'ITAS, from Arteria, 'an artery.' 
A condition of the blood in which it preserves in 
the veins the arterial character. — The opposite 
to Venositas. 

Arteriositas Sanguinis, Prsedominium san- 
guinis artcriosi. 

ARTERIOSTEIE, from aprvpta, 'artery,' and 
oarcov, 'a bone.' Ossification of an artery. — 

AR'TERIOT'OMY, Arteriotom'ia, from aprnpia, 
'an artery,' and Ttpu, ' I cut.' This word has 
been used for the dissection of arteries. Most 
commonly, however, it means a surgical opera- 
tion, which consists in opening an artery, to 
draw blood from it. Arteriotomy is chiefly used 
in inflammatory affections of the head, when the 
blood is generally obtained from the temporal 
artery. See Blood-letting. 

ARTERI'TIS, Arterii'tia, Inflamma'tio Arte- 
ria'rum, (F.) Arterite, Inflammation den arterea / 
from aprnpia, 'an artery,' and itis, a termination 
denoting inflammation. Inflammation of an ar- 
tery. Inflammation of the inner coat of an 
artery is termed Endo-arteri'tis, or Endonar- 
teri'tis ; of the outer, Exo-arteri'tia or Exar- 

AR'TERY, Arte'ria, (F.) Artere, from anp, 
'air,' and rnptiv, 'to preserve,' quasi, 'receptacle 
of air,' because the ancients believed that it con- 
tained air. They, at first, gave the name Artery 
to the trachea, aprnpia rpa^tia, because it is filled 
with air ; and afterwards they used the same 
term for the arteries, properly so called, probably 
because they commonly found them empty in the 
dead body. We find, also, <p\t(5tq to designate 
the arteries, called by the Latins Vena mican'tee 
pidsat' ilea. Arteries, with the moderns, signify 
the order of vessels, which arise from the two 
ventricles of the heart, and have valves only at 
their origin. They are cylindrical, firm, and 
elastic canals ; of a yellowish white colour ; little 
dilatable ; easily lacerable ; and formed, 1. Of an 
external, laminated or areolar membrane, of a 
dense and close character. 2. Of a middle coat 
composed of fibres, which does not, however, 
contract on the application of the galvanic stimu- 
lus ; and 3. Of an inner coat, which is thin, dia- 
phanous, reddish, and polished. 

The use of the arteries is to carry the blood 
from the heart to the various parts of the system. 
It will be obvious, however, that they cannot all 
convey arterial blood. The pulmonary artery, 
for example, is destined to convey the venoua 
blood to the lungs, there to be converted into 
arterial; whilst the pulmonary veins convey 
arterial blood back to the heart. 


All the other arteries take their rise from tho 
Pulmonary Artery, or tho Aorta: and the names 
generally indicate the parts to which they are 

I. Arteria Pulmonalis. 

The Pulmonary Artery arises from the right 
ventricle, and soon divides into a right and left 
branch, one of which is distributed to each 




a.A.Ca- ! 
rotidea <, 
externa. ', 


ris in- 

I 6. 

S Funds 
f la ris 

II. Arteria Aorta. 
The Aorta arises from the left ventricle. It is 
the common trunk of the arteries of the hody, 
and may be divided into five portions. 

a. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its origin. 

1. A. Cardiaca or coronaria anterior. 

2. A. Cardiaca or coronaria posterior. 

b. Arteries furnished by the Aorta at its arch. 
The arch of the Aorta gives off, to the left, two 
considerable trunks — the Arteria carotidea pri- 
mitiva, and A, subclavia; and, to the right, a 
6ingle trunk, which is larger — the A. innominata, 
or Brachio-cephalica, which divides into the pri- 
mitive carotid and subclavian. 

A. Arteria Caro- j Divides into A. Carotidea exter- 
tidea primitive. I na, A. Carotidea interna. 
("Furnishes, 1. A. TUyroidea superior. 

12. A. lingualis, which gives off the A. dor- 
salis lingua; and A sublingualis. 
3. A. facialis vel A. Muxillaris externa. 
which furnishes the A. palatina infe- 
rior, the A. submentals, and A. coro- 
naria superior and inferior. 
A. occipitalis, which gives off the A. 

mastoidea posterior. 
A- auricularis posterior, which gives 
off A. stylo-mastoidea. 
A. pharyngea inferior. 
The external carotid ultimately divides into the 
temporal artery and internal maxillary. 

, " _ nishes A. transversalis faciei. A. auricu- 
ris anterior, and A. temporalis media. 

("Furnishes 13 branches, viz. A. meningia 
media, A. dentaris inferior, A. temporalis 
profunda posterior. A. masseterina. A. 
plerygoidea. A. buccalis, A. temporalis pro- 
funda anterior, A. alveolaris ; A. suborbi- 
tals, A. vidiuna, A. pterygopatatina or 
pharyngea superior, A. palatina superior, 
and A. sphenopalatina. 

("Furnishes, ]. A. ophthalmica, which gives 
off A. lachrymalis, A. centralis retina:, A. 
supraorbitaria vel superciliaris, A.ciliares 
posteriores, A. ciliares longae, A. muscu- 
laris superior et inferior, A. ethmoidals 
posterior et anterior, A. palpebrals supe- 
rior et inferior, A. nasalis, and A. fronta- 
lis. 2. A. communicans, IVillesii. 3. A. 
choroidea. 4. A. cerebralis anterior. 5. A. 
cerebralis media. 

("Furnishes, 1. A. vcrtebralis, which gives off 
A. spinalis anterior et posterior, A. cere- 
bellosa inferior, and forms — by uniting it- 
self with that of the opposite side — the A. 
basilaris, divided into A. cerebellosa su- 
perior and A. cerebralis posterior. 2. A. 
thyroidea inferior, which gives off A. cer- 
vicalis ascendens. 3. A. mammaria in- 
terna, which gives off the A. mediastina 
I anterior and A. diaphragmatica superior. 
4. A intercostalis superior. 5. A. cervica- 
i lis transversa. 0. A. scapularis superior. 
17. A. cervicalis posterior vel profunda. 
Farther on, the subclavian artery conti- 
nues its progress under the name A. axil- 

[ Furnishes, 1. A. acromialis. 2. A. thoracica 

I superior. 3. A. thoracica inferior vel longa 
vel mammaria externa. 4. A. scapularis 

{ inferior vel communis. 5. A. circumflexa 
posterior. (5. A. circumflexa anterior. Far- 
ther on, the axillary artery continues un- 
der tbe name A. brachialis. 
Furnishes A. humeralis profunda vel collate- 
Talis externa. 2. A. collateralis interna. 
It afterwards divides into the radial and 
cubital arteries. 

S Gives off A. rccurrens radialis, A. dorsalis 
carpi, A. dorsalis metacarpi. A. dorsalis 
i pollicis. anil terminates in forming the 
( Arcus palmaris profundus. 
("Gives off A. recurrens cubilalis anterior and 
posterior: A. interossea anterior and pos- 
J tcrior. which latter furnishes A. rccurrens 
radialis posterior. It terminates in form- 
ing the superficial palmar arch, which 
I. gives off A. Collaterals digilorvm. 


b. A. Ca- 


B. Ar- 
teria J 


A. Axil- 

A- Bra- 


2. A- Cu 

c. Arteries given off by the Aorta in the Thorax. 
f 1. A. Bronchica, dextra et sinistra, 
rj,, I 2. A. asophagaa (to the number of four, 

five, or six.) 

ntcrcostales inferiores vel aorticm 
(to the number of eight, nine, or ten.) 


tes 1 3, A mediastina; posteriores. 
• 4. A. i 

d. Arteries furnished by the Aorta in the Abdomen. 

These I 


are, t 

1. The A. diaphragmatica vel phrenica 
dextra et sinistra. 

[ Which divides into three branches, 1. A. co- 

I ronaria ventriculi. 2. A. ffepatica, which 

2. A. J gives off A. pylonca. A. gastro-epiploica 

Caliaca . { dextra and A. cystica ; and, lastly, the A. 

splenica, which gives off A. gastro.epiplo- 

[ ica sinistra and Vasa brevia 

Which gives off at its concavity the A. co- 

lica dextra superior, media it inferior, and 

at its convex part from 15 to 20 Rami in- 


Which gives off A. colica superior media, 
anil inferior, and divides into A. haemor- 
rhoidales superiores. 

3. A. 




4. A. 


5. The A. Capsulares media (to the number of two 
on each side.) 

6. A. Henales vel Emulgentes. 

7. A. ispermatica. 

8. A. Lnmbares (to the number of four or five on 
each side.) 

e. Arteries resulting from the Bifurcation of the 
The Aorta, a little above its Bifurcation, gives off 
the A. sacra media, and divides into A. iliaca pri- 
A. I/iaca 


H Divi 
l ex 

a. A. II- I 
iaca m-i 

b. A. II- 
iaca ex- 

A. Cm- 

A. Pop- . 
litaia. 1 

\.A. Pe- 


des into A. Iliaca interna and A. Iliaca 

( Furnishes, 1. A. ilio-lumbaris. 2. A. sacra 
lateralis. 3. A glutea vel iliaca posterior. 
4. A. umbilicalis. 5. A. vcsicalis. 0. A. 
| obturatoria. 7. A. hamorrhoidea media. 
8 A. uferina. 9, A. vaginalis. 10. A. 
ischiatica. 11. A. pudenda interna, which 
gives off the A. hemorr/widales inferiores, 
A, of the septum., A. transversa perinei, 
A. corporis cavernosi, and A. dorsalis penis. 

Furnishes, 1. A. epigastrjca. 2. A. iliaca an- 
terior vel circumflexa ilii, and is continued 
afterwards under the name of Crural Ar- 

Furnishes; 1. A. subcutanea abdominalis. 2. 
A. pudenda snperfii:ia/is and profunda. 3. 
A. muscularis supcrficia/is. 4, A. muscu- 
laris profunda, which gives off the A. cir- 
cumflexa externa and interna, and the 
three Perforantes, distinguished into su- 
perior, middle, and inferior. Farther on, 
the crural artery continues under the 
name A. Poplilaa. 

Furnishes, I. A. Articularcs superiores, in- 
terna, media, et externa. 2. A. Oemella. 
3 A. Articulares inferiores, interna et ex- 
terna. 4. A. tibialis antica, which, at the 
foot, takes the name, A. dorsalis tarsi, and 
gives off the tarsal and metatarsal arte- 
ries. In the leg, the popliteal artery di- 
vides into the peroneal and posterior 

Divides into A. peronaa antica and A.pero- 
na posticu. 

("Divides into A. plantaris interna and A. 
I plantaris externa. The latter, by anasto- 
A Ti- mosing with the A. dorsalis tarsi, forms 


bialis < 

the plantar arch, whence arise Rami su- 
periores vel perforantes postici, R. Inferi- 
ores postici et antici, which give off Rami 
perforantes antici. 

Artery, Angular, Facial artery — a. Articu- 
lar, Circumflex artery — a. Brachiocephalic, Inno- 
minata arteria — a. Central of the retina, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Central of Zinn, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Cephalic, Carotid — a. 
Cerebral posterior, Vertebral — a. Cervico-seapu- 
lar, see Cervical arteries — a. Coronary of the lips, 
Labial artery — a. Crotaphite, Temporal artery — 
a. Fibular, Peroneal artery— a. Castrio inferior, 




Gastro-epiploic artery — a. G astro-hepatic, see 
Gastro-epiploic artery — a. Genital, Pudic (inter- 
nal) artery — a. Guttural inferior, Thyroideal A. 
inferior — a. Guttural superior, Thyroideal A. su- 
perior — a. Humeral, Brachial artery — a. Iliac 
posterior, Gluteal artery — a. Iliaco-muscular, 
Ileo-lumbar artery — a. Labial, Facial artery — a. 
Laryngeal superior, Thyroideal artery, superior 
— a. Maxillary internal, Facial artery — a. Median 
of the sacrum, Sacral artery, anterior — a. Nasal, 
lateral, large, Spheno-palatine artery — a. Palato- 
lalia), Facial artery — a. Pericephalic, Carotid 
(external) — a. Pharyngeal, superior, Pterygo- 
palatine artery — a. Phrenic, Diaphragmatic ar- 
tery — a. Posterior of the brain, see Cerebral ar- 
teries — a. External scapular, Acromial artery — 
a. Spinal, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Subcla- 
vian right, Innominata arteria — a. Subscapular, 
Scapular artery, inferior — a. Superficial of the 
abdomen, Ad cutem abdominis (arteria) — a. Su- 
pramaxillary, Alveolar artery — a. Suprarenal, 
Capsular artery — a. Thoracic, internal, Mammary 
internal — a. Urethro-bulbar, Transverse perineal 
artery — a. Vesico-prostatic, Vesical artery — a. 
Vidian, Pterygoid artery. 

ARTETIS'CUS; from artus, ' a limb.' One 
who has lost a limb. 

ARTEURYSMA, Aneurism. 

ARTHANI'TA, from apron, 'bread;' the Cyc'- 
lamen or Sowbread. It was formerly made into 
ointment, Unguen'tum Arthani'tce, with many 
other substances, and was employed as a purga- 
tive, being rubbed on the abdomen. 

Arthanita Cyclamen, Cyclamen. 

ARTHETICA, Teucrium chauisepitys. 

ARTHRAGRA, Gout — a. Anomala, Gout, an- 
omalous—a. Genuina, Gout, regular — a. Legiti- 
ma, Gout, regular — a. Normalis, Gout, regular — 
a. Vera, Gout, regular. 

ARTHRALGIA, Arthrodynia, Gout. See Lead 

ARTHRELCO'SIS, from apSpov, 'a joint,' and 
'e\>cu)o-i{, 'ulceration.' Ulceration of a joint. 

ARTHREMBOLE'SIS, same etymon as the 
next. The reduction of a fracture or luxation. 

ARTHREM'BOLUS, from apSpov, 'a joint,' 
ev, 'in,' and (SaWw, 'I cast.' An ancient instru- 
ment used in the reduction of dislocations. 

ANTHRETICA, Teucrium chamajpitys. 

ARTIIRIT'IC, Arthrit'icus, from apSpov, 'a 
joint.' (F.) Arthritique, Goutteux. That which 
relates to gout or arthritis, as arthritic symp- 
toms, &o. 


ARTHRITIF'UGUM; from arthritis, 'gout,' 
and fugare, ' to drive away.' A remedy that 
drives away gout. Heyden terms cold water, 
internally, the arthritif'nqum. magnum. 

ARTHRITIS, Gout, Arthroph'logosis, Arthro- 
eia — a. Aberrans, Gout (wandering) — a. Acuta, 
Gout (regular) — a. Arthrodynia, Rheumatism, 
chronic — a. Asthenica, Gout (atonic) — a. Atonic, 
Gout (atonic) — a. Diaphragmatica, Angina Pec- 
toris — a. Erratica, Gout (wandering) — a. Hydrar- 
thros, Hydrarthrus — a. Inflammatoria, Gout (re- 
gular) — a. Juvenilis, see Rheumatism, acute — a. 
Maxillaris, Siagouagra — a. Nodosa, Gout (with 
nodosities) — a. Planetica, Gout (wandering) — a. 
Podagra, Gout — a. Rheumatica, see Rheumatism, 
acute — a. Rheumatismus, Rheumatism, acute — 
a. Retrograda, Gout (retrograde.) 

ARTHROC'ACE, from apSpov, 'a joint,' and 
KdKu;, ' bad.' Disease of the joints ; and espe- 
cially caries" of the articular surfaces. Spina 

Arthrocvce Coxartjm, Coxarum morbus. 

ARTHROCACOLOG"IA, from arthroeada— 
according to Rust, a chronic disease of the joints ; 

and Aoyot, 'a description.' The doctrine of chro- 
nic diseases of the joints. 

ARTHROCARCINO'MA, from ap$pov, 'a 
joint,' and napKivwua, 'cancer.' Cancer of the 

joint,' xov&pos, 'a cartilage,' and itis, denoting 
inflammation. Inflammation of the cartilages 
and joints. 

ARTHRO'DIA, from apSpov, 'a joint.' Adar- 
tiexda'tio. A moveable joint, formed by the head 
of a bone applied to the surface of a shallow 
socket, so that it can execute movements in every 
direction. Arthro'dium is 'a small joint:' dimi- 
nutive of Arthrodia. 

ARTHRODYN'IA, Arthronal'gia, Arthrol'- 
gia, from apSpov, 'articulation,' and obvvrt, 'pain.' 
Articular pain. Pain in the joints. See Rheu- 
matism, chronic. 

Arthrodynia Podagrica, Gout. 

ARTHROL'OGY, Arthrolog" ia, from apSpov, 
'a joint,' and \oyog, 'a description.' A descrip- 
tion of the joints. The anatomy of the joints. 

ARTHROM'BOLE, from a/tSpov, and /JaXAw, 
'I cast' Coaptation, reduction. Reduction of 
a luxated or fractured bone. 

ARTHROMENINGITIS, Meningarthrocace. 

ARTHRON, 'a joint.' The ancients used the 
word Arthron, for the articulation of bones with 
motion, in opposition to Symphysis, or articula- 
tion without motion. 

ANTHRONALGIA, Arthrodynia. 

ARTHRON'CUS, Arthrophy' ma ; from apSpov, 
'a joint,' and oynog, ' a swelling.' Tumefaction 
of a joint. 


ARTHROPHLOGO'SIS, from apSpov, 'a joint,' 
and tpXtyii), ' I burn ;' Arthri'tis, Ostarthro' sis. 
Inflammation of the joints. 

see Adenochondrius. 

ARTHROPYO'SIS, Arthronempye'sis, from 
apSpov, 'a joint,' and iruov, 'pus.' Suppuration 
or abscess of the joints. 


ARTHRO'SIA, from ap$pou>, 'I articulate.' 
Arthritis, (of some.) Inflammation, mostly con- 
fined to the joints ; severely painful ; occasionally 
extending to the surrounding muscles. A genus 
of diseases in the Nosology of Good, including 
Rheumatism, Gout, Articular inflammation, Joint- 
ache, &c. 

Arthrosia Acuta, Rheumatism, acute — a. 
Chronica, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Lumborum, 
Lumbago — a. Podagra, Gout — a. Podagra com- 
plicata, Gout (retrograde) — a. Podagra larvata, 
Gout (atonic) — a. Podagra regularis, Gout (re- 

ARTHROSIS, Articulation. 

ARTHROSPON'GUS, from apSpov, 'a joint,' 
and oTToyyog, 'a sponge.' A white, fungous tu- 
mour of the joints. 

ARTHROTRAU'MA, from apSpov, 'a joint,' 
and rpavua, 'a wound.' A wound of a joint. 

AR'TIA. According to some, this word is sy- 
nonymous with aprripta; others use it synony- 
mously with Trachea. 

ARTIOHAUT, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICHOKE, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICLE, Articulation. 

ARTICOCALUS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTICULAR, Articula'ris: from artus, 'a 
joint;' articulus, 'a small joint.' That which re- 
lates to the articulations; — as the articular cap- 
sides, &e. 

Articular Arteries op the Arm, Circum- 
flex arteries of the arm. 




Artic'ular Ar'teries op the Knee arise 
from the popliteal artery, and surround the tibio- 
femoral articulation. Although of a small size, 
they are important, as they furnish blood to the 
lower extremity after the operation for popliteal 
aneurism. They are distinguished into superior 
and inferior. The superior articular arteries, 
popliteal articular arteries, are commonly three 
in number; one of which is internal, another ex- 
ternal, and another middle, the az'ygous artic'- 
ular. The first, Ramus anastomot'ivu.v magnus, 
anastomoses by one branch with the external cir- 
cumflex ; and by another with the external supe- 
rior articular. The second anastomoses with the 
external circumflex, the superior internal arti- 
cular, and the inferior external articular ; and 
the third is distributed within the joint. The in- 
ferior articular arteries are two in number: an 
internal and external. The former anastomoses 
■with the internal superior articular and the ex- 
ternal inferior articular. The latter anastomoses 
with the recurrent branch of the anterior tibial, 
and the external superior articular. To each 
articular artery there is an articular nerve. 

Artic'ular Facettes' are the contiguous 
surfaces, by means of which the bones are arti- 

Articular Processes, see Vertebras. 

Artic'ular Veins of the knee follow the 
same course as the arteries. 

ARTICULATIO, Articulation— a.'Artificialis, 
Pseudarthrosis — a. Notha, Pseudarthrosis. 

ARTICULA'TION, Joint, Articula'tio, Ar- 
throsis, Assarthro'sis, Artic'ulus, Junctu'ra, Cola, 
Oonjunc'tio, Nodus, Commissu'ra, Oompa'ges, 
Syntax'is, Har'mus, Vertic'ula, Vertic'ulus, Ver- 
tic'ulum, (F.) Articulation, Article. Same ety- 
mon. The union of bones with each other, as 
well as the kind of union. 


Articulations are generally divided into Diar- 
throses or moveable articulations, and Synar- 
throses or immoveable. 

C 1. Amphiarthrosis. 

2. Diarthrosis, orbicu- I Enarthrosis. 
Diarthroses. <, lar vaeue. j Arthrodia. 

I 3. Alternative or Ginglymus, which 
L admits of varieties, 
f 1. Suture. 

Synarthroses, -j f "n,"pho&. 
(. 4. Schindylesis. 

The articulations are subject to a number of 
diseases, which are generally somewhat severe. 
These may be physical, as wounds, sprains, luxa- 
tions, &c. ; or they may be organic, as ankylosis, 
extraneous bodies, caries, rheumatism, gout, hy- 
drarthroses, arthropyosis, &c. 

Articulation means also the combination of 
letters which constitute words. See Voice. 

Articulation, False, Pseudar thro' sis, Artic'- 
ulus falsus, (F.) A. fausse, A. accidentelle, A. 
centre nature, A. anormale. A false joint, formed 
between fragments of bone, that have remained 
ununited; or between a luxated bone and the 
surrounding parts. v 

glymus — a. de la Hanche, Coxo-femoral articula- 

ges of the fingers — a. Digitorum pedis, Phalanges 
of the toes. 

ARTICULO MORTIS, see Psychorages — a. 
Spinalis, Remispinalis colli. 

ARTIFICIAL, Artificia'lis, (F.) Artificiel; 
from ars, artis, 'art,' and facere, 'to make.' That 
which is formed by art. 

Artificial Eyes are usually made of enamel, 
and represent a sort of hollow hemisphere, which 
is applied beneath the eyelids, when the eye is 

Artificial Teeth are made of ivory, porce- 
lain, &c. 

are preparations of anatomy, modelled in wax, 
plaster, paper, <fce. 

ARTISCOCCUS L^VIS, Cynara scolymus. 

ARTIS'CUS, from apros, 'bread.' See Tro- 
chiscus. A troch of the shape of a small loaf. 
Also, and especially, a troch made of vipers. 

ARTOCAR'PUS. The Bread-fruit Tree, (F.) 
Jaquier. A Polynesian tree, so called because 
the fruit, which is milky, and juicy, supplies tho 
place of bread to the inhabitants. It grows to 
the height of 40 feet. 

Artocarpus Integrifolia, Caoutchouc. 

ARTOC'REAS, from aprog, 'bread,' and icptas, 
'flesh.' A kind of nourishing food made of va- 
rious aliments boiled together. — Galen. 

ARTOG'ALA, from apro;, 'bread,' and ya\a, 
'milk.' An alimentary preparation of bread and 
milk. A poultice. 

ARTOM'ELI, from apro;, 'bread,' and ut\i, 
' honey.' A cataplasm of bread and honey. — 

ARTUS, Membrum. 

ARTYMA, Aroma, Condiment. 

ARUM, A. maculatum, and A. triphyllum — a. 
Amerieanum betae foliis, Dracontium foetidum. 

Arum Dracun'culus, Dracun 1 'cuius polyphyl' - 
lus, Colubri'na Dracon'tia, Erva de Sancta Ma- 
ria, Gig'arus serpenta' ria, Arum polyphyl'lum, 
Serpenta'ria Gallo'rum. Family, Aroideae. Sex. 
Syst. Moncecia Polyandria. The roots and leaves 
are very acrimonious. The plant resembles the 
A. macula' turn in its properties. 

Arum Esculen'tum, Caty'dium esculen'tum, 
Taro, Kalo. The foliage and roots possess acrid 
qualities, which are dissipated by baking or boil- 
ing; in which form it is used as food by the 
people of Madeira, the Polynesians, &c. 

Arum Macula'tum, Aron, Arum (of the older 
writers), A. vulga're, Cuckow Pint, Barba Aaro'- 
nis, Serpenta'ria minor, Zin'giber German'icum, 
Sacerdo'tis penis, Wake Robin, Priest's pintle, (F.) 
Gouet, Pied de Veau. The fresh root is stimu- 
lant internally. Dose, Qj. of the dried root. 
Externally, it is very acrid. From the root of 
this Arum a starch is prepared, which is called 
Portland Island Sago, Gersa serpenta'ria, Oerus'- 
sa serpenta' rice, Fec'ula ari macula' ti. 

Arum, Three-Leaved, Arum triphyllum. 

Arum, Triphyl'lum, Three-leaved arum, (F.) 
Pied de Veau triphylle, Indian Turnip, Dra</on 
Root, Dragon Turnip, Pepper Turnip. This 
plant grows all over the United States, and is 
received into the Pharmacopoeia under the title 
Arum. The recent root, or Cormus — Arum, (I'h. 
U. S.) — is very acrimonious, and has been em- 
ployed in asthma, croup, and hooping-cough. 
Boiled in lard, it has been used in tinea capitis, 
and in milk in consumption. 

Arum Virginicum, Peltandra Virginica — a, 
Vulgare, A. maculatum. 

ARUMARI, Caramata. 

ARUNDO BAMBOS, Bamboo — a. Brachii 
major, Ulna — a. Brachii minor, Radius — a. In- 
dica, Sagittarium alexipharmacum — a. Major, 
Tibia — a. Minor, Fibula — a. Saccharifera, see 

ARVA, Ava. 

ARVUM, Vulva— a. Naturae, Uterus. 

ARY-ARYTENOIDJEUS, Arytencidseus— a_ 
Epiglottieus, Arytojno-epiglotticus. 
AIIYT^E'NA, apvTaiv<t, ' a ladle.' Hence, 




epiylottids' us, Ary-epiglot' ticus. That which be- 
longs to the arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis. 
Winslow gives this name to small, fleshy fasci- 
culi, which are attached, at one extremity, to the 
arytenoid cartilages, and, by the other, to the free 
edge of the epiglottis. These fibres do not al- 
ways exist. They form part of the arytenoid 
muscle of modern anatomists. 

AR'YTENOID, ArytsnoV dea, Arytenoids 'us, 
from ctpvraiva, 'a ladle,' and eiSos, 'shape.' Ladle- 

Arytenoid Car'tilages, Cartilag" inea aryte- 
noi'des, C. guttura'les, C. Gutturi'ns, C. gutturi- 
for'mes. C. triq'uetrce, Guttur'nia, are two carti- 
lages of the larynx, situate posteriorly above the 
cricoid, which, by approximation, diminish the 
aperture of the glottis. Their upper extremi- 
ties or cornua are turned towards each other, 
and are now and then found loose, in the form of 
appendices, which are considered, by some, as 
distinct cartilages, and termed cuneiform or tu- 
berculated Cartilages or Cornic'ula Laryn'gis. 

Arytenoid Glands, Gland' uIcb Arytenoids' <b, 
are small, glandular, whitish bodies, situate an- 
terior to the A. cartilages. They pour out a mu- 
cous fluid to lubricate the larynx. 

ARYTENOIDiE'US, (P.) Arytendldien. A 
small muscle, which passes from one arytenoid 
cartilage to the other, by its contraction brings 
them together, and diminishes the aperture of 
the glottis. Winslow divided the muscle into 
three portions ; — the Arytenoids' us transver' axis, 
or Ary-arytenoids'us, and two Arytenoids' i ob- 

ARYTH'M, Aryth'mua, from a, privative, and 
pvdfios, 'rhythm,' 'measure.' Irregular. This 
word is applied chiefly to the pulse. 

ASA, Asafoetida. See Assa. 

ASAFCE'TIDA, Assafoz' tida, Assafet'ida, Ster- 
cus diab'oli, Oibus Deo'rum, Asa, Devil's dung, 
Food of the Gods. »A gum-resin — the concrete 
juice of Fer'ula Assafoz' tida, Narthex Assafoe'- 
tida. Order, TJmbelliferae. It is in small masses 
of a whitish, reddish, and violet hue, adhering 
together. Taste bitter and subacrid : smell in- 
supportably alliaceous. The Asiatics use it re- 
gularly as a condiment. 

Its medical properties are antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, and anthelmintic. Dose, gr. v to xx, in 


AS'APES, 'crude,' Asep'ton. A term applied 
to the sputa, or to other matters evacuated, which 
do not give signs of coction. 

ASAPHATUM, from a, privative, and aaipvt, 
*clear.' This term has been applied to collec- 
tions in the sebaceous follicles of the skin, which 
may be pressed out like little worms, with a black 
head. See Acne. 

ASAPHI' A, ,from a, privative, and oafajg, 
' clear.' Byspko'nia immodula'ta palati'na, Pa- 
rapho'nia guttura'lis ; P. palati'na. Defective 
articulation, dependent upon diseased palate. — 
Hippocrates, Vogel. 

ASARABACCA, Asaiam — a. Broad-leaved, 
Asarum Canadense. 

ASAR'CON, from a, privative, and cap!;, 'flesh.' 
Devoid of flesh. Aristotle uses the term for the 
head when it is but little fleshy, compared with 
the chest and abdomen. 

ASARET, Asarum — a. du Canada, Asarum 

ASARI'TES, from aaapov, 'the asarum.' A 
diuretic wine, of which asarum was an ingredient. 
— Dioscorides. 

ASARUM, from a, privative, and oaiptiv, 'to 
adorn:' because not admitted into the ancient 

coronal wreaths; As'arum Europa'um, A. offici- 
nale, Xardus Monta'na, NarduB Rusfioa, As'- 
arum, (F.) Asaret ou Cabaret, Oreille d'homme, 
Oreillette, Girard-Rouesin, Nard Sum;,,/,. Fam. 
Aroidea;. Sex. Syet. Dodecandria Monogynia. 
The plant, used in medicine, is the Ae'arum AV 
rops'um, Aaarabac'ca, and of this the leaves. 
They are emetic, cathartic, and errhine, but are 
hardly ever employed, except for the last purpose. 

Asarum Canaden'se, A. GaroMnia'nvm, Ca- 
nada Snakeroot, Wild Ginger, Colt's Foot, Broad- 
leaf Asarabacca, Indian Ginger, Heart Snake- 
root, (F.) Asaret du Canada. The root As'arum, 
(Ph. U. S.) is used as a substitute for ginger, and 
is said to act as a warm stimulant and dia- 

Asarum Carolinianum, A. Canadense — a. 
Europaeum, see Asarum — a. Hypocistis, Cytinus 
hypocistis — a. Officinale, see Asarum. 

ASBESTOS SCALL, see Eczema of the hairy 

is a village, situate about a league from St. Jean- 
de-Luz, in France. The water is a cold chaly- 

ASCARDAMYC'TES, from a, privative, and 
cKapSafivTTw, 'I twinkle the eyes.' One who stares 
with fixed eyes, without moving the eyelids. — 

nia anthelmintica. 

bricoides — a. Vermieulaire, Ascaris vermicularis. 

AS'CARIS, pi. ASCAR'IDES, from aoKapit,*, 
' I leap.' A genus of intestinal worms, charac- 
terized by a long, cylindrical body, extenuated 
at the extremities ; and having a mouth furnished 
with three tubercles, from which a very short 
tube is sometimes seen issuing. Formerly, there 
were reckoned two varieties of the Ascaris — the 
As'caris lumbrico'i'des, Lumbri'cus, L. teres hom'- 
inis, Scolex, As'caris gigas hom'inis, (F.) Lombri- 
co'ide, Ascaride lombrico'ide, Lombric, L. 2'eres, 
or long round worm ; and the As'caris Vermieu- 
la'ria — the Ascaris proper — the thread worm or 
maw worm. The former is alone included under 
the genus, at present — a new genus having been 
formed of the A. vermicularis, under the name 
Oxyuris. It is the Oxyu'ria vermiculn'ris, (F.) 
Ascaride, A. vermieulaire, Oxyure vermieulaire. 

A new species of entozoa has been found by 
Dr. Bellingham, the As'caris ala'ta. 

Ascaris Alata, see Ascaris — a. Gigas ho- 
minis, see Ascaris — a. Lumbricoides, see Ascaris 
— a. Trichuria, Trichocephalus — a. Vermicularis, 
see Ascaris. 

AS'CELES, As'keles, Carens cru'ribus, from a, 
privative, and okcXo;, 'a leg.' One who has no legs. 

ASCELLA, Axilla. 

ASCEN'DENS, from ascendere, (ad and scan- 
dere,) 'to ascend.' (F.) Ascendant. Parts are 
thus called, which are supposed to arise in a re- 
gion lower than that where they terminate. 
Thus, Aorta ascendens is the aorta from its ori- 
gin to the arch : Vena cava ascendens, the large 
vein which carries the blood from the inferior 
parts to the heart : Obliquus ascendena (muscle,) 
the lesser oblique muscle of the abdomen, &c. 

ASCEN'SUS MORBI. The period of increase 
of a disease. 

ASCESIS, Exercise. 

ASCHIL, Srilla. 

ASCHISTODAC'TYLUS, Syndac'tylus: from 
a, privative, <t^<stoj, 'cleft;' and ouktvXos, 'a 
finger.' A monster whose fingers are not sepa- 
rated from one another. — Gurlt. 

AS'CIA, Axine, 'an axe,' Scepar'noa, Bol'abra, 
Fas'cia apira'lie. Name of a bandage mentioned 




by Hippocrates and Galen, and figured by Scul- 
tetus, in the shape of an axe or hatchet. — Galen. 
See Doloire. 

ASCILLA, Axilla. 

ASCI'TES, from <utkos, 'a bottle:' — Aski'tes, 
Ili/i/roee'le. Peritonce'i, Hydrops Abdom'inis, H. 
Ascites, Ht/drogas'ter, Hydroperitone'um, Hydro- 
coe'lia, Hydre'trum, Ascli'tes, Ooelioch'ysis, Dropsy 
of the lower belly, Dropsy of the Peritone'um, (P.) 
Ascite, Hydro-p&ritonie, Hydropisie du Bas-ventre. 
A collection of serous fluid in the abdomen. As- 
cites proper is dropsy of the peritoneum ; and is 
characterized by increased size of the abdomen, 
by fluctuation and the general signs of dropsy. 
It is rarely a primary disease ; but is always 
dangerous, and but little susceptiblo of cure. 
Most generally, it is owing to obstructed circu- 
lation in some of the viscera, or to excitement of 
the vessels of the abdominal organs. The treat- 
ment is essentially the same as that of other drop- 
sies. Paracentesis, when had recourse to, can 
only be regarded as a palliative. 

Dropsy of the peritoneum may also be saccated 
or in cysts, and occasionally the fluid accumulates 
exterior to the peritoneum, Hydrepigas' trium. 
When in cysts it is termed Hydroeys'tis, Hydrops 
abdom'inis sacca'tus, H. cys'ticus and Asci'tes 

Ascites Hepato-Cysticus, Turgescentia vesi- 
cular felleae — a. Ovarii, Hydrops ovarii — a. Puru- 
lentus, Pyoccelia — a. Saccatus, see Ascites, Hy- 
droarion, and Hydrops ovarii. 

ASCLEPI'ADiE, Asdepi 'ades ; from AoK^y-mos, 
' iEsculapius.' The priest jihysicians, who s"Brved 
in the ancient temples of ^Esculapius, and who 
took their name from being his descendants. 

ASOLEPIADE, Asclepias vincetoxicum. 

ASCLEPIAS ALBA, A. vincetoxicum — a. 
Apocynum, A. Syriaca. 

Ascle'pias Asthmat'icA, Cy nan' chum Ipecacu- 
mx'ha, (F.) Ipecacuanha blanc de I' He de France. 
A creeping plant of the Isle of France, regarded 
as a specific in asthma. 

Asclepias Crispa, Gomphocarpus crispus. 

Asclepias Curassav'ica, Bastard Ipecacu- 
anha, Bedhead, Bloodweed. The leaves are 
emetic in the dose of one or two scruples. It 
is the Ipecacuanha blanc of St. Domingo. 

Asclepias Decum'bexs; the root. Escharotic, 
cathartic, sudorific, diuretic. 

Asclepias, Flesh-coloured, A. Incarnata. 

Asclepias Gigante'a. The milky juice is 
very caustic. It is used in Malabar against 
herpes ; and, mixed with oil, in gout. See 

Ascle'pias Incarna'tA, Flesh-coloured ascle- 
pias. The root of this plant, which grows in all 
parts of the United States, has the same virtues 
as A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Obovata, A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Proc"era (?) Beidelossar ; Bei- 
delsar. An Egyptian plant, the leaves of which 
are made into a plaster, and applied to indolent 
tumours. The milky juice is caustic, and is used 
as such. 

Asclepias Pseudosarsa, Hemidesmus In- 
dicus — a. Pubescens, A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Svriaca, A. pubes'cens, A. apoc"y- 
num, A. obovata sou tomento'sa, Common Silk- 
weed, Milk Weed, (F.) Herbe d la houette. The 
cortical part of the root has been given, in pow- 
der, in asthmatic and pulmonic affections in ge- 
neral, and, it is said, with success. 

Ascle'pias Sullivan'tk, Smooth Milkweed, 
Silkweed: indigenous, possesses the same virtues 
as the next. 

Asclepias Tomentosa, A. Syriaca. 

Ascle'pias Tubeko'sa., Butterjly Weed, Pleu- 

risy Root, Flux Boot, Wind Boot, White Boot, 
Orange Swallow Root, Silk Weed, Canada Root, 
Orange Apoc"ynum, Tuberous Rooted Steal' low 
Wort. Nat. Ord. Asclepiadeie. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Digynia. Said to have been first recom- 
mended by the Asclepiades. In Virginia and the 
Carolinas, the root of this plant lias been long 
celebrated as a remedy in pneumonic affections. 
It is sudorific, and the powder acts as a mild 
purgative. Its chief powers arc said to be expec- 
torant, diaphoretic, and febrifuge. It is occa- 
sionally given to relieve pains of the stomach 
from flatulency and indigestion. 

Asclepias Vincetox'icum, A. Alba, Cynan'- 
chnm Vineetox'icvm, Vincetox'icum, V. Of/ieina'le, 
llirundina'ria, Apoc" ynmn Nova 1 An'glia hirsu- 
tttm, &c, Swallow-Wort, White Swallow-Wort, 
(F.) Asclepiade, Dompte-venin. 

The root is said to be stimulant, diuretic, and 
emmenagogue, but is hardly ever used. 

ASCLEPIASMUS, Hajinorrhois. 

ASCLITES, Ascites. 

ASCO'MA, from aaxog, 'a bottle.' The emi- 
nence of the pubes at the period of puberty in 
females. — Itufus of Ephesus. 

ASE, Anxiety. 

ASELLI. Onisci aselli. 

ASELLUS, Oniscus. 

ASE'MA CRISIS, Kpiais aav/ia, from a, priva- 
tive, and arijia, 'a sign.' A crisis occurring unex- 
pectedlv andwithout the ordinary precursory signs. 

ASEPTON, Asapes. 

ASH, BITTER, Quassia — a. Blue, Fraxinus 
quadrangulata — a. Mountain, Sorbus acuparia 
— a. Prickly, Aralia spinosa, Xanthoxylum clava 
Herculis — a. Prickly, shrubby, Xanthoxylum 
fraxineum — a. Stinking, Ptelea trifoliata — a. 
Tree, Fraxinus excelsior — a. White, Fraxinus 

ASIT"IA, from a, privative, and citos, 'food.' 
Abstinence from food. Want of appetite, — Fas- 
tid'ium cibo'rwn, Apoclei'sis. 

ASIUS LAPIS, Assius Lapis. 

ASJAGAN, As'jogam. An Indian tree, the 
juice of whose leaves, mixed with powdered 
cumin seeds, is employed in India in colic. 

ASJOGAM, Asjagan. 

ASKELES, Asceles. 

ASKITES, Ascites. 

ASO'DES, Asso'des, from aari, 'disgust,' 'sati- 
ety.' A fever accompanied with anxiety and 
nausea; Fe'bris aso'des vel azo'des. 

ASPALASO'MUS, from acxaXaZ, 'amole,' and 
cwfia, 'body.' A genus of monsters in which 
there is imperfect development of the eyes. — 
I. G. St. Hilaire. Also, a malformation, in which 
the fissure and eventration extend chiefly upon 
the lower part of the abdomen ; the urinary ap- 
paratus, genitals and rectum opening externally 
by three distinct orifices. — Vogel. 

ASPALTUM, Asphaltum. 

ASPARAGINE, see Asparagus. 

ASPAR'AGUS, Aspar'agus qfficina'lis, Com- 
mon Asparagus, Spar'agus, Sper'agus, Sparrow 
Grass, Grass. Nat. Ord. Asphodelese. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. Aspar'agi officina'lis Tu- 
rio'nes, (F.) Asperge. The fresh roots are diu- 
retic, perhaps owing to the immediate crystal- 
lizable principle, Asparaginic. The young shoots 
are a well known and esteemed vegetable diet. 
They communicate a peculiar odour to the urine. 
A syrup made of the young shoots and an extract 
of the roots has been recommended as a sedative 
in heart affections. 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in an in- 
fusion of galls, and used by females for constring- 
ing the vagina. 

ASPEN, AMERICAN, Populus tremulf,id»H 
— a. European, Populus tremula. 




ASPERGE, Asparagus. 
ASPER'ITY, Axper'itas, roughness. Asperi- 
ties are inequalities on the surfaces of bones, 
which often serve for the insertion of fibrous 

AS P ERMATIA, Aspermatismus. 
ASPE RMATIS'MUS, Aeper'mia, Asperma'tia, 
from a, privative, and airtp/xa, ' sperm.' Reflux 
of sperm from the urethra into the bladder, dur- 
ing the venereal orgasm. 

ASPERMIA, Aspermatismus. 
ASPERSIO, Catapasma, Fomentation. 
ASPER'SION, Asper'sio, from aspergere (ad 
and spargere,) 'to sprinkle,' (P.) Arrosemmt. 
Act of sprinkling or pouring a liquid yuttatim 
over a wound, ulcer, <tc. 

ASPERULA, Galium aparine. 
Asper'ula Odora'ta, Ga'lium odora'tum, Ma- 
trisyl'va, Hepat'ica Stella' ta, (F.) Asperule odo- 
rante ou Muguet des bois, Hepatique etoilce. Earn. 
Rubiaceae. Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia. 
Sweet-scented Wood-roof. Said to be diuretic, 
deobstruent, touic, and vulnerary. 

ASPERULE ODOR ANTE, Asperula odo- 

ASPHALTI'TES, Nephri'tes, Nephri'tis, Pri- 
ma Vertebra lumba'ria, same etymon as asphal- 
tum. A name given by some to the last lumbar 
vertebra. — Gorraous. 

ASPHAL'TUM, Nep'ta, Arsal'tos, Asphal'tum, 
fromtio(j>a\i$av, 'to strengthen.' With the Greeks, 
this word signified any kind of bitumen. It is 
now restricted chiefly to the Bitu'men of Ju- 
D^e'a, B.Juda'icum, A. sol'idum, Jews' Pitch, Ka- 
rabe of Sodom, (F.) Asphalte. It is solid, friable, 
vitreous, black, shining, inflammable, and of a 
fetid smell. An oil is obtained from it by distil- 
lation. It enters into the composition of certain 
ointments and plasters. 

It is collected on the surface of the water of 
the Dead Sea or Lake Asphaltites, in Judaea. 
ASPHARINE, Galium aparine. 
ASPHOD'ELUS, A. Ramo'sus, A. Albus. A. Ma- 
ris, Has' tula Regis, (F.) Lis asphodile. The bulbs 
of this southern European plant have an acrimony 
which they lose in boiling water. They contain 
a fecula with which bread has been made, and 
have been considered diuretic. They have been 
used as a succedaneum for the squill. 

ASPHYX'IA, from a, priv., and <r</>u&j. 'pulse,' 
Defec'tus Pidsiis, Acrotis'mus, Sidera'tio, Sydera'- 
tio. For a long time, Asphyxia was confined to 
the sense of ' suspension of circulation or Syn- 
cope.' It now generally means suspended, ani- 
mation, produced by the nonconversion of the 
venous blood of the lungs into arterial Ap- 
noe'a, Apneus'tia, Apnoeasphyx'ia, Anhcemato'- 
sia, Ec'lysis pneumo-cardi'aca. Owing to the 
supply of air being cutoff, the unchanged venous 
blood of the pulmonary artery passes into the 
minute radicles of the pulmonary veins, but their 
peculiar excitability requiring arterial blood to 
excite them, stagnation takes place in the pul- 
monary radicle', and death occurs cniefly from 
this cause, — not owing to venous blood being 
distributed through the system, and ' poisoning' 
it, as was the idea of Bichat. Cams asphyx'ia, 
Mors appa'rens, Mors putati'ra, Pseudothan'atos, 
Apparent death, (F.) Mort apparente, is charac- 
terized by suspension of respiration, of the cere- 
bral functions, &c. Several varieties of Asphyxia 
have been designated. 

I. Asphyx'ia of the New-Born, A. neonato'- 
rwn. This is often dependent upon the feeble 

condition of the infant, not permitting respiration 
to be established. 

2. Aspiiy'ia by Noxious Inhala'tion or in- 
halation of gases, some of which cause death by 
producing a spasmodic closure of the glottis : 
others by the want of oxygen, and others are 
positively deleterious or poisonous. 

3. Asphyx'ia by Strangula'tion or Sufl'oca'- 
tian ; produced by mechanical impediment to 
respiration, as in strangulation. 

4. Asphyx'ia by Submer'sion, A. by drown- 
ing, A. Immerso'rum, as occurs in the drowned, 
who perish in consequence of the medium in 
which they are plunged, being unfit for respira- 
tion. See Submersion. 

Mr. Chevalier has used the term Asphyx'ia 
ldiop>ath'ica, for fatal syncope owing to relaxa- 
tion of the heart. See Suffocation. 

Asphyx'ia Immersorum, A. by submersion — 
a. Local : — see Gangrene — a. Neonatorum, A. of 
the new-born — a. Pestilenta : — see Cholera — a. 
Pestilential : — see Cholera. 

ASPHYX'IAL. Relating to asphyxia — as 'as- 
phyxial phenomena.' 

a. Lcnte des nouveau-nes, Induration of the cel- 
lular tissue. 

ASPIIYX'IED, Asphyxiated, same etymon. 
In a state of asphyxia. 

ASPIC, Aspis; also, Lavendula. 

ASPIDISCOS, Sphincter ani externus. 

African fern, Nat. Ord. Filices, which is pos- 
sessed of anthelmintic properties. Its caudex, in 
the form of powder, infusion, or electuary, has 
been found excellent in helminthiasis, and espe- 
cially in tapeworm. 

Aspidium Coriaceum, CalagualoB radix — a. 
Depasturu, Polypodium filix mas — a. Discolor, see 
Calagualae radix — a. Erosum, Polypodium filix 
mas — a. Filix foemina, Asplenium filix foemina — 
a. Ferrugineum, see Calagualse radix — a. Filix 
mas, Polypodium filix mas. 

ASPIRATIO, Inspiration. 

ASPIRA'TION, Adspira'tio, Aspira'tio, from 
aspirare (ad and spirare) ' to breathe.' The 
French sometimes use the term synonymously 
with inspiration. It also means the act of at- 
tracting or sucking like a pump. Imbibition. 
Also, the pronunciation of a vowel with a full 

ASPIS, auvis. A name given by the ancients 
to a venomous serpent — the ^Egyptian riper of 
Lacepede, (F.) Aspic. Its bite is very dangerous, 
and it is supposed to have been the reptile which 
Cleopatra used for her destruction. 

ASPLE'NIUM, from a, priv., and avXvv, ' the 
spleen.' Spleen wort, Miltwaste. 

Asplenium Aureum, A. ceterach. 

Asple'nium Cet'erach, A. an'reum seu lati- 
fo'lium, Gymnogram'me ceterach, Doradil'la t 
Bleehnum squamo'sum, Scolopen'dria, Athyr'ion, 
Cet'erach officina'rnm seu canaricn'sis, Grammi'- 
tes cet'erach seu an'rea, Gynop'teris ceterach, Vit- 
ta'ria ceterach, (F.) Doradille. Supposed to be 
subastringent and mucilaginous, and has been 
recommended as a pectoral. It has also been 
given in calculous cases. 

Asple'nium Filix F<e'mina, Polypo'dimn filix 
/amino, P. mo/le seu denta'tum seu inci'sum seu 
trif'idum, Aspidium filix foemina, Athyr'ium filix 
fcemina sen molle seu ova'tum seu trif'idum, Pte- 
ris palus'tris, Female fern, Splcenwort, (F.) Fou- 
gere femeUe. The root of this plant resembles 
that of the male fern, and is said to possess simi- 
lar anthelmintic virtues. The name female fern 
is also given to Pteris aquilina. 




Asplenittm Latifolium, A. ceteracb — a. Mu- 
rale, A. ruta — a. Obtusum, A. ruta muraria. 

AsrLE'xiuji Ruta Mura'ria, A. mura'le seu 
obttt'sum, Paronychia., Phylli'tis ruta mura'ria, 
Scolopen' drium ruta mura'ria, Wallrue, White 
Maidenhair, Tenbwort, Adian'tum album, Ruta 
mura'ria, Sal' via Vila, (P.) Rue dea murailles, 
Sauce-vie. Used in the same cases as the last. 

Asple'nium Scolopen'drium, Scolopendrium 
officina'rum seu lingua seu pliylli'tis seu vulga'- 
re, Scolopen' dra, Scolopen' dria, Hart's Tongue, 
Spleemcort, Phylli'tis, Lingua cervi'na Blechnum 
lignifo'linin, (F.) Scolopendre, Langue de cerf. 
Properties like the last. 

Asplb'nium Trichomanoi'des, A. Trichom'- 
anea, Phylli'tia rotundifo'lia, Calyphyl'lum, Tri- 
chom'anes, T. crena'ta, Adian'tum rubrum, Com- 
mon Maidenhair, Polyt' riehum commu'ne, (F.) 
Poli/tric. Properties like the last. 

ASPREDO, Trachoma — a. Miliacea, Miliary 

ASPRELE, Hippuris vulgaris. 

ASSACOU, Hura Brasilieusis. 

ASS A DOUX, Benjamin — a. Dulcis, Benja- 
min — a. Odorata, Benjamin. 

ASSABA. A Guinea shrub, whose leaves are 
considered capable of dispersing buboes. 

ASSAFETIDA, Asafcetida. 

ASSAFCETIDA, Asafcetida. 

ASSAIERET. A compound of bitter, stoma- 
cbic. and purgative medicines in the form of pill. 
— Avicenna. 

A SSA1SONNEMENT, Condiment. 

ASSAKUR, Saccbarum. 

ASSALA, see Myristica moschata. 

ASSARTHROSIS, Articulation. 

ASSA'TIO, Opte'sis The boiling of food or 
medicines in their own juice, without the addi- 
tion of any liquid. Various kinds of cooking by 
heat. — Galen. 

ASSELLA, Axilla. 

AS'SERAC, Aaais. A preparation of opium 
or of some narcotic, used by the Turks as an ex- 


ASSER VAT I ON, Conservation. 

ASSES' MILK, see Milk, asses. 

Asses' Milk, Artificial, see Milk, asses. 

AS'SIDEXS, from ad, 'to,' and sedere, 'to be 
•eated.' That which accompanies or is concomi- 
•ant. An epithet applied to the accessory symp- 
toms, Assiden'tia aigna, and general phenomena 

ASSIDENTIA SIGNA, see Assidens. 

ASSIMILA'TION, Aasimila'tio, Simila'tio, 
Appropria'tio, Exomoio'sis, Homoio'eia, Threpsis, 
Tkrep'tice : from ossimilare, (ad, and similare,) 
'to render similar.' The act by which living 
bodies appropriate and transform into their own 
substance matters with which they may be placed 
in contact. 

ASSIS, Asserac. 

AS'SIUS LAPIS, A'sius Lapis. A sort of 
stone or earth found near the town of Assa in 
the Troad, which had the property of destroying 
proud flesh. 

ASSODES, Asodes. 

AS80UPISSEMENT, Somnolency. 

ASSOURON, see Myrais Pimenta. 


ASSULA, Splint, 

ASSULTUS, Attack. 

ASSUMPTIO, Prehension. 

Cancrorum chela3. 


ASTAKILLOS, Araneum ulcus. 

ASTAB.ZOF. An ointment, composed of li- 

tharge, frog's spawn, &c. Also, camphor, dis- 
solved in rose water. — Paracelsus. 
ASTASIA, Dysphoria. 
Aster Cordifolius, Heart-leaved Aster, A. 
Puniceus, Rough-stemmed Aater, and other indi- 
genous species, Order CompositaB, possess aro- 
matic properties. 

Aster Di'sentericus, Inula dysenterica — a. 
Heart-leaved, A. cordifolius — a. Helenium, Inula 
Helenium — a. Inguinalis, Eryngium campestre 
— a. Officinalis, Inula helenium. 

Aster, Rough-Stemmed, A. Puniceus — a. 
Undulatus, Inula dysenterica. 

ASTE'RIA GEMMA, Aate'rius, Aatroi'tes, As'- 
trios, Astrob'olus. The ancients attributed ima- 
ginary virtues to this stone, — that of dispersing 
Nmci Materni, for example. 
ASTERIAS LUTEA, Gentiana lutea. 
ASTHENES, Infirm. 

ASTHENI'A, Vis imminu'ta, from a, priv., 
and aScvoi, 'force,' 'strength.' Want of strength, 
debility. (F.) Affai'olissement. Infirmity. A 
word used in this sense by Galen, and employed, 
especially by Brown, to designate debility of the 
whole economy, or diminution of the vital forces. 
He distinguished it into direct and indirect : the 
former proceeding from diminution of stimuli; 
the latter from exhaustion of incitability by the 
abuse of stimuli. 

Asthenia Deglutitionis, Pharyngoplegia — a. 
Pectoralis, Angina Pectoris. 
ASTHENICOPYRA, Fever, adynamic. 
ASTHENICOPYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 
ASTHENOPIA, Debil'itasvisus, (F.) Affai- 
blissement de la Vue, from a, priv., oBtvos, 
'strength,' and wip, 'the eye.' Weakness of 
sight; Weah-sightedness. 

ASTHENOPYRA, Fever, adynamic, Typhus. 
ASTHENOPYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 
ASTHMA, from aud/ia, 'laborious breathing;' 
from au>, ' I respire.' A. spas'ticum adutto'rum, 
A. Senio'rum, A. Convulsi'vum, A. spas'ticum in- 
termittens, Dyapnoe'a et orthopnee'a convulsi'va, 
Malum Cadu'cum pulmo'num, Brokcn-windedness, 
Nervous asthma, (F.) Asthme, A. nerveux. Diffi- 
culty of breathing, recurring at intervals, accom- 
panied with a wheezing sound and sense of con- 
striction in the chest; cough and expectoration. 
Asthma is a chronic disease, and not curable 
with facility. Excitant and narcotic antispas- 
modics are required. 

There are no pathognomonic physical signs of 
asthma. In some cases, the respiration is uni- 
versally puerile during the attack. In the spas- 
modic form, the respiratory murmur is very feeble 
or absent during the fit; and in all forms percus- 
sion elicits a clear pulmonary sound. The disease 
generally consists in some source of irritation, and 
occasionally, perhaps, in paralysis of the pneu- 
mogastric nerves, Bronchoparaly' '«?'*, Paraly'aia 
nervi vagi in parte thorac"ica, more frequently 
of the former — all the phenomena indicating 
constriction of tho smaller bronchial ramifica- 
tions. The treatment is one that relieves spas- 
modic action- — narcotics, counter-irritants, change 
of air, &C. 

Asthma Acu'tttm, of Millar, A. spas'ticum in- 
fan'tum, Oynan'che Trachea' lis spasmod'ica, (F.) 
Asthme aigu. Probably, spasmodic croup. ^?) 
See Asthma Thymicum. 

Asthma Aeriiim, Pneumothorax — a. Ae'rium 
ab Emphysemate Pulmonum, Emphysema of the 
Lungs — a. Arthriticum, Angina Pectoris. 

Asthma, Cardiac. Dyspnoea dependent upon 
disease of the heart. 





AsTmrA Convulsivum, Angina pectoris — a. 
Diaphragmaticum, Angina Pectoris — a. Dolori- 
ficuin, Angina pectoris — a. Einphyseinaticum, 

Asthma, Grinders', Grinders' Pot. The ag- 
gregate of functional phenomena, induced by the 
inhalation of particles thrown off during the 
operation of grinding metallic instruments, Ac. 
The structural changes induced are enlargement 
of the bronchial tubes, expansion of the pulmo- 
nary tissue, and phthisis. 

Asthma Gypseum, A. pulverulentum — a. Hay, 
Fever, hay. 

Asthma Hu'midtjm, Humid, Common, or Spit- 
ting asthma, is when the disease is accompanied 
with expectoration. It is also called A. humo- 
ra'le, A. ftatulen'tum, A. pneumon'icum, Blcnno- 
tho'rax chron'icus, &c. 

Asthma Infantum, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Infantum Spasmodicum, A. Thymicum — a. Kop- 
pian, A. Thymicum — a. Laryngeum Infantum, 
A. Thymicum — a. Montanum, A. pulverulentum 
— a. Nervous, Asthma — a. Nocturnum, Incubus. 

Asthma Pui.vekulen'tum, A. gyp'seum, A. 
monta'num. The variety of asthma to which 
millers, bakers, grinders and others are subject. 

Asthma Siccitm, so called when the paroxysm 
is sudden, violent, and of short duration ; cough 
slight, and expectoration scanty ; spasmodic con- 

Asthma Spastico-Arthriticum Inconstans, 
Angina pectoris — a. Spasticum Infantum, A. 

Asthma Thy'micttm, A. T. Kop'pii, A. spas'ti- 
cum infan'tum, A. infan'tum spnsmo'dicum, Thy- 
masth'ma, Gynan'che trachea'lis spasmod' iea, 
Spasmus glot'tidis, Asthma larynge'um infan'- 
tum, A. intermit' tens infan'tum, A. Dentien'tium, 
A. period' icum acu'tum, Koppian Asthma, Thymic 
Asthma, Laryngismus strid'ulus, Laryngo-spas- 
mus, Apnw'a infan'tum, Spasm of the larynx, 
Spasm of the glottis, Group-like inspiration of in- 
fants, Child-crowing, Spasmodic croup, Pseudo- 
croup, Spu'rioue croup, Oer'ebral croup, Suffocat- 
ing nervous catarrh, (F.) Laryngite striduleuse, 
Faux Oroup, Pseudo-croup nerveux, Spasme de la 
Glotte et du Thorax. A disease of infants, cha- 
racterized by suspension of respiration at inter- 
vals ; great difficulty of breathing, esj^ecially on 
waking, swaljbwing, or crying ; ending often in a 
fit of suffocation, with convulsions. The patho- 
logy of the disease has been supposed to consist 
in an enlargement of the thymus gland, or of 
the glands of the neck pressing on the pneumo- 
gastric nerves. (?) The ear, on auscultation, at a 
distance from the chest, detects an incomplete, 
acute, hissing inspiration, or rather cry; whilst 
the expiration and voice are croupal, both at the 
accession and termination of the paroxysm. The 
heart's action has been observed to be distinct 
and feeble. 

These symptoms are often accompanied by ri- 
gidity of the fingers and toes ; the thumb being 
frequently drawn forcibly into the palm of the 
clenched hand, whence the name Carpo-pcdal 
spasm, applied, at times, to the disease. 

Asthma TYpicuM. Asthma characterized by 

Asthma Uteri, Hysteria — a. Weed, Lobelia 

ASTHMAT'ir*, Asthmat'icus, Pnoocolyt'icus, 
Affected with asthma. Relating to asthma. 

ASTHME AIGU, Asthma acutum — a. Ner- 
teux, Asthma. 

AS'TOMUS, from a, privative, and oroua, '& 
mouth.' One without a mouth. Pliny speaks 
of a people in India without mouths, who live 
anhelatu et odore .' 

ASTRAGALE COL D', Collum astragali. 

galas exscapus. 

ASTRAG'ALUS, Talus, the Ankle, Qua'tHo, 
Quar'tio, Quater'nio, Diab'ebos, Peza, Cavie'wla, 
Cavil'la, Tetro'ros, As'trion, Ob Ballist'a, from 
a.GTpaya\os, 'a die,' which it has been considered 
to resemble. (?) A short bone situate at the su- 
perior and middle part of the tarsus, where it is 
articulated with the tibia. It is the ankle bone, 
sling bone, or first bone of the foot. The anterior 
surface is convex, and has a well-marked promi- 
nence, supported by a kind of neck, and hence 
has been called the head of the astragalus. The 
astragalus is developed by two points of ossifica- 

ASTRAG'ALTTS Exs'CAPUS, Astragalo'i'des sy- 
philit'ica, Stemless Milk-vetch, (¥.) Astragale & 
gausses veins. Nat. Ord. Leguminosaa. Sex. 
Syst. Diadelphia Becandria. The root is said to 
have cured confirmed syphilis. 

Astrag'alus Tragacanthus, see Tragacanth. 

Astrag'alus Verus, Spina hirei, Asirag'ahis 
aculea'tus, Goat's thorn, Milk-vetch. The plant 
which affords Gum Trag'acanth. See Traga- 

ASTRANTIA, Imperatoria — a. Diapensia, Sa- 

AS'TRAPE, Corusea'tio, Fidgur, Fuinun, 
Lightning. Galen reckons it amongst the re- 
mote causes of epilepsy. 

ASTRIC'TION, Astrie'tio, Stypsis, Adstrie'tio, 
Oonstric'tio, from astrtngere, (ad and strimjere,) 
' to constringe.' Action of an astringent sub- 
stance on the animal economy. 

ASTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ASTRINGENT ROOT, Comptonia aspleni- 

ASTRINGENTS, Astringen'tia, Adstricto'ria, 
Adstringen'tia, Stryphna, CatastaV tica, Gonstrin- 
gen'tia, Contrahen'tia, Stegno'tiea. Si/ncrit'ica, 
Astricto'ria. Same etymon. Medicines which 
have the property of constringing the organic 
textures. External astringents are called Styp. 

The following are the chief astringents : Aci- 
dum Sulphuricum, A. Tannieum, Alumen, Ar« 
genti Nitras, Catechu, Creasoton, Cupri Sul- 
phas, Tinct. Ferri Chloridi, Liquor Ferri, Nitra- 
tis, Ferri Sulphas, Gallse, Hsematoxylon, Kino, 
Krameria, Liquor Calcis, Plumbi Aeetas, Qucrcus 
Alba, Quercus Tinctoria, Zinci Sulphas, 

ASTRION, Astragalus. 

ASTRIOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROBLES, from aorpov, 'a star,' and /JaXXw, 
'I strike.' One struck by the stars (sidera'tus.) 
One who is in a state of sideration — in an apo- 
plectic state. — Gorraus. 

ASTROBOLIS'MUS, Heli'asis, Belio'sis ; 
same etymology. Sidera'tion or action of the 
stars on a person. Apoplexy. — Thcophrastus, 

ASTROBOLOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROITIS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROL'OGY, Astro/eg" in, from norpov, 'a 
star,' and Aoyo?, 'a discourse.' The art of divin- 
ing by inspecting the stars. This was formerly 
considered to be a part of medicine : and was 
called Judicial Astrology, to distinguish it from 

ASTRON'OMY, Astronom'ia, from acrpov, 'a 
star,' and vofios, 'a law,' 'rule.' A science which 
makes known the heavenly phenomena, and the 
laws that govern them. Hippocrates places this 
and astrology amongst the necessary studies of 
a physician. 

ASTB rjTHIUM, Imperatoria. 

ASTYPHIA, Impotence. 




ASTYSIA, Impotence. 

ASUAR, Myrobalanus Indica. 

ASULCI, Lapis lazuli. 

ASYNODIA, Impotence. 

ATACTOS, Erratic. 

ATARACTAPOIE'SIA, Ataractopoe'sia, from 
a, privative, rapaxrof, 'troubled,' and -kouiv, 'to 
make.' Intrepidity, firmness; a quality of which, 
according to Hippocrates, the physician ought to 
be possessed in the highest degree. 

ATARAX'IA, from a, privative, and rapafij, 
' trouble,' ' emotion.' Moral tranquillity, peace 
of mind. 

AT'AVISM, from atavits, 'an old grandsire or 
ancestor, indefinitely.' The case in which an 
anomaly or disease, existing in a family, is lost 
in one generation and reappears in the following. 

ATAX'IA, from a, privative, and ra£is, 'order.' 
Disorder, irregularity. Hippocrates employs the 
word in its most extensive acceptation. Galen 
applies it, especially, to irregularity of pulse ; 
and Sydenham speaks of Ataxia Spirituum for 
disorder of the nervous system. Ataxia, now, 
usually means the state of disorder that charac- 
terizes nervous fevers, and the nervous condition. 

Ataxia Si'Ieutuum, Nervous diathesis. See 

ATAX'IC. Atax'icus ; same etymon. Having 
the characters of ataxia. 

ATCHAR, A'chia, Achar. A condiment used 
in India. It is formed of green fruits of various 
kinds, — garlic, ginger, mustard, and pimento, 
pickled in vinegar. 

ATECXIA. Sterilitas. 

ATELECTASIS, from arc>v?, 'imperfect, de- 
fective,' and £/crua-i5, ' dilatation.' Imperfect ex- 
pansion or dilatation ; as in 

Atelectasis Pulmo'num, Pneumonatelec'ta- 
sis, Pneumatelec' 'tasis. Imperfect expansion of 
the lungs at birth, from a.Tt\r,$, ' imperfect,' and 
iktchsis, ' dilatation.' Giving rise to Cyano'sie 

AT'ELES, aTe\vs> 'imperfect, defective.' — 

ATELOCHEI'LIA, from are\rj(, 'imperfect,' 
and £«Aos. 'lip.' A malformation which con- 
sists in an imperfect development of the lip. 

ATELOENCEPHAL'IA, from < arcXns, 'imper- 
fect,' and cyKt(pa\ov, 'the encephalon.' State of 
Imperfect development of the brain. — Andral. 

ATELOGLOS'SIA, from artXr,;, 'imperfect,' 
and y\ix><rva, ^tongue.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the 

ATELOGNA'THIA, from arsons, 'imperfect,' 
and yvaOos, 'the jaw.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the jaw. 

ATELOMYEL'IA, from aribns, 'imperfect,' 
and ftviXoi, 'marrow. State of imperfect deve- 
lopment of the spinal marrow. — Beclard. 

ATELOPROSO'PIA, from arcSrn, 'imperfect,' 
and vpo<su~ov, 'the face.' A malformation which 
consists in imperfect development of the face. 

ATELORACHIDIA, Hydrorachis. 

ATELOSTOM'IA, from, an \>,s, 'imperfect,' 
and trra/ia, 'mouth.' One whose mouth is im- 
perfectly developed. 

ATEiTSUCCUS, Atrabilis. 

ATHAMAN'TA, from Athamas^ a place in 
Thessaly. A genus of plants. 

Athamanta Annua, A. Cretensis. 

ATHAMAN'TA AuREOSELl'NUM, Oreoseli'nnm, 
0. legit' imum seu nigrum, Seli'num oreoseli'num, 
Peuced'anum oreoseli'num, Apium monta'num,. 
Black Mountain Parsley, (F.) Persil de Mon- 
tague. The plant, seed and roots, are aromatic. 
It h;ts been considered attenuant, aperient, cljob- 

struent, and lithontripic. The distilled oil baa 
been used in toothach. 

ATHAMAN'TA Creten'sis seu Creti'ca, A. an'- 
naa, Libano'tis annua seu Oreten'sis seu hirsu'ta, 
Daucus Qreticus; D. Candia'mts, llyrrhis an'nua, 
Candy Oarrot. The seeds of this plant are acrid 
and aromatic. They have been used as carmina- 
tives and diuretics. 

Athamanta Macedonica, Bubon Macedoni- 
cum — a. Meum, iEthusa meum. 

ATHANASIA, Tanacetum. 

Athana'sia, from o, privative, and ^avaro;, 
'death.' An antidote for diseases of the liver, 
jaundice, gravel, <fec. It consisted of saffron, 
cinnamon, lavender, cassia, myrrh,, juueus odo- 
ratus, honey, <fec, and was esteemed to be sudo- 

ATHARA, Athera, 

ATHELAS'MUS, from a, privative, and flijfc?, 
' a breast or nipple.' Impracticability of giving 
suck ; from want of nipple or otherwise. 

ATHELXIS, Sucking. 

ATHE'NA. Name of a plaster, recommended 
by Aselepiades, and composed of oxide of copper, 
sublimed oxide of zinc, sal ammoniac, verdigris, 
gall nuts, and a variety of resinous and other in- 
gredients. — Oribasius, Aetius, and P. ^Egineta. 

composed of myrrh, pepper, castor, and opium ; 
used to allay coughing,: — Celsus. 

ATHE'RA, Atha'ra, from aBnp, 'an ear of 
corn.' A kind of pap for children : also, a kind 
of liniment. — Dioscorides, Pliny. 


ATHERO'MA, from aSrjpa, 'pap or pulp,' En- 
phy'ma eneys'tis athero'ma, Mollus'aum, J'ttlta'tio. 
A tumour formed by a cyst containing matter 
like pap or Bouillie. 

ATHEROMATOUS, Atheromatoses. Having 
the nature of Atheroma. 

ATHLE'TA, from a$\a S , 'combat.' Athletoe 
were men who exercised themselves in combat 
at the public festivals. — Vitruvius. 

ATHLET'IC, Athlet'icus ; concerning Athletes. 
Strong in muscular powers. • — Foesius. 

ATHORACOCEPHALUS. Acephalogaster. 

ATHRIX, At'richus ; from a, privative, and 
fyi(, rpi^os, 'hair.' Bald. One who has lost his 

Atjirix Depilis, Alopecia. 

ATHYM'IA, An'imi defec'tus et anxi'btas, 
An'imi demis'sio, Tristit"ia, Mceror, Lype, from 
a, priv., and Svj/os, ' heart,' ' courage.' Des- 
pondency. The prostration of spirits often ob- 
servable in the sick. — Hippocrates. Melancholy. 
— Swediaur. See Panophobia. 

Athymia Pleonectica, see Pleonectica. 

ATHYRION, Asplenium ceterach. 

filix foemina — a. Filix mas, Polypodium lilix mas 
— a. Molle, Asplenium filix foemina — a. Ovtatum, 
Asplenium filix foemina — a. Trifidum, Aspkuium. 
filix fcemiha, 

ATLANTAD, see Atlantal. 

ATLAN'TAL ; same etymon as Atlaj. Re- 
lating or appertaining to the atlas. 

Atlantal Aspect. An aspect towards th<» 
region whore the atlas is situated. — Barclay. 
Atlantad is used by the same writer to s ; gnii'y 
'towards the atlantal aspect.' 

Atlantal Extremities. The upper lirr-bs. 


ATLAS, Atlun'tion, from arkaui, 'I sustain. 
The first cervical ver'tebra ; so called, from its 
supporting the whole weight of the head, aa 
Atlas i.s said to have supported the globe on his 
shoulders. Cbaussier calls it Atloid. This ver- 




tebra in no respect resembles the others. It is 
a kind of irregular ring, into which, anteriorly, 
the processus dcntatus of the second vertebra is 
received. Posteriorly, it gives passage to the 
medulla spinalis. 

ATLOID'O-AXOID, (F.) Atloido-axoidien. 
Relating to both the Atlas and the Axis or Ver- 
tebra Dentata. 

Atloido-axoid Articulation. The articula- 
tion between the first two cervical vertebra;. 

Atloido-Axoid Lig'aments. These are two 
in number; one anterior and another posterior, 
passing between the two vertebra;. 

ATLOID'O-OCCIP'ITAL. Relating to the 
atlas and occiput. The Atloido-occip'ital Arti- 
cula'tion is formed by the condyles of the occi- 
pital bone and the superior articular surfaces of 
the Atlas. The Atloido-occipital muscle is the 
Rectus capitis posticus minor. 

superior oculi — a. Sous-occipitale, Rectus capitis 

ATMIATRI'A, Atmidiat'rice, from ar^os, 'va- 
pour,' and taTj)ua, 'treatment.' Treatment of 
diseases by fumigation. 


ATMISTERION, Vaporarium. 

ATMOS, Breath. 

AT'MOSPHERE, Atmosphm'ra, from arfios, 
•vapour,' and etpaipa, 'a sphere:' — as it were, 
Sphere of vapours. The atmosphere is a sphe- 
rical mass of air, surrounding the earth in every 
part; the height of which is estimated at 1.3 or 
16 leagues. It presses on the surface of the 
earth, and this pressure has, necessarily, sensible 
effects on organized bodies. The surface of the 
human body being reckoned at 15 square feet, it 
is computed that a pressure of 33,000 pounds or 
more exists under ordinary circumstances; and 
this pressure eannot be increased or diminished 
materially, without modifying the circulation and 
all the functions. 


ATOCIA, Sterilitis. 

ATOL'MIA, from a, priv., and roXpa, 'confi- 
dence.' Want of confidence; discouragement. 
A state of mind, unfavourable to health, and in- 
jurious in disease. It is the antithesis of Eu- 
tol' inin. 

ATONIA, Atony— a. Ventriculi, Gasterasthe- 

AT'OXY, Atou'ia, Infir'mitas et Remis'sio vi'- 
rium, Languor, Lax'itas, from a, priv., and rovog, 
' tone,' ' force.' Want of tone. Weakness of 
every organ, and particularly of those that are 
contractile. Violent gastritis has been described 
by Scribonius Largus under a similar name, 
A.Tovuv, At'onon. 

ATRABIL'IARY, Atrabil'ioua, Atrabilia'ris. 
Atrabilio'sns, from ater, ''black,' and bills., 'bile.' 
An epithet given by the ancients to the melan- 
cholic and hypochondriac, because they believed 
the Atrabilis to predominate in such. 

Atrabiliary Capsules, Arteries and Veins. 
The renal capsules, arteries and veins ; the for- 
mation of Atrabilis having been attributed to 

ATRAEI'LIS, same etymon, Ater succus, 
Black Bile or melancholy. According to the an- 
cients, a thick, black, acrid humour, secreted, in 
the opinion of some, by the pancreas; in that 
of others, by the supra-renal capsules. Hippo- 
crates, Galen, Aetius, and others, ascribe grea.t 
influence to_ the Atrabilis in the production of 
hypochondriasis, melancholy, and mania. There 
is really no such humour. It was an imaginary 
ccatioc— Aretasus, Rufus of Ephesus, Ac? 

ATRACHELOCEPII'ALUS, from a, priv., 
Tpa^r;Xo(, 'neck,' and KupaXn, 'head.' A monster neck is partially or wholly deficient. 

ATRACHE'LUS. Same etymon. One who is 
very short-necked. — Galen. 

pi'neus, Ixine, Gummy-rooted Atractylis, Pine 
Thistle. The root, when wounded, yields a 
milky, viscid juice, which concretes into tena- 
cious masses, and is said to be chewed with the 
same views as mastich. 
ATRAGENE, Clematis vitalba. 
ATRAMEN'TUM, A. Suto'rium, Ink, Calcan'* 
thon, (F.) Encre. It has been advised as an as- 
tringent, and as an external application in her* 
petic affections. 
Atramentum Sutorium, Ferri sulphas. 
ATRESIA, Adherence, Imperforation. See 

Atre'sia Ani Adna'ta, Anus Imperfora'tus, 
Fmjii r/ura'tio ani, (F.) Imperforation de I'anns. 
Congenital imperforation of the intestinal canal. 
ATRETISMUS, Imperforation. 
ATRETOCEPH'ALUS, from arpnrog, 'imper- 
forate,' and Kt(paXri, 'head.' A monster, in which 
some of the natural apertures of the head are 
wanting. — Gurlt. 

ATRETOCOR'MUS, from arprjroi, 'imperfo- 
rate,' and jcopnos, ' trunk.' A monster in which 
the natural apertures of the trunk are wanting — 

. ATRE'TUS, from a, priv., and rpaw, 'I per- 
forate.' Imperfora'tus, Imperforate. One whose 
anus, or parts of generation, are imperforate, 

AT'RICES. Small tumours, which appear oc- 
casionally around the anus. Some commentators 
consider the word to be synonymous with con- 
dylomata. — Forestus. 
ATRICHIA, Alopecia. 
ATRICHUS, Athrix. 

AT'RICI. Small sinuses in the vicinity of the 
anus, not penetrating the rectum. 

A TRIP LEX F03TIDA, Chenopodium vul- 

Atriplex IIorten'sib, A. Sati'va, (F.) Ar- 
roche, Bonne Dame. The herb and seed of this 
plant have been exhibited as antiscorbutics. 

At'riplex al'imus, A. Portulacoi'des, and A. 
Pat'ula, are used as pickles, and have similar 

_ At'riplex Mexicana, Chenopodium ambro- 
sioides — a, Odorata, Chenopodium botrys — a. 
Olida, Chenopodium vulvaria. 

cordis — a. Cordis sinistrum, Sinus pulmonalis — 
a. Vagina;, Vestibulum. 

AT'ROPA, from ArpoTroe, 'immutable,' 'the 
goddess of destiny;' so called from its fatal 

Atropa Eeli.adon'na, BeUadon'na, B. bac- 
cif'era seu trichofoma, Deadly Jfightshade, Sola'- 
num letha'le, Sota'num niani'iiciini, S. Fiuio'snm, 
Solafnum melunoccr'asus, (F.) Belladone, Morelle 
furieuse, Belle Dame. Nat. Ord. Solanea;. Sex. 
Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia. The leaves Bel- 
ladonna (Ph. U. S.) are powerfully narcotic, and 
also diaphoretic, and diuretic. They are occa- 
sionally used where narcotics are indicated. 
Sprinkling the powdered leaves over cancerous 
sores has been found to allay the pain ; and the 
leaves form a good poultice. Dose, gr. £ to gr. j 
of the powdered leaves. 

Atropa Mandrag'ora, Mandrag'ora, M. rer- 
na'lie sen offieina'lia sen aeau'lis, Circa '"'. Anthro- 
pomorph'tu, Malum terrcs'tre, Mandrake. The 




boiled root has been used in the form of poultice 
in indolent swellings. 

ATROPHIA, Atrophy, Tabes — a. Ablactato- 
runi, Brash, weaning — a. Cerebri, Phrenatrophia 
— a. Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. Glandula- 
ris, Tabes inesenterica — a. Hepatis, Hepatatro- 
phia — a. Infantum, Psedatrophia, Tabes mesen- 
teriea — a. Intestinorum, Enteratrophia. 

Atrophia Lactan'tium, Tabes nutri'ctim seu 
lac' tea. The atrophy of nursing women. 

Atrophia Lienis, Splenatrophia — a. Mesen- 
terica', Tabes mesenteriea — a. Testiouli, Orchida- 

A TR OP HIE, Atrophy— a. Mesenteriqtie, Tabes 

ATROPHIED, see Atrophy. 

AT'ROPHY, Mat-as' mus Atro'phia, Atro'phia 
Maras'mus, Ma'cies, Contabescen'tia, Tabes, Mar- 
co' res, Analo'sis, from a, privative, and rpotprj, 
'nourishment.' (F.) Atrophie,Dessechement. Pro- 
gressive and morbid diminution in the bulk of 
the whole body or of a part. Atrophy is gene- 
rally symptomatic. Any tissue or organ thus 
affected is said to be atrophied. 

Atrophy of the Heart, see Heart, atrophy 
of the. 

AT'ROPINE, Atropi'na, Atro'pia, Atro'pium, 
Atropi' num. (F.) Atropine. The active principle 
of Atropa Belladonna, separated by Brandes, by 
a process similar to that for procuring morphia. 

ATTACHE, Insertion. 

ATTACK, Insal'tus, Assul'tus, Irrep'tio, Inva'- 
eio, Eis'bole, Lepsis, (F.) Attaque. A sudden 
attack, invasion or onset of a disease. A seizure. 

AT TAG AS, Attagen. 

AT'TAGEX, At'tagas, the Fran'colin. Cele- 
brated with the ancients both as food and medi- 
cine. — Martial. Aristophanes. 

A mineral water in France, at Attancourt, in 
Champagne ; about three leagues north of Join- 
ville. The water is a chalybeate, and contains 
sulphate of lime. In large doses it is purgative. 

ATTAQUE, Attack — a. des Nerfs, Nervous 

ATTELLE. Splint. 

in Bavaria. The water contains carbonic acid, 
carbonates of lime and soda, sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, chloride of sodium, iron, and alum. 
It is much used in skin diseases, fistula, old ul- 
cers, calculi, and hemorrhoids. 

ATTEN'UANTS, Attenuan' tia, Leptun'tica, 
(F.) Leptontiques, from tenuis, 'thin.' Medicines 
which augment the fluidity of the humours. 

ATTEXUA'TION, Attenua'tio ; same etymon. 
Thinness, emaciation. A term used by the ho- 
moeopathists in the sense of dilution or division 
of remedies into infinitesimal doses. 

ATT I RANT, Attrahent. 

AT'TITUDE, Situs Cor'poris. Low Latin, 
aptitudo ; from Latin aptare, 'to fit.' Situation, 
position of the body. The attitudes are the dif- 
ferent postures which man is capable of assum- 
ing. In General Pathology, the attitude will 
often enable the physician to pronounce at once 
upon the character of a disease, or it will aid him 
materially in his judgment. In St. Vitus's dance, 
in fractures, luxations, &c, it is the great index. 
It will also indicate the degree of nervous or 
cerebral power; hence the sinking down in bed 
is an evidence of great cerebral debility in fever. 
The position of a patient during an operation is 
also an interesting subject of attention to the 

ATTOL'LENS AUREM, Atlol'lens Auric'ula, 
Leva,' tor Auris, Supe'rior Auris, Attol'lens Au- 
ric'ulam, Auricula' Vis mipe'rior, (F.) Aurieulaire 
tupirieur, Temporo-auriculaire. A muscle of 

the ear, which arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, 
from the tendon of the occipito-frontalis, and is 
inserted into the upper part of the ear, opposite 
to the anti-helix. It raises the ear. 

Attollens Oculi, Rectus superior oculi — a. 
Oculum, Rectus superior oculi. 

ATTOUCHEMENT, Masturbation. 

sion, force of. 

ATTRACTIVUM, see Magnet. 

ATTRACTIVUS, Attrahent. 



AT'TRAHENT, At'trahens, Attracti'vus, At- 
travto'rius, from ad, 'to,' and traho, 'I draw.' 
(F.) Attract:/, Attirant. Remedies are so called, 
which attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied, as blisters, rubefacients, &c. 

ATTR APE-LOU RDAUT, (F.) A bistoury 
invented by a French surgeon, called Biennaise, 
and used in the operation for hernia. See Bis- 
touri cache. 

ATTRITA, Chafing. 

ATTRITIO, Attrition, Chafing. 

ATTRITION, Attrif'io, Ecthlim'ma, from 
ad, and terere, ' to bruise.' Friction or bruising. 
Chafing. — Galen. Also, a kind of cardialgia. — 
Sennertus. Likewise, a violent contusion. 

ATTRITUS, Chafing. 

ATYP'IC, Atyp'icus, At'ypos, from a, priva- 
tive, and twos, 'type.' That which has no type. 
Irregular. Chiefly applied to an irregular inter- 
mit tent, — Febris ati/piea. 

ATYPOS, Erratic. 

AUANSIS, Drying. 

AUAN'TE, Anap'se, from avavtrts, 'desicca- 
tion.' Hippocrates gave this name to a disease, 
the principal symptom of which was emaciation. 

A UBE- VIONE, Clematis vitalba. 

A UBEPINE, Mespilus oxyacantha. 

AUBERGINE, Solanum Melongena. 

AUBIFOIN, Cyanus segetum. 

AUCHEN, Collum. 


AUCHE'TICUS, from av X w, 'the neck.' One 
affected with stiff neck or torticollis. 

AUDE, Voice. 

dinac is situate in the department of Arriege, 
France. The water contains a small quantity 
of sulphohydric acid, carbonic acid, sulphates of 
limo and magnesia, carbonates of lime and iron, 
and a bituminous substance. Temp. 67° Fahr. 
It is much used in chronic rheumatism, herpes, 
scrofulous diseases, &c. 

AUDIT"ION, from audire, 'to hear;' 
Audit" io, Andi'tus, A'coe, Aero' ama, Aero'asis, 
Aco&'sis, Acu'sis. Hearing. The act of hearing, 
The sensation arising from an impression made 
on the auditory nerves by the vibrations of the 
air, produced by a sonorous body. The physi- 
ology of Audition is obscure. It probably takes 
place : — 1. By the vibrations being communicated 
from the membrana tympani along the chain of 
small bones to the membrane of the foramen 
ovale, 2. By means of the air in the cavity of 
the tympanum, the membrane of the foramen 
rotundum is agitated. 3. The transmission may 
be made by means of the bony parictcs. In 
these three ways the vibrations produced by a 
sonorous body may reach the auditory nerve. 
Audition may be active or passive: hence the 
difference between listening and simply hearinb 

AU'DITORY, Audita' tins, Auditi'vus, Acus'- 
ticus. That which relates to audition. 

AcniTORY Arteries and Veins, are vessels 
which euter the auditory canals, and are, like 




them, distinguished into internal and external 
The external auditory artery, A. Tympanique — 
(Ch.) is given off by the styloid, a branch of the 
external carotid : the internal is a branch of the 
basilary artery, which accompanies the auditory 
nerve, and is distributed to it. The Auditory 
Veins empty into the internal and external ju- 

Auditory Canal, External, Mea'tus audito'- 
rius extcr'nus, Alvea'rium, Scapha, Scnphus, (F.) 
Oonduit auditif externe, Conduit auriculaire, 
commences at the bottom of the concha, at the 
Fora'men auditi'vum exter'num, passes inwards, 
forwards, and a little downwards, and terminates 
at the membrana tympani. It is partly cartilagi- 
nous, partly osseous, and partly fibrous. 

Auditory Canal. Internal, Mea'tus audito'- 
rius inter'nus, Porus seu Sinus acus'ticus, Cyar, 
(F.) Conduit auditif interne, C. labyrinthique, is 
situate in the posterior surface of the pars pe- 
trosa of the temporal bone. From the Fora'men 
auditi'vum inter' num, where it commences, it 
passes forwards and outwards, and terminates 
by a kind of cul-de-sac, mac'ula cribro'sa, perfo- 
rated by many holes, one of which is the orifice 
of the Aqtuseductus Fallopii ; and the others com- 
municate with the labyrinth. 

Auditory Nerve, A'erf labyrinthique — (Ch.) 
is the Portio Mollis of the seventh pair. It 
arises from the corpus restiforme, from the floor 
of the fourth ventricle, and by means of white 
striaj, from the sides of the calamus scriptorius. 
As it leaves the encephalon, it forms a flattened 
cord, and proceeds with the facial nerve through 
the foramen auditivum internum, and as far as 
the bottom of the meatus, where it separates from 
the facial, and divides into two branches, one 
going to the cochlea, the cochlear ; the other to 
the vestibule and semi-circular canals, the vesti- 
bular. _ 

AUGE, Al'veus. Some of the older anatomists 
gave this name to a reservoir, into which liquids 
flow in an interrupted manner, so that it is alter- 
nately full and empty. Such are the ventricles 
and auricles of the heart. 

AUGMENTATION, from amgere, ' to increase ;' 
Augmeu'tum, lncremen' turn, Anab'asis, Auc'tio, 
Auxis, Progres'sio, Progres'sus, Auxe'sis. The 
stage of a disease in which the symptoms go on 

AULISCUS, Camila. See Fistula. 
AULOS, Canula, Fistula- See Vagina, and 

malo is a town of Upper Normandy, in the coun- 
try of Caux. Several springs of ferruginous 
mineral waters are found there, whose odour is 
penetrating, and taste rough and astringent. 
They are tonic, and employed in debility of the 
viscera, &c. 

AUNE^ NOIRE, Rhamnus frangula. 
AUNEE, Inula helenium — a. Dysenterique, 
Inula dysenterica. 

AURA, Pnoe. A vapour or emanation from 
any body, surrounding it like an atmosphere. 
Van Helmont regarded the vital principle as a 
gas and volatile spirit, which he called Aura 

In Pathology, Aura means the sensation of a 
light vapour, which, in some diseases, appears 
to set out from the trunk or limbs ; and to rise 
towards the head. This feeling has been found 
to precede attacks of epilepsy and hysteria, and 
hence it has been called Aura Epilcp'tica, and 
A. hysterica. 

Aura San'guinis. The odour exhaled by blood 
Bewly drawn. See Gaz Sanguinis. 

Aura Sem'inis, A. semina'lis, Spir'itiu geni- 

talis .-—A volatile principle fancied to exist m 
the sperm, and regarded by some as the fecun- 
dating agent. Such is not the ease. 
Aura Vitalis, Vital principle. 
AURANCUM, see Ovum. 
AURANITE, see Agaric. 

apples or oranges. Immature oranges, checked, 
by accident, in their growth. They are a grate- 
ful, aromatic bitter, devoid of acidity. Infused 
in wine or brandy they make a good stomachic. 
They are also used for issue peas. 

Aurantia Curassavica, see Citrus aurantium 
— a. Poma, see Citrus aurantium. 

Auranth Cortex, see Citrus aurantium. 
AURANTIUM, Citrus aurantium. 

AUREOLA, Areola. 

NATRII, see Gold— a. Chloridum, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Chloretum, Gold, muriate of— a. Cyanidum, 
see Gold — a. Cyanuretum, see Gold — a. Iodidum, 
see Gold — a. Ioduretum, see Gold — a. et Natri 
chloruretum, see Gold— a. Murias, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Nitro-murias, see Gold — a. Oxidum, see 
Gold — a. Terchloridum, see Gold — a. Tercyani- 
dum, see Gold — a. Teroxidum, see Gold. 

AURICLE, Auric'ula, (F.) Aurierde, Oricule. 
Diminutive of auris, an ear. The auricle of the 
ear. See Pavilion. 

Auricles of the Heart, Cavita'tes innomi- 
na'ta, (F.) Oreill-ettes, are two cavities; one 
right, the other left, each communicating with 
the ventricle of its side. These two cavities re- 
ceive the blood from every part of the body. 
Into the right auricle, the two venae cavse and 
coronary vein open : into the left, the four pul- 
monary veins. Chaussier calls the former the 
Sinus of the Vena Cava:: — the latter, the Sinus 
of the Pulmonary Veins. The foliated or dog's 
ear portion of each auricle is called Appen'dix 
auric'ida. See Sinus. 

Auricula Jud^e, Peziza auricula — a. Muris, 
Hieracium PiJoselLa — a. Muris major, Ilieracium 

AURICULAIRE, see Digitus— a. Posttrieur, 

Retrnhens auris — a. Svperieur, Attollcns aurem. 

AURICULAR, Aurieula'ris, Oric'nlar, from 

auricula, ' the car.' That which belongs to the 

car, especially to the external ear. 


1/xires — (Ch.), are divided into anterior and ])os- 
terior. The anterior are of indeterminate num- 
ber. They arise from the temporal artery, and 
are distributed to the meatus auditorius externus, 
and to the pavilion of the ear. The posterior 
auricular is given off by the external carotid, 
from which it separates in the substance of the 
parotid gland. AVhen it reaches the inferior part 
of the pavilion of the ear it bifurcates; one of its 
branches being distributed to the inner surface 
of the pavilion, the other passing over the mas- 
toid process, and being distributed to the tempo- 
ral and posterior auris muscles, Ac. Before its 
bifurcation it gives off the styio-maxtoid artery. 
The Anterior ami Posterior Auricular Veins open 
into the temporal and external jugular. 

Auricular Finger, (F.) Doigt auriculaire, is 
the little finger, so called because, owing to its 
size, it can be more readily introduced into the 
meatus auditorius. 

Auricular Nkrves are several. 1. The ««- 
ri'iiliir branch, Zygomato-auricular, is one of 
the ascending branches of the cervical plexus. 




It ramifies and spreads over the two surfaces of 
the pavilion. 2. The auricular or superficial 
temporal, Temporal-cutaneous — (Ch.) is given off 
from the inferior maxillary. It ascends between 
the condyle of the jaw and the meatus auditorius 
externus, sends numerous filaments to the meatus 
and pavilion, and divides into two twigs, which 
accompany the branches of the temporal artery, 
and are distributed to the integuments of the 
head. There is also a posterior auricular fur- 
nished bv the facial. 

AURICULARIA SAMBUCI, Peziza auricula. 

■ — a. Superior, Attollens aurem. 

AURWULE, Auricle, Pavilion of the ear. 

ventricula'ris. That which belongs to the auri- 
cles and ventricles of the heart. The communi- 
cations between the auricles and ventricles are 
so called. The Tricuspid and Mitral Valves are 
auriculo-ventricular valves. 

AURI'GA. A species of bandage for the ribs, 
described by Galen. See, also, Liver. 

AURIGO, Icterus — a. Neophytorum, Icterus 

AURIPIGMENTUM, Orpiment— a. Rubrum, 

AURIS, Ear. 


AURISCOP'IUM, Au'riscope, from auris, 'the 
ear,' and o-koxcw, 'I view.' An instrument for 
exploring the ear. 

AURIST, Otia'ter, Otia'trus, Ear-doctor, Ear- 
surgeon ; from auris, 'the ear.' One who occu- 
pies himself chiefly with the diseases of the ear 
and their treatment. 

morata, Cerumen — a. Sibilus, Bombus — a. Soni- 
tus, Bombus — a. Sordes, Cerumen — a. Susurrus, 

A UR NE, Artemisia abrotanum — a. dee 
Champs, Artemisia campestris — a. des Jardins, 
Artemisia abrotanum — a. Male, Artemisia abro- 

AURUGO, Icterus. 

AURUM, Gold— a. Chloratum, Gold, mu- 
riate of — a. Chloratum natronatum, see Gold — a. 
Foliatum, Gold leaf — a. in Libellis, Gold leaf — a. 
Leprosum, Antimonium — a. Limatum, see Gold 
— a. Muriaticum, see Gold — a. Muriaticum na- 
tronatum, see Gold. 

Aurum Musi'vum, Aurum Mosa'icum, Sulph'- 
uret of Tin, Deutosulphuret or Persulphuret of 
tin. (Quicksilver, tin, sulphur, sal ammoniac, 
aa, equal parts. The tin being first melted, the 
quicksilver is poured into it, and then the whole 
are ground together, and sublimed in a bolthead. 
The aurum musivum lies at the bottom.) It is 
used in some empirical preparations. 

Aurum Oxydatc.m, see Gold — a. Oxydulatum 
muriaticum, Gold, muriate of — a. Nitro-muriati- 
cum, see Gold — a. Salitum, Gold, muriate of. 

AUS'CULTATE, TO; from auscvltare, 'to lis- 
ten.' To practise auscultation. ' To auscult' is 
at times used with the same signification. 

AUSCULTA'TION, Ausculta'tio, Echos'cope, 
act of listening. Buisson has used it synony- 
mously with listening. Laennee introduced aus- 
cultation to appreciate the different sounds which 
can be heard in the chest, and in the diagnosis 
of diseases of the heart, lungs, Ac. This may 
be done by the aid of an instrument called a ste- 
thoscope, one extremity of which is applied to the 
ear, the other to the chest of the patient. This 
mode of examination is called Mediate Ausculta- 
tion, (F.) Auscultation mediate, — the application 
of the ear to the chest being immediate ausculta- 
tion, i 

The act of exploring the chest is called Stetho- 
scop'ia, and T horacoscop' ia ; of the abdomen, 

AUSCULTATORY, Auscultato'rius ; Auscxd'- 
tory, Auscul'tic, (with some.) Belonging or hav- 
ing relation to auscultation. 

Auscultatory Percussion, see Acouophonia. 

AUSTERE', Auste'rus. Substances which pro- 
duce a high degree of acerb impression on the 
organs of taste. 

AUSTRUCHE, Imperatoria. 

AUTALGIA DOLOROSA, Neuralgia, facial, 
Pleurodynia — a. Pruriginosa, Itching — a. Ver- 
tigo, Vertigo. 

AUTARCI'A, from avros, 'himself/ and apxtu, 
' I am satisfied.' Moral tranquillity. — Galen. 

AUTEMES'IA, from avros, 'self,' and exeats, 
' vomiting.' Spontaneous or idiopathic vomiting. 
— Alibert. 

AUTEMPRESMUS, Combustion, human. 

AUTHE'MERON. A medicine which cures 
on the day of its exhibition; from avros, 'the 
same,' and 'rjucpa,' ' day.' 

AUTHYGIANSIS, Vis medicatrix nature. 

AUTOCHIR, AutocM'rus, Suici'da, from avros, 
'himself,' and \up, 'hand.' One who has com- 
mitted suicide. A self-murderer or suicide. 


AUTOCINE'SIS, Motus volxmta'rxus, from 
avros, ' self,' and kivtjo-is, ' motion.' Voluntary 

AUTOC'RASY, Autocrati'a, Autocrato'ria, 
from avros, 'himself,' and Kparos, 'strength.' In- 
dependent force. Action of the vital principle, 
or of the instinctive powers towards the preser- 
vation of the individual. See Vis Medicatrix Na- 
turae. Also, the vital principle. 

AUTOCRATIA, Autocrasy, Vis Medicatrix 

AUTOCRATORIA, Autocrasy— a. Physiatrice, 
Vis medicatrix naturae. 


AUTOG"ENOUS; from avros, 'self,' and yev- 
vaw, ' I generate.' A term applied by Mr. Owen 
to parts or elements that are usually developed 
from distinct and independent centres ; as in the 
case of the different parts or elements that form 
a vertebra. 

AUTOGONIA, Generation, equivocal. 

AUTOLITHOT'OMUS, from avros, 'himself,' 
\i%s, ' a stone,' and reuvuv, ' to cut.' One who 
operates upon himself for the stone. 

AUTOMAT'IC, Automat' icus, Antom'atus, from 
avrofiaros, 'spontaneous.' That which acts of itself. 
Those movements are called automatic, which the 
patient executes without any object; apparently 
without volition being exercised: — involuntary 
motions, motus automat' ici seu autom'ati seu in- 

AUTOMNAL, Autumnal. 

AUTONOM'IA, Vis medicatrix natures. The 
word Autonomia is occasionally employed by the 
French and Germans for the peculiar mechanism 
of an organized body. Thus, although individu- 
als of the same species may differ in outward eon- 
formation, their mechanism or instinctive laws, 
(Autonomia,) may be the same. 

AUTONYCTOBATIA, Somnambidism. 

AUTOPEP'SIA, from avros, 'self,' and lrcirra), 
' I concoct.' Self-digestion, — as of the stomach 
after death. 

AUTOPHIA, Autopsia. 

AUTOPHO'NIA, (F.) Retentissement autopho- 
nique, from avros, 'self,' and tywvv, 'voice.' An 
auscultatory sign pointed out by M. Ilourmann, 
which consists in noting the character of the ob- 
server's own voice, while he speaks with his head 
placed close to the patient's chest. The voice, it 




is alleged, will be modified by the condition of 
the subjacent organs. The resonance, thus heard, 
ho terms retentiesement autophonique. This di- 
agnostic agency Dr. R. G. Latham proposes to 
term heautophon' ics. 

Autophoxia, Suicide. 


AUTOPLAS'TIO, Autoplas'ticus ; from avro;, 
'self,' and nXaariKo;, 'formative.' Relating to 
autoplasty or plastic surgery. 

AUTOPLASTICS, Morioplastice. 
AUTOPLASTY, Morioplastice. 

AUTOP'SIA, Au'topsy ; from avro;, 'himself,' 
and o^is, ' vision.' Autoph'ia, AutoSeop'ia. In- 
spection; examination by one's self ; self-inspec- 
tion. Often improperly used for the following : 

Autop'sia Cadaver'ica, (F.) Autopsie ou Ou- 
verture cadaverique. Attentive examination after 
death, — Examination post mortem, Sectio Oailuc' - 
eris, Dissection, Nee'roscopy, Ncc'ropsy, Necro- 
scop'ia, Necrop'sia, Necrop'sis, — practised for 
the purpose of investigating the causes and seat 
of an affectioa of which a person may have 
died, <fcc. 

Autop'sia Cadaver'ica Lega'lis, Sec'tio ca- 
dao'eris legalis, Obduc'tio, is the examination 
after death for medico-legal purposes. 

AUTOPYROS, Syncomistos. 

AUTOSCOPIA, Autopsia. 

AU'TOSITE, from auroj, ' self,' and airog, 
1 nourishment.' A single monster, capable of 
deriving nourishment from its own proper or- 
gans, in contradistinction to Omphalosite. 

AUTOTHERAPIA, Vis medicatrix naturae. 

AUTUMN, Autum'nus, Phthiropo'ron, (F.) Au- 
toiniic. One of the seasons of the year, between 
the 2od of September and the 21st of December. 
In all climates, the Autumn or Fall is liable to 
disease ; a combination of local and atmospheric 
causes being then present, favourable to its pro- 

AUTUM'NAL; Antumna'lis, (F.) Automnal. 
Relating to Autumn; as Autumnal Fruits, Au- 
tumnal Fevers, &0. 

Autumnal Fever, generally assumes a bilious 
aspect. Those of the intermittent kind are much 
more obstinate than when they appear in the 

AUXESIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AUXIL'IARY, Auxilia'ris, from auxilium, 
'aid.' (F.) Auxiliaire. That which assists, or 
from which assistance is obtained. 

Auxiliary Medicine is one which assists the 
principal medicine or basis. It is synonymous 
with Adjuvant. 

Auxiliary Muscles are those which concur 
in the same movement. Some anatomists have 
applied the term to several ligaments, as well as 
to the fleshy fibres, which hang from the sacro- 
epinalis muscle. 

AUXILIUM, Juvans, Medicament. 

AUXIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AVA, Arva, Kava. An intoxicating narcotic 
drink, made by chewing the Piper methisticum. 
It is much used by the Polynesians. 

AVAILLES, WATERS OF. A small village 
in France, 13 leagues S. S. E. of Poitiers, at 
which there is a cold saline chalybeate. It con- 
tains chlorides of sodium and calcium, sulphate 
and subearbonate of soda, iron, <fec. 

AVANT-BOUCUE, (F.) Os anti'cum. This 
name has been applied by some to the mouth, 
properly so called— in contradistinction to the 
Arriere bouche or Pharynx. 

A VANT-BRAS, Fore-arm. 

AVANT-0(EUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

1VANT-GOUT, (F.) Pragusta'tio ; a fore- 
taste ; prtegustation. 

AVANT-MAIN, (F.) Adver'sa Mamts. The 
inside of the hand, when extended. 

AVANT-PIED, (F.) Tho most advanced 
part of the foot. 

AVANT-POIGNET, (F.) The anterior part 
of the wrist. 

A VELINE, Corylus avellana (nut). 

AVELLANA, Corylus avellana — a. Cathartica, 
Jatropha curcas. 

AVE'NA, Oats, liromos. The seeds of Ave'na 
sati'va. Nat. Ord. Gramineae. Sex. Syst. Tri- 
andria Digynia. (F.) Avoine. Oats are used as 
food for man, in some parts, particularly in the 
North of England and Scotland. When deprived 
of the husks they form Groats. Reduced to 
meal, — Avena Fari'na, Oatmeal — they are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to promote suppuration. The 
dry meal is sprinkled over erysipelatous parts. 

Oatmeal gruel, Water gruel, is prepared as fol- 
lows : — Take of oatmeal 3'.i ; 80 ft u '"ter Oiss. 
Rub the meal in a basin, with the back of a spoon, 
in a moderate quantity of the water, pouring off 
the fluid after the grosser particles have subsided, 
but whilst the milkiness continues, - and repeat 
the operation until no more milkiness is commu- 
nicated to the water. Put the washings in a pan, 
after having stirred them well, in order to sus- 
pend any fecula, which may have subsided; and 
boil until a soft, thick, mucilage is formed. 

It is a good demulcent, and is used also as a 
vehicle for clysters. 

Avena Excorticata, Groats. 

AVENvE FARINA, see Avena. 

Avenheim is three leagues from Strasburg: near 
it is an aperient mineral water. 

Avennes is a village in the department of He- 
rault in France: near it is a saline spring, the 
temperature of which rises to 84° Fahrenheit. 

AVENS, COMMON, Geum urbanum — a. 
Water, Geum rivale — a. White, Geum Yirgini- 

AVERICH, Sulphur. 

AVERRHO'A BILIM'BI, Bilim'bi, Bilimbing 
teres. An Indian tree, which has a fruit that is 
too acid to be eaten alone. It is used as a con- 
diment, and in the form of syrup as a refrige- 

Averrho'a Caram'bola, called after Aver- 
rhocs; Malum Coen'se, Prunum Stella' turn, Tam'- 
ara, Conga, Caram'bolo. An Indian tree, whose 
fruits are agreeably acid. The hark, bruised, is 
employed as a cataplasm, and its fruit is used as 
a refrigerant in bilious fever and dysentery. 

AVER'SION, Aver'sio, Apot'rope? from aver- 
tere, (a and vertcrc) ' to turn from.' Extreme 
repugnance for any thing whatever. 

AVERSION, (F.)also means, in therapeutics, 
the action of medicines which turn the afflux of 
fluids from one organ, and direct them to others; 
being synonymous with counter -irritation, or 
rather revulsion or derivation. 

A VER TIN, (F.) A disease of the mind, 
which, according to Lavoisicn, renders the pa- 
tient obstinate and furious. 

AVEUGLE. C«cus. 

AVEUGLEMENT. Civcitas — a. de Jour, 
Nyctalopia — a. de Nuit, Ilenieralopia. 

seu resinif'era seu nit'ida, Bon'tia m r'minans, 
called after Avicenna. The plant which affords 
the Malae'ca Bean or Anaear'dium Orienta'tS of 
the Pharmacopoeias, Semeear'pus Anaear'dium, 
The oil drawn from the bark of the fruit is a cor- 
rosive, and active vesicatory, but it is not used 

AVICULA CIPRIA, Pastil-a. Margariti'fera, 
I see Pearl. 




AVOW, A vena. 

AVOR TE VENT, Abortion. 

AV OUTER, to Abort. 

AVORTW, Abortion. 

AVOR TOX, Abortion. 

AVLTLSIO, Arrachement. 

AVULSION". Evulsion. 

small town in the department of Arriege, France; 
where there are several sulphurous springs, the 
temperature of which varies from 77° to 162° of 

AXE, Axis — a. de VCEil, Axis of the eye. 

AX'EA COMMISSU'RA, Trochoi'des. A 
pivot-joint. See Trochoid. 

AXIL'LA, Ala, Ascel'la, Assel'la, Ascil'la, 
Acel'la, Cordis emuncto'rium, Mule, Hypo'mia, 
Fo'vea axilla' ris, Mas'chale, Mas'chalis, (F.) 
Aissclle. The cavity beneath the junction of 
the arm with the shoulder; the armpit; (F.) 
Oreux de I'Aisselle. It is bounded, anteriorly, 
by a portion of the pectoralis major ; posteriorly, 
by the latissimus dorsi. It is covered with hair, 
contains much areolar membrane, lymphatic 
ganglions, important vessels and nerves, and 
numerous sebaceous follicles, furnishing an odor- 
ous secretion. In consequence of such secretion, 
the ancients called it emuncto'rium cordis. 

AX'ILLARY, Maschalice'us, (F.) Axillaire, 
from axilla, 'the armpit.' Belonging to the 

Axillary Artery, Arte'ria axilla' ris ; a con- 
tinuation of the subclavian, extending from the 
passage of the latter between the scaleni muscles 
as far as the insertion of the pectoralis major, 
when it takes the name of Brachial. 

Axillary Glands are lymphatic glands seated 
in the armpit; into which the lymphatic glands 
of the upper extremity open. 

Axillary Nerve, Scap'ulo-hu'meral (Ch.), 
Nerf circoitflexe, Artic'ular nerve; arises from the 
posterior part of the brachial plexus, particularly 
from the last two cervical pairs and the first 
dorsal. It is chiefly distributed to the posterior 
margin of the deltoid. 

Axillary Vein, Vena Axilla'ris, Vena Suba- 
la'ris. This vein corresponds with the artery ; 
anterior to which it is situate. It is a continua- 
tion of the brachial veins; and, at its termination, 
assumes the name Subclavian. 

AXINE, Ascia. 

AXIRNACH. An Arabic word, used by Al- 
bucasis to designate a fatty tumour of the upper 
eyelid, observed particularly in children. 

AXIS, Axon, (F.) Axe. A right line which 
passes through the centre of a body. 

Axis, Cerebro-Spinal, see Encephalon — a. 
of the Cochlea, Modiolus — a. Cylinder of Nerve, 
see Nerve fibre — a. Coeliac, Coeliac artery. 

Axis of the Eye, (F.) Axe de I'ceil, called 
also, Vis'ual Axis and Optic Axis, is a right line, 
which falls perpendicularly on the eye, and passes 
through the centre of the pupil. 

Axis, Haemal, Aorta — a. Neural, see Ence- 

Axis, is also the second vertebra of the neck, 
Axon, Epistropheus, Epis'trophus, Masehalister : 
the Ver'tebra Benta'tn, (F.) Essieu. So called, 
because it forms a kind of axis on which the head 
moves. Chaussier calls it Axo'ide, from afav, 
'axis,' and t«5o{, 'shape.' 

AXO/BE, Axis— a. Occipitale, Rectus capitis 
posticus major. 

AXOID'O-ATLOID'EUS. What refers to both 
the axis and atlas, as Axoido-atloidcan articula- 

The lesions of the Axoido-atloidean, are, 1. 
Fracture of the Procea'sus Denta'tm. 2. Rupture 

of the odontoid ligament, and consequently pas- 
sage aud pressure of the process behind the trans- 
verse ligament: and, 3. The simultaneous rupture 
of the odontoid and transverse ligaments. These 
different accidents are fatal. 

AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEN, Obliouus inferior 

AXON, Axis. 

AXUNGE, Adeps praeparata. 

AXUNGIA, Pinguedo — a. Gadi, Oleum Jecoris 
Aselli — a. de Mumia, Marrow — a. Articularis, 
Synovia — a. Piscina Marina, Oleum Jecoris Aselli 
— a. Porcina, Adeps prasparata. 

AYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AZARNET, Orpiment. 

AZARUM, Asarum. 

AZEOARACH, Melia Azedarach. 


AZOODYNA'MIA, from a, priv., far,, 'life,' 
and Swa/ns, 'strength.' Privation or diminution 
of the vital powers. 

AZO'RES, CLIMATE OF. The Azores or 
Western Islands are said to afford one of the best 
examples of a mild, humid, equable climate to 
be met with in the northern hemisphere. It is 
slightly colder and moister than that of Madeira, 
but even more equable. Sir James Clark thinks, 
that a change from the Azores to Madeira, and 
thence to Teneriffe — one of the Canaries — would 
prove more beneficial to the phthisical valetudi- 
narian than a residence during the whole winter 
in any one of those islands. 

AZOTATE I)' ARGENT, Argenti nitras. 

A'ZOTE, Azo'tuni, from a, priv., and fan, 'life.' 
Nt'trogen, Al'caligene, Gas azo'tieuin, Nitro- 
gen'ium, (F.) Azote, Nitrogene, Air gate, Air 
vicie, is a gas which is unfit for respiration. It 
is not positively deleterious, but proves fatal, I 
owing to the want of oxygen. It is one of the 
constituents of atmospheric air, and a distin- 
guishing principle of animals. Vegetables have 
it not generally diffused, whilst it is met with in 
most animal substances. It has been variously 
called, phlogistic air, vitiated air, &c. ; has been 
looked upon as sedative, and recommended to be 
respired, when properly diluted,, in diseases of 
the chest. 

Azote, Protoxide of, Nitrogon, gaseous ox- 
ide of. 

AZOTED, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTENESES, from azote, and vovos, 'dis- 
ease.' Diseases fancied to be occasioned by the 
predominance of azote in the body. — Baumes. 

AZOTIZED, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTURIA, see Urine. 

AZUR, Coral, Smalt. 

AZU'RIUM. A compound of two parts of 
mercury, one-third of sulphur, and one-fourth of 
sal ammoniac. — Albertus Magnus. 

AZ'YGES, Az'ygos, Az'ygous, sine pari, from 
a, priv., and £vyo$, 'equal.' Unequal. The 
sphi if 'id bone, because it has no fellow. Also, a 
process, Proces'sue Az'yges, Rostrum spheno'ida'le, 
projecting from under the middle and forepart 
of this bone. 

AZYGOS GANGLION, see Trisplanchnio 

ticular arteries of the skull. 

Azygous Muscle, Azvgoa V'vulm, is the small 
muscle which occupies tne substance of the uvula. 
— Morgagni. The name is, however, inappro- 
priate, as there are two distinct fasciculi, placed 
along-side each other, forming the Pal'ato-sta- 
phyli'ni, StapkyU'ni or Epistaphyli'ni muscles, 
Staphyli'ni me'dii of'Winslow. 

Azygous Vein, Vena Azygos, Veine Prelombo- 




thoracique — (Ch.), Vena sine pari, Vena pari 
\s, (P.) Veine sans Paire. This vein was BO 
called by Galen. It forms a communication be- 
tween the Y. cava inferior and V. cava superior, 
permitting the blood to pass freely between the 
two. It rises from the vena cava inferior, or 
from one of the lumbar or renal veins, passes 
through the diaphragm, ascends along the spine 
to the right of the aorta and thoracic duct, and 
opens into the V. cava superior, where it pene- 

trates the pericardium. On the left side, the 
SEMI-AZ'TGOS, Left bron'chial or left superior in- 
tercos'talvein, Vena demi-azygos, V.hcini-az'yga, 
Veine petite prSlombo-thoraeique — (Ch.) presents, 
in miniature, nearly the same arrangement. 

AZYMIA HUMORUM, Crudity of the hu- 

AZ'YMUS, from a, priv., and £u/ii/, 'leaven.' 
Azymous bread is unfermented, unleavened bread. 
— Galen. 


BABEURRE, Buttermilk. 

BABILLEMENT, Loquacity. 


BAC'ARIS, Bach'aris. A name given by the 
ancients to an ointment, described by Galen 
under the name Ointment of Lydia. It was 
sometimes employed in diseases of the womb. — 

BACCiE BERMUDENSES, Sapindus sapo- 
naria — b. sou Grana actes, see Sambucus ebulus 
— b. Jujuba?, Jujube — b. Myrtillorum, see Yacci- 
nium myrtillus — b. Norlandieaa, Rubus arcticus 
— b. Piperis Glabri, see Piper Cubeba — b. Pisca- 
torial, see Menispermum coceulus — b. Zizyphi, 
see Jujube. 

BACCAR, Bac'caris, Bac'charis. An herb 
used by the ancients in their garlands, to destroy 
enchantment. Perhaps, the Digitalis purpurea. 
Some authors have erroneously thought it to be 
the Asarum. 


BACCIII'A, from Bacchus, 'wine.' A name 
applied to the red or pimpled face of the drunkard. 
See Gutta rosea. 

BACCIIICA, nedera helix. 

BACHARIS, Bacaris. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTONS, see Strychnos mix 

BACKER'S TONIC PILLS, Pilulse ex Helle- 
boro et Myrrha. 

BACILE, Crithmum maritimum. 

BACIL'LUM, Bacillus, Bac'ulus, Bac'culus : 
' a stick.' This name has been applied to a kind 
of troch, composed of expectorants, and having 
the shape of a stick. Also, a suppository. Bacil- 
lum was used by the ancient chemists for several 
instruments of iron. 



BACOVE, Musa sapientum. 


BACULUS, Bacillum. 

is a town six miles from Vienna. Here are 12 
springs, containing carbonates of lime and mag- 
nesia; sulphates of lime, and magnesia, and 
soda; and chlorides of sodium and aluminum. 
The water is used in diseases of the skin, rheu- 
matism, <tc. There are two other towns of the 
same name ; one in Suabia, and the other in 
Switzerland, about 12 miles from Zurich, where 
are mineral springs. The waters of the last two 
are thermal sulphureous. 

Celebrated thermal springs, situate about a league 
from the high road to Basle and Frankfort. Their 
temperature varies from 130° to 151° Fahrenheit. 

BADER, Bather. 

BADIAGA. A kind of sponge, sold in Russia, 
the powder of which is said to take away the livid 

marks from blows and bruises in a few hours. 
Its nature is not understood. 

BADIANE, Illicium anisatum. 

BADISIS, Walking. 

BADUKKA, Capparis badukka. 

BAG, DUSTING, see Dusting-bag. 

BAGEDIA, Pound. 

OF. Bagneres-Adour is a small town in the 
department of Hautes Pyrenees, having a great 
number of mineral springs ; some, cold chaly- 
beates; others, thermal salines; but the greatest 
part sulphureous and warm. 

BAGNERES DU LUCHON is a small town 
in the department of Haute Garonne, on the 
frontiers of Spain. It has been for a long time 
famous for its numerous sulphureous springs, 
the temperature of which is from 69° to ]-18° of 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A saline mineral 
spring in London, resembling the Epsom. 

BAGNIO, Baianoire. 

Bagnoles is a village in the department of Orne. 
The water resembles that of Baguercs de Luchon. 

nols is a village, two leagues from Mende, in the 
department of Lozere. The waters are hydro- 
sulphurous and thermal: 109° Fahrenheit. 

BAG AS, Castratus. 

BAGUENAUDTER, Colutea arborescens. 

climate of the Bahamas is not considered to be 
well adapted for consumptive patients, on ac- 
count of the rapid alternations of temperature, 
and the prevalence of winds, often of a dry, cold 
character. Still, the phthisical valetudinarians 
from most portions of the United States might 
derive advantage from a residence there during 
the winter months. The accommodations are 
not, however, good, or numerous. 

BAHEL, Colum'nca longifo'lia. A labiated 
plant of Malabar, whose leaves, bruised, are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to suppurating tumours. 

Bahel Schulli, Genista spinosa Indica. 

BAIGNEUR, Bather. 

BAIGNOIRE (F.), Baptiste'rium, a Bathing 
tub, Bagnio, So'lium, Pisci'na. The vessel or 
place in which bathing is performed. Baignoire 
oculaire, an eye-bath, — a small vessel for bathing 
the eyes. 


BAILLON, Speculum oris. 

BAIN, Bath — b. Ohaud, Bath, hot— b. Flee 
trique, Bath, electric, see Electricity — b. Entier, 
Bath, general — b. de Fauteuil, Bath, hip — b. 
Frais, Bath, tepid— J. Froid, Bath, cold — b. Ma- 
rie, Bath, water— 6. Medicinal, Bath, medicated 
— 6. de Pied, Bath, foot, Pediluvium — b. de Sa- 
ble, Bath, sand — b. de SiZge, Bath, hip — b. Tern- 
peri, Bath, tepid, B. Temperate — b. de Tete, 




arc situate at Plombieres, department of the 
V*8ges. They are said to be saliue and thermal 
by some; others deuy them any medical pro- 

BALAMPULLI, Tamarindus. 


BAL'ANGEMBNT, Oompewa'tfon, from (F.) 
balance, 'a balance/ itself from bis, 'twice,' and 
lanx, ' a dish.' A law of teratogeny, as main- 
tained by Geoffroy St. Hilaire, by which exube- 
rance of nutrition in one organ is supposed to 
involve, to a greater or less extent, the total or 
partial atrophy of some other, — and conversely. 

B A LAND A, Fagus Sylvatica. 


BALANISMUS, Suppository. 

BALANITIS, Gonorrhoea spuria. 


BALANOCASTANUM, Bunium Bulbocasta- 

BALANORRIKEA, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BA'LANUS, [iaXavos, 'glans,' 'an acorn.' The 
glans penis. Hence, Balanoblennorrhai'a, Blen- 
norrhcea of the glans; and Balani'tis, Inflamma- 
tion of the glans. Suppositories and pessaries 
were called Bal'ani. 

Balanos Phcenicos, Date. 

Balancs, Glaus, Suppository — b. Myrepsica, 
Guilandina moringa. 

laruc is a town in the department of Herault, 
in France. The waters are saline and thermal. 
They contain carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, chlorides of sodium, cal- 
cium, and magnesium, sulphate of lime, and a 
little iron. They are considered tonic, and are 
largely used. Their temperature is about 118° 

Balaruc Water, Factit"ious, (F.) Eau de 
Balaruc ; Aqua Belliluca' na is made of simple 
acidulous water (containing twice its bulk of car- 
bonic acid) f^xxss; chloride of sodium, Qss; 
chloride of calcium, gr. xviij ; chloride of mag- 
nesium, gr. lvi; carbonate of magnesia, gr. j. 

BALATRO, Bambalio. 

BALAUSTINE FLOWERS, see Puniea gra- 

BALBIS, (Sa\0i;, 'a foundation.' Any oblong 
cavity. — Galen. Hippocrates, in his treatise on 
the joints, gives the name Balbito'des to the ole- 
cranon cavity of the humerus. 

BALBUS, (F.) Begue. One habitually affected 
with stammering. A stammerer. 

BALBTJ'TIES, Psellis'mns, Psel'lotes, Blm'- 
titas, Baryglos'sia, Dysla'lia, Mogila'lia, Ischo- 
pho'nia, Battaris'mus, Bamba'lia, Heesita'tio, 
Loque'la blm'sa, (F.) Balbutiement, Begaiement. 
Stammering, St. Vitus's Dance of the Voice. 
Also, vicious and incomplete pronunciation, in 
which almost all the consonants are replaced by 
the letters B and L ; Traulis'mus. 

BALCHUS, Bdellium. 

BALD, Athrix. 

BALDMONEY, ^Ithusa meum. 

BALDNESS, Alopecia, Calvities— b. Limited, 
Porrigo decalvans — b. Partial, Porrigo decalvans. 

BALENAS, Leviathan penis. 

BALIMBAGO, Hibiscus populeus. 


B ALINE UM, Bath. 

BALL. Pila. 


BALLISTA, Astragalus. 

BALLON, Receiver. 

BALLONNEMENT, Tympanites. 

BALLO'TA Fffi'TLDA, B. vulya'ria 3<ju nigra, 

Marru'bium nigrum, Black Horeliound, Stinking 
H., (F.) Marrube noir. This plant is esteemed 
to be antispasmodic, resolvent, and detersive. (?) 

Ballot A Lana'ta, Leonu'rus lana'tus. A 
plant of the Nat. Family, Labiatse, Sex. Syst. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia, which grows in Si- 
beria. The whole plant, with the exception of 
the root, has been recommended in dropsy, and 
in rheumatism and gout, as a diuretic. It is 
usually given in decoction (5ss to ^j to f^viij 
of water.) 

BALLOTTEMENT, (F.) Agita'tion, Succus'- 
sion, Mouvement de Ballottement, ltcpercus'sion, 
means the motion impressed on the foetus in 
utero, by alternately pressing the uterus by 
means of the index finger of one hand introduced 
into the vagina; the other hand being applied 
on the abdomen. It is one of the least equivocal 
signs of pregnancy. 

BALLSTON SPA. This village is situate in 
Saratoga County, New York. The spring Sans 
Souci belongs to the class of Acidulous Chaly- 
beates. It contains iodide of sodium. There is 
also a sulphur spring. 

BALM, Melissa — b. Apple, Momordica bal- 
samina — b. Bastard, Melitis Melissophyllum — b. 
of Gilead, Solomon's, see Tinctura cardamomi — 
b. of Gilead, Poplar, Populus candicans — b. of 
Gilead tree, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. In- 
dian, Trillium latifolium — b. Mountain, Monarda 
coccinea — b. Red, Monarda coccinea — b. Stink- 
ing, Hedeoma. 

BALMONY, Chelone glabra. 

BALNEA C(ENOSA, Bone des eaux. 

BALNEARIUM, Hypocaustum. 



BALNEOG'RAPHY, Balncograph'ia, from 
Pa\avuov, 'a bath,' and ypa<prj, 'a description.' 
A description of baths. 

BALNEOL'OQY, Balneolog" 'ia, from /5aAa- 
vciov, 'a bath,' and \oyos, 'a description.' A 
treatise on baths. 

BALNE OTHER API'A, from fiaXavuov, 'a 
bath,' and Btpairua, 'treatment.' Treatment of 
disease by baths. 

BALNEUM, Bath — b. Acidum, Bath, acid — 
b. Alkalinum, Bath, alkaline — b. Aniinale, Bath, 
animal — b. Antipsoricum, Bath, antipsoric — b. 
Anti-syphiliticum, Bath, antisyphilitic — b. Are- 
na?, Bath, sand — b. Gelatinosum, Bath, gelatinouj 
— b. Mariaa, Bath, water — b. Medicatum, Bath, 
medicated — b. Sulphuris, Bath, sulphur. 

BALSAM, Bal'samum, Bol'eson, Bel'eson, (F.) 
Baume. This name is given to natural vegetable 
substances, concrete or liquid, but very odorous, 
bitter, and piquant : composed of resin, benzoic 
acid, and sometimes of an essential oil; — which 
allow benzoic acid to be disengaged by the action 
of heat; readily dissolved in volatile oil, alcohol, 
and ether; and, when treated with alkalies, afford 
a soluble benzoate, and throw down resin. We 
know of only five balsams : — those of Peru, and 
Tolu, Benzoin, solid Styrax or Storax, and liquid 
Styrax. (See those different words.) There are, 
however, many pharmaceutical preparations and 
resinous substances, possessed of a balsamic 
smell, to which the name balsam has been given; 
but they differ essentially in composition and 
properties: hence the distinction of balsams into 
natural and artificial. The natural balsams in 
elude the five before mentioned; tho artificial 
the remainder. 

Balsam, Acous'tic, Bal'samum Acons'ticitm, 
(F.) Baume acoustique. A mixture of fixed and 
essential oils, sulphur, and tinctures of f"tid 
gums. Used in cases of atonic deafness, dropp.-d 
into the ear. The acoustic balsam of Dr. Hugh 




Bath, bead— 6. Tilde, Bath, tepid— b. Tre~s froid, 
Bath, cold — b. de Vapeur, Bath, vapour. 
Smith is made by mixing three drachms of ox- 
gall with one drachm of balsam of Peru. 

Balsam, American, see Myroxylon Peruiferum 
— b. Anodyne, Bates's Liuimentum saponis et 

Balsam, Apotlec'tic, Bal'samum, Apoplec'- 
ticum, (F.) Baume apopleetiqtte. A medicine 
composed of several balsam* properly so called, 
resins, and volatile oils. It is of a stiff consist- 
ence, is worn in ivory boxes about the person, 
and is smelled at in headachs, &c. 

Balsam Apple, Moniordica balsamina. 

Balsam op Arcce'us, Bal'samum Arceei, TJn- 
guen'tum El'emi, (F.) Baume d'Areoeus. A soft 
ointment; sometimes employed in wounds, ul- 
cers, &c. It is made by melting, with a gentle 
heat, two parts of mutton suet, one of lard, one 
and a half of turpentine, and as much resin. 

Balsam, Canada, see Pinus balsainea — b. Ca- 
nary, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. Capivi, 

Balsam of Carpa'thia, Bal'samum Oarpath'- 
icum, (F.) Baume de Carpathie. The resin of 
the Pinus Ccmbra, a tree, which grows in Swit- 
zerland, Libya, and the Krapac mountains in 

Balsam, Chalyb'eate, Bal'samum Chalybea'- 
tum, (F.) Baume d'acier ou d'aiguillee. A mix- 
ture of nitrate of iron, alcohol, and oil, prepared 
by dissolving needles in nitric acid. It was for- 
merly employed in frictions in pains of the joints. 

Balsam, Commander's, Tinetura benzoini eom- 
posita — b. for Cuts, Tinetura benzoini composita. 

Balsam, Cordial, of Senner'tus, Bal'samum 
Cordia'le Senner'ti, (F.) Baume cordiale de Sen- 
nert. A stimulant medicine, composed of the 
essential oils of citron, cloves, and cinnamon, of 
musk, and ambergris. Dose, 6 to 15 drops. 

Balsam of Fierabras. A celebrated Spanish 
vulnerary balsam, mentioned by Cervantes ; the 
composition of which was oil, rosemary, salt and 
wine. (?) 

Balsam, Spir'ituous, of Fioraventi, Bal'- 
samum Fioraven'ti spirituo' sum, (F.) Baume de 
Fioraventi spiritueicx. Different products of the 
distillation of resinous and balsamic substances, 
and of a number of aromatic substances, pre- 
viously macerated in alcohol, have been thus 
called. The Spirituous Balsam of Fioraventi, 
the only one now used in friction, in chronic 
rheumatism, is the first product of the distillation 
from a sand-bath. It is entirely alcoholic. The 
Oily Balsam of Fioraventi is obtained by re- 
moving the residue, and distilling it in an iron 
vessel, at a white heat. It has the appearance 
of a citrine-coloured oil. The Black Balsam of 
Fioraventi is the black oil, obtained when the 
temperature is sufficient to carbonize the sub- 
stances in the cucurbit. 

Balsam of Fir, see Pinus balsamea. 

Balsam of Fouhcroy or of Laborde, (F.) 
Baume de Fourcroy ou de Laborde. A kind of 
liniment composed of aromatic plants, balsams, 
resins, aloes, turpentine, theriac, and olive oil. 
Used in chaps of the skin and nipples. 

Balsam, Friar's, Tinetura benzoini composita. 

Balsam of Genevieve, (F.) Baume de Gene- 
vieve. An ointment composed of wax, turpen- 
tine, oil, red saunders, and camphor. Used in 
contused wounds, gangrene, <fcc. 

Balsam cf Honey (Hill's.) A tincture made 
of tola, honey (aa Ibj) and spirit, (a gallon.) A 
pectoral, used in coughs. The committee of the 
New York College of Pharmacy recommend the 
following formula: — (Gum. Benzoin. %v, Bah. 
Tolut. %}, Mellis ^viij, Alcohol. Oiij — digest for 
10 days and filter.) See Mel. 

Balsam of IIorehound (Ford's.) A tinetura 
of horehound, liquorice-root, cotnphor, opium, 
benzoin, dried squills, oil of aniseed, and honey. 
It has the same properties as the above. See 

Balsam, Hungarian, see Pinus mughos. 

Balsam, Hypnot'ic, Bal'samum JJypnot'icum, 
(F.) Baume Hypnotique. A preparation of which 
opium, hyoscyamus, camphor, and some other 
sedative substances form the basis. It is used 
externally in friction, to provoke sleep. 

Balsam, Hyster'ic, Bal'samum Hyster'icum, 
(F.) Baume Ilysterique. A preparation made of 
opium, aloes, asafoetida, castor, distilled oils of 
rue, amber, &c. It is held to the nose, applied 
to the navel, or rubbed on the hypogastrium in 
hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian, see Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Balsam of Leictoure of Condom or Vince- 
guere, Bal'samum Levtoren'se. A strongly sti- 
mulant and aromatic mixture of camphor, saffron, 
musk, and ambergris, dissolved in essential oils. 
The ancients burnt it for the purpose of purifying 
the air of a chamber, when infected with a disa- 
greeable odour. 

Balsam of Life of Hoff'man, Bal'samum 
Vita Hoffman'ni, (F.) Baume de Vie d'Hoffman. 
A tincture, composed of essential oils and amber- 
gris, employed internally and externally as a 
stimulant. A mixture of essential oils without 
alcohol constitutes the Saxon Balsam, Bal'samum 
apoplec'ticum, B. aromat'icum, B. cephal'icum, B. 
Saxon'icwn, B. nervi'num, B. Scherzeri, B. Sto- 
mach'icum. Employed in friction as a stimulant. 

Balsam of Life, Decoctum aloes compositum 
— b. of Life, Turlington's, see Tinetura benzoini 

Balsam of Locatel'li or Lucatel'li, Bal'- 
samum Lucatel'li, (F.) Baume de Lucatel. A sort 
of ointment, composed of wax, oil, turpentine, 
sherry, and balsam of Peru, coloured with red 
saunders. It was once administered in pulmo- 
nary consumption. 

Balsam of Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Mexican, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. 
Natural, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam, Green, of Metz, Bal'samum Vir'ide 
Meten'sium, Bal'samum Vir'ide, (F.) Baume vert 
de Metz, Baume de Feuillet, Huile verte, O'leum 
ox'ydi cupri vir'ide. This is composed of several 
fixed oils, holding, in solution, subcarbonate of 
copper, sulphate of zinc, turpentine, aloes, and 
the essential oils of cloves and juniper. It is 
green and caustic, and is employed to hasten the 
cicatrization of atonic ulcers, 

Balsam, Nepiirit'ic, of Fuller, Bal'samum 
Nephret'icum Fulleri. A liquid medicine, com- 
posed of oils, resins, and balsams, which have 
experienced an incipient state of carbonization 
from concentrated sulphuric acid. It was given 
in the dose of 15 to 30 drops in certain affections 
of the kidneys. 

Balsaai, Nervous, Bal'samum Nervi'num, 
(F.) Baume nervin ou nerval. A kind of ointment, 
composed of fatty bodies, volatile oils, balsam of 
Peru, camphor, &c. It is employed in friction 
in cases of sprains and rheumatic pains. 

Balsam, Paralyt'ic, of Mynsicht. A sort 
of liniment or soft mixture of the essential oils 
of different aromatic plants, oils of turpentine 
and amber. — Lemery. 

Balsam of Parei'ra braya, Bal'samum Pa- 
rei'ra braves. A soft mixture of balsam, resin, 
muriate of ammonia, and powder of the root of 
Pareira brava. It is given internally, to excite 
the urinary secretion. 

Balsam, Peruvian, see Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum — b. of Peru, red, see Toluifera balsamum — 
b. of Peru, white, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 



Balsam of Rackasi'ra or of Rakasi'ri. This 
substance is of a yellowish-brown colour ; semi- 
transparent ; fragile, when dry, but softening by 
heat ; adhering to the teeth, when chewed. It 
has a smell similar to that of the Balsam of Tolu, 
and is slightly bitter. It is brought from India 
in gourd shells, and has been employed in dis- 
eases of the urinary and genital organs, especially 
in gonorrhoea, 

Balsa^ Riga. Prepared from the shoots of 
the Scotch Fir, macerated in spirit of wine. In- 
ternally, stimulant and diuretic; externally, a 
vulnerary. See Pinus Cembra. 

Balsam of Saturn, Bal'samum Satur'ni. A 
solution of acetate of lead in spirit of turpentine, 
concentrated by evaporation ; to which camphor 
has been added. This balsam was applied to 
hasten the cicatrization of wounds. 

Balsam of the Samar'itan, (F.) Baume du 
Samaritain. A sort of liniment, prepared by 
boiling together, at a gentle heat, equal parts of 
wine and oil. It is said to have been the oint- 
ment used by the Samaritan of the Gospel to 
cure a patient covered with ulcers. 

Balsam, Saxon, Balsam of Life of Hoffmann. 
Balsam of Sulphur, Bal'samum Sul'phuris, 
(F.) Baume de Sou/re. A solution of sulphur in 
oil. — ft. sulph. anisa'tum, (F.) B. de Sou/re anise. 
A solution of sulphur in essential oil of aniseed ; 
given as a carminative. — B. Sulph. succina'tum, 
(F.) B. de Soufre succine. A solution of sulphur 
in oil of amber. — B. Sulphuris terebinthina'tum, 
Common Dutch Drops, (F.) B. de soufre tirSbin- 
tkine. A solution of sulphur in essential oil of 
turpentine, administered as a diuretic. — The Bal- 
sam of Sulphur of Ruland is a solution of sulphur 
in linseed oil or nut oil. 

Balsam of Sym'pathy, Balsamum Sympath'- 
iciuii. (F.) Baume de Sympathie. A balsam, used 
in the days when sympathetic influence was 
strongly believed in. It was composed of the 
raspings of a human skull, blood, and human fat, 
and was applied to the instrument which had 
inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Thibaut's. A tincture of myrrh, 
aloes, dragon's blood, flowers of St. John's wort, 
and Chio turpentine. Internally, diuretic; exter- 
nally, vulnerary. 

Balsam of Tolu, see Toluifera Balsamum. 
Balsam, Tranquil, Bal'samum tranquil' lum 
seu tranquil' lans, (F.) B. tranquille. A liquid 
medicine employed, externally, in the shape of 
friction : it is prepared by macerating and boil- 
ing, in olive oil, narcotic and poisonous plants, — 
belladonna, mandragora, hyoscyamus, &c. — and 
afterwards infusing, in the filtered decoction, 
different aromatic plants. It was employed as 
an anodyne. 

Balsam, Turkey, Dracocephalum Canariense. 
Balsam of Tur'pentine, Dutch Drops, Bal'- 
samum Terebin'thina. Obtained by distilling 
oil of turpentine in a glass retort, until a red 
balsam is left. It possesses the properties of the 

Balsam, Vervain's, Tinctura Bcnzoini com- 

Balsam, Vul'nerart, of Mindere'rus, Bal'- 
samum vulnera'rium Mindere'ri, (F.) B. vulni- 
raire de Minderer. A kind of liniment, com- 
posed of turpentine, resin elemi, oil of St. John's 
wort, and wax. Employed in friction, and as a 
dressing to wounds. 

Balsam Weed, Impatiens fulva — b. Wound, 
Tinctura Benzoini composita. 

Amyris Gileadensis — b. Myrrha, see Myrrha. 


BALSAMELiEON, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 
BALSAM'IC, Balsam' icus, from jiaXaaMov, 
'balsam.' Possessing the qualities of balsams. 
Balsamic odour: — a sweet, faint, and slightly 
nauseous smell. Balsamic substance: — one re- 
sembling the balsams in property. 

BALSAMIER ELEMIEEliE, Amyris elemi- 
f era — b. de la Meeque, Amyris opobalsamum. 
BALSAMINA, Momordica balsamina. 
BALSAMINE, Momordica balsamina. 
BALSAMITA F(EMINEA, Achillea ageratuni 
— b. Major, Tanacetum halsamita — b. Mas, Ta- 
nacetum balsamita. 

Balsami'ta Suav'eolens, B. odora'ta, B. ma- 
ris, Mentha Saracen'ica, M. Boma'na. Fam. 
Composite Corymbifera?. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia 
Polygamia superflua. A plant, common in the 
south of France, and cultivated in the gardens; 
where it bears the names J/enthecoq, Grand 
baume, Baume des Jardins. Its smell is strong 
and aromatic, and taste hot. It is used for the 
same purposes as tansey, i. e. as a stimulant, ver- 
mifuge, <fcc. 

Balsamita Suaveolens, Tanacetum balsa- 
mita — b. Vulgaris, Tanacetum balsamita. 

BALSAMUM, see Balsam, Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. iEgyptiacum, see Amyris opobalsamum 
b. Album, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. Alpini, 
Dracocephalum Canariense — b. Alpini, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Anodynum, Linimentum 
saponis et opii — b. Apoplecticum, Balsam of life 
of Hoffmann — b. Aromaticum, Balsam of life of 
Hoifmann — b. Asiaticum, see Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. Braziliense, Copaiba — b. Calaba, see 
Fagara octandra — b. Canadense, see Pinus bal- 
samea — b. Catholicum, Tinctura benzoini com- 
posita — b. Cephalicum, Balsam of life of Hoff- A 
mann — b. Copaibas, Copaiba — b. Genuinum anti- 
quorum, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Hyperici 
simplex, see Hypericum perforatum — b. Judai- 
cum, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Libani, see 
Pinus cembra — b. Maria?, see Fagara octandra. — 
b. e Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Mer- 
curiale, Unguentum hydrargyri nitratis — b. Ner- 
vinum, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. Opodel- 
doc, Linimentum saponis camphoratum — b. Oph- 
thalmicum rubrum, Unguentum hydrargyri ni- 
trico-oxydi — b. Persicum, Tinctura benzoini com- 
posita — b. Peruanum, see Myroxylon Peruiferum 
b. Saturninum, Unguentum plumbi superacetatis 
— b. Scherzeri, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. 
Stomachicum, Balsam of life of Hoffmann — b. 
Styracis, Styrax — b. Styracis benzoini, Benjamin 
b. Succini, see Succinum — b. Sulphuris Barba- 
dense, Petroleum sulphuratum — b. Sulphuris 
simplex, Oleum sulphuratum — b. Syriacum, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Tolutanum, see Tolu- 
if'ciii balsamum — b. Tranquillans seu Tranquil- 
lum, Balsam, tranquil — b. Traumatieum, Tinctura 
benzoini composita — b. Universale, Unguentum 
plumbi superacetatis — b. Viride, Balsam, green, 
of Metz ; see Fagara octandra. 

BALSAMUS PALUSTRIS, Mentha aquatica. 
BALSEM, Amyris opobalsamum. 
BAMBA, Bamboo. 
BAMBALIA, Balbuties. 

BAMBA'LIO, Bam'balo, Bala'tro, from {Sap.- 
fiaivui, 'I speak inarticulately.' One who stam- 
mers or lisps, or utters inarticulate sounds. Ac- 
cording to Krause, one who speaks as ii be had 
pap in his mouth, or as if the tongue were para- 

BAMBOO, (F.) Bambon, Bambu. Fam. Gra- 
minese. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogyni.«. The 
young shoots of Bambos arundina'cea, Arun'du 
bambos, Bambu' 8a arundina.'oea, and of Bum 6«a 
vcrticilla'ta, contain a saccharine pith, of which 




the people of both tho Indies are very fond. 
They are sometimes made into a pickle. 

Verticillata, Bamboo. 


BAMIX MOSCHATA, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BAMMA, from fiairno, 'I plunge,' 'a paint; a 
dye.' Anciently, liquids were so called, in which 
certain bodies were plunged, to moisten or soften 
them. In the case of tea, for instance, into which 
bread is dipped, the tea would be the bamma. 

BANANA, Musa sapientum. 

BANANIER, Musa sapientum. 

BANAUSIA, Charlatanry. 


BANCAL, (F.) One who has deformed legs. 
It includes the valgus, compemis, and varus, 
which see. 

BANCROCHE, (P.) A vulgar epithet for a 
rickety individual. 

BAND, PRIMITIVE, see Nerve Fibre. 

BAN'DAGE, Desma, Syndes'mus, Hypodes' 
mis, Hypodesma, Hypodes 1 mus, (the last three 
signify properly an under bandage.) A binder, 
from Sax. bindan, 'to bind.' This word, with 
the French, is generally used to express the me- 
thodical application of rollers, compresses, &c, 
Ban'daging, Syn'desis, to fix an apparatus upon 
any part, — corresponding to the words deliga'tio, 
fascia' tio, fascia' rum apjilica'tio, epid'esis. With 
us the noun is usually applied to the result of the 
application, or to the bandage itself; — a sense in 
which the French employ the word Bande. Blin- 
dages are simple or compound. The simple ban- 
dage is equal, if the turns are applied circularly 
above each other ; unequal, if the turns are not 
accurately applied upon each other. If each turn 
of the bandage be only covered one-third, it 
forms the doloire of the Freneh ; if the edges 
touch only slightly, it is the mousse; if the turns 
are very oblique and separated, it is the spiral 
or creeping, (F.) rampant; if folded upon each 
other, it is termed the reversed, (F.) renverse. 
By uniting various kinds of bandaging, we have 
the compound ; and these compound bandages 
have received various names expressive of their 
figure, or of the parts to which they are applied, 
as capistrum, spica, &c. Bandages are divided, 
also, as regards their uses, into uniting, dividing, 
retaining, expelling, compressing, &c. 

Bandage or Roller, Fas'cia, Tce'nia, Epi- 
des'mos, Vin'culum, the Bande of the French, is 
derived from (G.) bin den, 'to bind.' It may 
be made of linen, flannel, or other stuff capable 
of offering a certain resistance. The two extre- 
mities of a bandage are called tails, (F.) chefs, 
and the rolled part is termed its head, (F.) globe. 
If rolled at both extremities, it is called a double- 
headed roller or bandage, (F.) Bande & deux 

Bandage, Body, Manti'le, (F.) Bandage de 
Corps, is used for fixing dressings, &o., to the 
trunk. It is formed of a towel, napkin, or some 
large compress, folded three or four times; the 
extremities of which are fastened by pins. This 
is again fixed by means of the scapulary bandage, 
which is nothing more than an ordinary ban- 
dage, stitched to the anterior and middle part 
of the napkin, passing over the clavicles and 
behind the head, to be attached to the back part 
of the napkin. 

Bandage, Compressing, or Roller, Fascia 
aompressi'va seu convolu'ta, (F.) Bandage com- 
pressive ou roule, is the simple roller with one 
Lead; and is employed in cases of ulcers, varices, 
Ac, of the limbs. Whenever this roller is applied 
to the lower part of the limbs, it is carried up- 

wards by the doloire and reversed methods above 

BANDAGE DIVISIF, Dividing bandage — 
b. en Doloire, Doloire. 

Bandage, Eigiiteen-tailed, Fas'cia octod'- 
ecim capit'ibus, (F.) Bandage d dix /mil chefs. 
This bandage is made of a longitudinal portion 
of a common roller ; and with a sufficient num- 
ber of transverse pieces or tails, to cover as much 
of the part as is requisite. It is a flery useful 
bandage, inasmuch as it can be undono without 
disturbing the part. 

Bandage, Galen's, B. for the Poor, Fas'cia 
Oale'ni seu Pau'perum, (F.) Bandage de Calien 
ou des Pauvres, Ga'lea, is a kind of cucullus or 
hood, (F.) Oouvrechef divided into three parts 
on each side ; of which Galen has given a de- 
scription. See Cancer, Galeni. 

Bandage, Hernial, see Truss — b. Immo- 
vable, Apparatus, immovable. 

Bandage, In'guinal, Fas'cia inguina'lis. A 
bandage for keeping dressings applied to the 
groin. It consists of a cincture, to which is at- 
tached a triangular compress, adapted for cover- 
ing the groin. To the lower extremity of this, 
one or two bandages are attached, which pass 
under the thigh, and are fixed to the posterior 
part of the cincture. This bandage may be either 
simple or double. 

Other bandages will be found described under 
their various names. 

Bandage, Permanent, Apparatus, immovable 
— b. of the Poor, see Cancer Galeni; and Band- 
age, Galen's. 

Bandage of separate Strips, or B. of Scttl- 
te'tus, Fas'cia fasci'olissepara'tim dispos'itis seu 
Sculte'ti, (F.) Bandage d bandelettes separees ou 
de Scultet. This is formed of linen strips, each 
capable of surrounding once and a half the part 
to which they have to be applied, and placed 
upon each other, so as to cover successively one- 
third of their width. It is used chiefly for frac- 
tures, requiring frequent dressing. 

Bandage, Under, Hypodesmis — b. Unissant, 
Uniting bandage. 

BANDAGING, see Bandage— b. Doctrine of, 

BAN'DAGIST. One whose business it is to 
make bandages, and especially those for hernia. 

BANDE, Bandage. The word Bande, in 
anatomy, is used by the French for various nar- 
row, flat, and elongated expansions. Bande 
d'Heliodore, is a kind of bandage for supporting 
the mammae. 

BANDE A U, (F.) A kind of simple bandage, 
which consists of a piece of cloth, folded four 
times, and applied round the head. There is 
also the Bandeau ou Mouchoir en triangle or 
triangular bandage, a kind of couvrechef, made 
of a square piece of cloth, or of a handkerchief, 
folded diagonally, and applied round the head. 

BANDELETTE, (F.) Diminutive of Bande, 
Fasciola, Taniola, Vitta ; a narrow bandage, 
strip, or fillet. Also Taenia semicireularis. 

small strips, covered with a glutinous plaster. 
Vitta agglutinan'tes. See Agglutinant. 

of linen, notched on one edge, and covered, on 
one side, with ointment. They are applied to 
wounds to prevent the lint from sticking, and the 
laceration of tho cicatrix. 

nia semicireularis — b.^des Comes d'ammon, Corpus 
fimbriatum — 6. des Eminences pyriformes, Taenia 
semicireularis— 6. de I'Hippocampe, Corpora fim- 




BANDURA, Nepentha destillatoria. 

BANDY-LEGGED, Cnemoscoliosis. 

BANEBERRY, Acttca spicata. 

BANGUE, Bhang, Bangi or Beng, Sedhee, 
Subjce. Adanson believes this to be the Nepen- 
thes of the ancients. The largest leaves and cap- 
sules without the stalks of Uan'nabis In'dica, 
(F.) Chanvre Indien, Indian hemp, probably iden- 
tical with C. saliva. Family, Urticeoe. Sex. Syst. 
Dioecia Pentandiia. The leaves and flowers of 
Cannabis are narcotic and astringent. They are 
chewed and smoked. The seeds, mixed with 
opium, areca, and sugar, produce a kind of in- 
toxication, and are used for this purpose by the 
people of India. An alcoholic extract of the 
plant, Churrus, has been used in India, and since 
then in Europe and in this country as a narcotic, 
and anti-convulsive, in the dose of from half a 
grain to ten or more. It requires, however, great 
caution in its administration. The pure resin — 
Oannabine — is active in the dose of two-thirds of 
a. grain. 

The dried plant, which has flowered, and from 
which the resin has not been removed, called 
Gunjah or Ganjalt, Haschisch, Haschich, Hachisch 
or C'haschisch, of the Arabs, consists of the tops 
and tender parts only of the plant, collected im- 
mediately after inflorescence, and simply dried. 

BANIC'A, Pastinaca sativa. 

BANILAS, Vanilla. 

BANILLA, Vanilla. 

BANTLLOES, Vanilla. 

in Brazil and the Antilles, passes for a powerful 
sudorific, and an antidote to the poison of ser- 

nica — b. Speciosa, Costus. 

Bannieres is a village in Querey, diocess of Ca- 
hors, France. The waters are probably chaly- 
beate. They are celebrated in amenorrhcea, 
cachexia, jaundice, &c. 

BA'OBAB, Adanso'nia digita'ta, of Africa; 
Nat. Ord. Bombaceas ; one of the largest produc- 
tions of the vegetable kingdom. Its fruit is 
called, in the country, Pain de singe. The pulp 
is sourish, and agreeable to eat : and a refreshing 
drink is made from it, which is used in fevers. 
Prospero Alpini and Dr. L. Frank think that the 
Terra Lemnia was prepared, in Egypt, from the 
pulp. All the parts of the Baobab abound in 
mucilage. The bark has been given as a substi- 
tute for cinchona. 

BAPTLSIA LEUCANTHA, see Sophora tinc- 
toria — b. Tinctoria, Sophora tinctoria. 


BARAQUETTE, (F.) A name given by Ra- 
sous, physician at Nismes in France, to a catar- 
rhal epidcmy, which occurred there in 1761. See 

BARATHRON, Juniperus sabina. 


BARBA, Beard — b. Aaronis, Arum macnlatum 
— b. Caprae, Spiraea armaria — b. Ilirci, Tragopo- 
gon — b. Jovis, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BARBADOES, see West Indies — b. Leg, see 

BARBAREA, Erysimum Barbarea — b. Stricta, 
Erysimum Barbarea. 

BARBAROS'S^E PIL'ULjE, Barbaroa'ta'a 
Pills. An ancient composition of quicksilver, 
rhubarb, diagridium, musk, Ac. It was the first 
internal mercurial medicine, which obtained any 
real credit. 

BARBE, Beard — 1. de Bone, Tragopogon. 

BARBEAU, Cyanus segetum. 

of London, instituted by king Edward IV. The 
barbers were separated from the surgeons, by 18 
Geo. II., c. 15 ; and the latter were erected into 
a Royal College of Surgeons at the commencement 
of the present century. 

BARBERS, ARMY, see Bathers. 

These mineral waters are half a leagin from 
Nantes. They contain carbonic acid, chlorides 
of magnesium and sodium, sulphate of magnesia, 
carbonates of magnesia, lime, and iron. They 
are used as chalybeates. 

BARBERRY, Oxycantha Galeni — b. Ameri- 
can, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BARBIERS. A variety of paralysis chiefly 
prevalent in India; and by many considered to 
be the same as Beriberi. Beriberi is commonly 
an acute disease. Barbiers is generally chronic. 


BAR-BONE, Pubis, os. 

BAR BO TINE, Artemisia Santonica. 

BARBULA CAPRINA, Spirsea ulmaria. 



BARD AN A, Arctium lappa — b. Minor, Xan- 


Bareges is a village in the department of Halites 
Pyrenees, near which are several springs. They 
are sulphureous and thermal, the heat varying 
from 85° to 112° Fahrenheit, They contain 
chlorides of magnesium and sodium, sulphates 
of magnesia and lime, carbonate of lime, sul- 
phur, <fec. These springs have long enjoyed a 
high reputation, and are daily advised in cutane- 
ous and scrofulous affections, &c. 

Factitious Bareges Water, Aqua Baregi- 
nen'sis, (¥.) Eau de Bariges, is made by adding, 
hydrosulphuretted water, f^iVj to pure water, 
fzxvijss, carbonate of soda, gr. xvj, chloride of 
sodium, gr. ss. Bottle closely. 

BARGADA, Convolvulus pes capria\ 

BARGOU. An alimentary preparation formed 
of ground oats, boiled to a proper consistence 
with water. 


BARII CHLORIDUM, Baryta, muriate of— 
b. Iodidum, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

BARILLA, Soda— b. Alicant, Soda— b. Car- 
thagena, Soda — b. Turkey, Soda. 


BARIUM, Ba'rynm, Baryt'ium, Pluto'niwm, 
from fiapvs, 'heavy.' The metallic base of ba- 
ryta, so called from the great density of its com- 

Barium, Chloride of, Baryta, miniate of— 
b. Ghlornre de, Baryta, muriate of — b. Iodide of, 
Baryta, hydriodate of — b. Protoxide of, Baryta. 

BARK, Cinchona — b. Bitter, Pinekneya pu- 
bens — b. Calisaya, Cinchonae cordifolias cortex — 
b. Caribasan, Cinchonas Caribane cortex — b. Car- 
thagena, see Cinchona — b. Crown, Cinchonas 
lancifolias cortex — b. Elk, Magnolia glauca — b. 
Essential salt of, see Cinchona — b. Florida, 
Pinekneya pubens — b. Georgia, Pinekneya pu- 
bens — b. Gray, see Cinchona — b. Huanuco, see 
Cinchona — b. Indian, Magnolia glauca — b. Je- 
suit's, Cinchona — b. Loxa, Cinchona) lancifolise 
cortex — b. Pale, Cinchonae lancifolias cortex — b. 
Maracaybo, see Cinchona — b. Peruvian, Ciucho- 
na — b. Pitaya, Cinchonas Caribaeas cortex — b. 
Red, Cinchonae oblongifoliae cortex — b. Saint 
Lucia, Cinchonas Caribaeae cortex — b. Santa 
Martha, see Cinchona- -b. Silver, see Cinchona 
— b. Yellow, Cinchonae cordifoliau cortex. 





BARLEY, PEARL, see Hordeum— b. Scotch, 
Hordeum — b. Water, Deeoctuni hordei. 

BARM, Yest 

net is not far from London. The water is of a 
purging quality, like that of Epsom, and about 
half the strength. 

BAROMACROM'ETER, Padobaromacrom'- 
eter, Padom'eter, from |3«poj, 'weight,' pa/cpoc, 
'long,' and fitrpov, 'measure.' An instrument 
invented by Stein to indicate the length and 
weight of a new-born infant. 

BAROM'ETER, Baroscop'ium, Ba'roscope, 
from fiupos, 'weight,' and jizrpov, 'measure.' (F.) 
Barometre. An instrument which measures the 
weight of the air. A certain degree of density in 
this medium is necessary for health. When we 
ascend high mountains great inconvenience is 
experienced, owing to the diminished density. 
Changes of this character are indicated by the 
Barometer or weather-glass. 

BA'ROS, (iapos, 'heaviness.' Employed by the 
Greek physicians to designate the feeling of las- 
situde and heaviness observable in many diseases. 
— Hippocrates, Galen. 

BAROSCOPE, Barometer. 

BAROSMA CRENATA, Diosma crenata. 

BAROTES SALITUS, Baryta, muriate of. 

BARRAS, see Pinus sylvestris. 

is a small town, six leagues from Strasburg. 
The waters are thermal, and contain much iron, 
ealearoous salt, &c. They are diuretic and tonic. 

BARRE (F.) Barrure, Vara, 'a bar.' A pro- 
jection or prolongation of the symphysis pubis : 
— a deformity rendering delivery difficult. 

BARREE (F.) A term applied, in France, 
to a female whose pelvis has the deformity de- 
scribed under Barre. 

BARREES, (DENTS.) The molar teeth, 
when the roots are spread or tortuous, so that 
they cannot be extracted without being broken; 
or without a portion of the alveolar arch being 


BARRENNESS, Sterilitas. 

BARROS, Terra Portugallica. 

BARR URE, Barre. 

BARTON'S FRACTURE, see Fracture of the 
Radius, Barton's. 

BARYCOCCALON, Datura stramonium. 

BARYCOITA, Baryecoia. 

BARYECOI'A, Barycoi'ta, Bradyccoi'a, Pa- 
racusia obtu'sa, Disecoi'a, Dysecce'a, Audi'tus 
diffic" ilia, Obaudi'tio, Obaudi'tus, A. gravis, A. 
imminu'tv.8, Hypocopho'sis, Hypochyro'sis, (F.) 
Durete d' Oreille, from fiapv;, 'heavy,' and axon, 
' hearing.' Hardness of hearing, incomplete 
deafness. See Cophosis, and Deafness. 

BARYGLOSSIA, Balbuties, Baryphonia. 

BARYI HYDRAS IODATI, Baryta, hydrio- 
date of. 

BARYLALIA, Baryphonia. 

BARYOD'YNE, from ffapvs, 'heavy,' and o<W»?, 
'pain.' A dull, heavy pain. 

BARYPHO'NIA, Baryglos'sia, Baryla'lia, 
Loque'la impedi'ta, from ffapvs, 'heavy,' and tfiiovn, 
'voice.' Difficulty of voice or speech. 

BARYPICRON, Artemisia abrotanum. 

BAR1 SOMATIA, Polysarcia adiposa. 

BARYSOMATICA, Polysarcia adiposa. 

BARY'TA, from (iapvs, ' heavy,' Terra povde- 
ro'ea, Bary'tes, Protox'ide of Ba'rium, Heavy 
Earth, Ponderous Earth, (F.) Baryte, Barite, 
Terre pesante. This earth and its soluble salts 
are all highly corrosive poisons. It is never em- 

ployed in medicine in the pure state. When ex- 
ternally applied, it is caustic, like potassa and 

Bary'ta, Carbonate of, Baryta Car'bonas, 
(F.) Carbonate de Baryte, is only used officinally 
to obtain the muriate. 

Baryta, Hydhi'odate of, Baryta' Hydriodat, 
Baryta Uydriod 1 ica, Hydras Bdryi loda'ti, (in 
the dry state, — Iodide of Barium, Barii Toafi- 
dum, B. loda'tum,) has been given in scrofulous 
and similar morbid conditions. It may be admi- 
nistered internally in the dose of one eighth of a 
grain three or four times a day, and be applied 
externally to scrofulous swellings, in the form of 
ointment, (gr. iv to 3.) of lard.) 

Baryta Hydriodica, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

Baryta, Mu'riate or Hydrochlorate of, 
Bary'ta mu'rias, Chlo'ride of Ba'rium, Ba'rii 
Ghlo'ridum (Ph. U. S.), CJilo'ruret of Ba'rium, 
Terra pondero'sa sali'ta seu muria'ta, Sal wuri- 
at'icum barot'icum, Baro'tes sali'tus, (F.) Chlo- 
rure de barium, is the combination chiefly used. 
The Muriate of Baryta may be formed as follows : 
Baryt. Carbon, in frustulis, lbj, Acid. Muriat. 
f^xij, Aqua, Oiij. Mix the acid with the water, 
and gradually add the Carbonate of Baryta. To- 
ward the close of the effervescence, apply a gentle 
heat, and, when the action has ceased, filter the 
liquor, and boil it down so that crystals may form 
as it cools. Ph. U. S. 

It is given in the form of the Solu'tio Muria'tis 
Baryta, Liquor Barii Ohlo'ridi, Ph. U. S., Aqua 
baryta muria'tis, (F.) Solution de Muriate de 
Baryte, (llnriate of Baryta, one part; distilled 
water, three parts,) and is employed in scrofulous 
cases, worms, and cutaneous diseases. Exter- 
nally, to fungous ulcers and to specks on the 

Baryt^e Carbonas, Baryta (Carbonate) — b. 
Hydriodas, Baryta, hydriodate of — b. Murias, 
Baryta, muriate of. 

BAR YTE, Baryta — 6. Carbonate de, Baryta> 
carbonate of. 

BARYTHMIA, Melancholy. 

BARYTIUM, Barium. 

BARYUM, see Barium. 

B AS-FOND, see Urinary Bladder. 

BAS-LASSE, Stocking, laced. 

BAS VENTRE, Abdomen. 

BASAAL. The name of an Indian tree, the 
decoction of whose leaves, in water, with ginger, 
is used as a gargle in diseases of the fauces. The 
kernels of the fruit are vermifuge. 

BASANASTRA'G ALA, from fiacavos, 'torture,' 
and aarpayaXog, 'the astragalus.' Pain in the ankle 
joint ; gout in the foot. 

BASANIS'MOS, from (Saoavttyip, 'to explore. 
'A touch-stone.' Investigation or examination' 
— Hippocrates, Galen. 

BASE, Basis, from fiaivu, 'I proceed,' 'I rest,' 
'I support myself.' That which serves as a foun- 
dation or support. That which enters, as a prin- 
cipal matter, into a mixture or combination. In 
anatomy, it is employed in the former sense, as 
Base of the Cranium, Base of the Brain — Basis 
seu Pavimen'tum eere'bri; Base of a process, &c, 
Base of the heart — Basis vel eoro'na cordis. In 
the art of prescribing, Basis is the chief substance 
which enters into a compound formula. 


BASIATTO, Coition. 

BASIATOR, Orbicularis oris. 

BASIL, BUSH, Oeymum earyophyllatum — '0. 
Citron, Oeymum basilicum — b. Common, Ocy- 
mum basilicum — b. Small, Oeymum earyophylla- 
tum — b. Wild, Chenopodium vulgare — b. Wild, 




Cunila mariana — b. Wild, Pycnanthemum in- 

BASILAD, see Basilar Aspect 

BAS'ILAR, Basila'ris, Bas'ilary, (F.) Basi- 
laire. That which belongs to the base, from 
fiaaiq, 'base.' This name has been given to seve- 
ral parts, which seem to serve as basis to others. 
The sacrum and sphenoid have been hence so 

Basilar Artery, A. basila'ris, A. oervica'lis, 
(F.) Artere ou Trone basilaire, A. mesoctphalique 
(Ch.) The union of the two vertebral arteries. 
It ascends along the middle groove on the infe- 
rior surface of the tuber, and is supported, be- 
neath by the Fossa basilaris. It terminates in 
the posterior cerebral arteries. 

Basilar Aspect, An aspect towards the base 
of the head. — Barclay. Basilad is used adverbi- 
ally by the same writer to signify 'towards the 
basilar aspect.' 

Basilar Fossa, (F.) Gonttiere ou Fosse basi- 
laire, is the upper surface of the basilary process, 
— so called because it is channeled like a Fossa 
or Gutter. The Tuber annulare rests upon it. 

Basilar Process, Proccs'sus basila'ris ossis 
occip'itis, P. cuneifor'mis ossis occip'itis, (F.) 
Apophyse Basilaire, Prolong ement sous-occipital, 
Cu'iiuiform Process, is the bony projection, formed 
by the inferior angle of the os occipitis, which is 
articulated with the sphenoid. 

Basilar Sinus, Sinus transversus. 

Basilar Surface, (F.) Surface basilaire, is 
the inferior surface of the process. It is covered 
by the mucous membrane of the pharynx. 

Basilar Vertebra. The last vertebra of the 

BASIL'IC, Basil' icus, from jCWiAiko?, 'royal.' 
This name was given, by the ancients, to parts 
which they conceived to play an important part 
in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein, Vena basil'ica, V. cu'biti inte- 
rior, (F.) Veine Basilique, Veine cubitale cuta- 
nee of Chaussier. This vein is one of those on 
■which the operation of blood-letting is performed. 
It is situate at the internal part of the fold of the 
elbow, in front of the humeral artery, and is 
formed by the anterior and posterior cubital 
veins, and by the median basilic. It terminates, 
in the arm-pit, in the axillary vein. The an- 
cients thought, that the basilic of the right arm 
had some connexion with the liver, and hence 
they called it hepatic. The vein of the left arm, 
for a similar reason, they called splenic. The 
Median Basilic Vein, (F.) Veine mSdiane basi- 
lique, is one of the branches of the preceding 
vein. It joins the median cephalic at an acute 
angle, or rather by a transverse branch, and re- 
ceives some branches of the deep radial and cu- 
bital veins, and a considerable subcutaneous vein 
— the common median. 

BASILIC COMMUN, Ocymum basilicum— b. 
Sauvage, grand, Chenopodium vulgare. 

BASIL/ICON, Basil' icum. 'Royal,' or of 
great virtue. An ointment, composed of yellow 
wax, black pitch, and resin, of each one part, 
olive oil, four parts. Hence it was called Un- 
guen'tum Tetraphar'macum, (rerpatpapfjiaKa, 'four 
drugs.') — Celsus. Scribonius Largus. 

Basilicov, Basilicum, of the Parisian Codex, 
is the Ouguent de Poix et de Cire. In most Phar- 
macopoeias, it is represented by the Unguen'tum 
or C'era'tum Resi'nm. It is used as a stimulating 
ointment. See Ceratuin Resinse, and Unguen- 
tum Resinae Nigrae. 

BASILICUM, Basilicon, Ocymum Basilicum 
— b. Citratum, Ocymum basilicum — b. Majus, 
Ocvmum basilicum. 

BASILISCUS, Syphilis. 


'base,' Kcpas, ' cornu,' and yAwtrira, 'tongue.' A 
name given to a part of the hyoglossus, which is 
inserted into the cornu of the os hyoides and ba^ 
of the tongue. 

BASIOCES'TRUM, from Paois, ' the base,' 
and Ktarpa, ' a dart.' An instrument for opening 
the head of the foetus in utero, invented by Mes- 
ler, a German. 

BA'SIO-GLOS'SUS, Hypseloglos' svs, Hyoba- 
sioglossus, Ypseloglos'sus, from jiaais, 'base,' and 
y\«)aaa, ' the tongue.' A name formerly given to 
the portion of the hyoglossus which is inserted 
into the base of the os hyoides. — Riolan, Thomas 
Bartholine. See Lingual Muscle. 

BASIO PHARYNGiE'US, from facts, 'base,' 
and Qapvy!-, 'the pharynx.' A name given to 
some fibres of the constrictor pharyngis medius. 
— Winslow. 

BASIS, see Prescription — b. Cerebri, Base of 
the Brain — b. Cordis, Radix cordis — b. Corporis, 

BASSI-COL'ICA. Name of a medicine com- 
posed of aromatics and honey. — Scribonius 

BASSIA BUTYRACEA, see Spirit, (Arrack.) 

BASSIN, Pelvis — b. Oculaire, Scaphium ocu- 

BASSINER, to foment. 

BASSINET, Pelvis of the kidney, Ranunculus 

BAS'SORA, GUM. A gum, obtained from a 
plant unknown, which came originally from the 
neighbourhood of Bassora, on the Gulf of Per- 
sia, whence its name. It is in irregularly shaped 
pieces, white or yellow, and intermediate in its 
transparency between gum Arabic and gum tra- 
gacanth. Only a small portion is soluble in 
water. The insoluble portion is a peculiar prin- 
ciple, called Bassorin. It is not used in medi- 
cine ; but bassorin enters into the composition of 
several substances. 

BASSORIN, see Bassora gum. 


BATA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

BATABAS, Solanum tuberosum. 

BATA'TAS. The inhabitants of Peru gave 
this appellation to several tuberous roots, espe- 
cially to Convolvulus Batatas or Sweet Potato. 
Our word, Potato, comes from this. 

toral Drops, Bateman's. 

BATERION, Bathron. 

saponis et opii. 

BATH, Anglo-Saxon, ba8, Bal'neum, Bala- 
ne'um, Baline'um, Loutron, (F.) Bain. Immer- 
sion, or stay, for a longer or shorter duration, of 
the whole or a part of the body, in some medium, 
as water. Act of plunging into a liquid, sand, 
or other substance, in which it is the custom to 
bathe, Plunge Bath. Also, the vessel in which 
the water is put for bathing. Also, a public or 
private establishment for bathing. 

In Pharmacy, a vessel, placed over a fire, and 
filled with any substance, into which another 
vessel is placed, containing matters for digestion, 
evaporation, or distillation. 

Bath, Acid, Bal'neum uc"idum 'Acid, muriat. 
Ibij ; Afucp., cong. lxvi. One half, one third, or 
one fourth the quantity of acid is more frequently 

Bath, A cm, Scott's, see Scott's Acid Bath. 

Bath, Air, Hot, ;?ce Bath, hot— b. Air, warm, 

see Bath, hot. 

Bath, Al'kaline, Bal'ieum alkuli'num. Tnj# 




may be made of half a pound or a pound of pearl- 
ash or of carbonate of soda, to sixty-six gallons 
of water. 

Bath, An'imal, Balneum Auima'le, consists in 
wrapping an animal recently killed, or its skin, 
around the body, or sonic part of it. 

Bath, Axtipsor'ic, Bal'neum ant ipso' ricinn. 
Recommended in cases of itch and other cuta- 
neous diseases. (Potass, eulphuret. §iv, Aqua 
cong. Ix.) 

Bath, Antisyphtlit'ic. BaV neum antixyphilit'- 
icum, Mercu'rial bath. Made by dissolving from 
two drachms to an ounce of the corrosive chloride 
of mercury in sixty gallons of water. 

Bath, Arm, Brackilu'vium. A !>aih for the arm. 

Bath, Cold, see Bath, hot — b. Cool, see Bath, 

Bath, Dry, is one made of ashes, salt, sand, 
Ac. The ancients used these frequently for the- 
rapeutical purposes. 

Bath, Earth, Arenatio. 

Bath, Elec'tric, (F.) Bain flectn'que, consists 
in placing the person upon an insulated stool, 
communicating, by a metallic wire, with the 
principal conductor of the electrical machine in 
action. The Electric Bath produces genei-al ex- 
citement of all the functions, and especially of 
the circulation and secretions. 

Bath, Foot, Pediln'vium, (F.) Bain de Pied, 
a bath for the feet. 

Bath, Gelat'inous, Bal'neum gelatino'sum. 
Made by dissolving two pounds of gelatin in a 
gallon of water. 

Bath, General, (F.) Bain Entier, is one in 
which the whole body is plunged, except the 
head; in contradistinction to the partial bath, 
Merobalane' um, Merobal' neum. 

Bath, Half, Semicu'pium, Excathis'ma, In- 
ces'sio, Tnces'siis. is one adapted for half the body. 
One, for receiving only the hips or extremities, is 
also so called. 

The Sitz-bath, (G.) Sitzbad, of the hydropa- 
thists is a tub of cold water, in which the patient 
Bits for a variable period. 

Bath, Hand, Manulu'vium, (F.) Bain de Main 
ou Manuluve, is a bath for the hands. 

Bath, Head, Oapitilu'vium, (F.) Bain de Tete 
ou Oapitiluve, a bath for the head. 

Bath, Hip, Goxcelu'vium, (F.) Bain de Fav- 
teuil, Bain de Siege, is one in which the lower 
part of the trunk and upper part of the thighs 
are immersed. 

Bath, Hot, Balneum Cal'idnm, Zestolu'sia, 
(F.) Bain chaud, is a bath, the temperature of 
which is 93° and upwards; the Warm Bath 
from 92° to 98°; the Tepid Bath, (F.) Bain 
Tiede, Balneum tep'idum, from 85° to 92°; the 
Temperate Bath, (F.) Bain tempcre, from 75° 
to 85°; the Cool Bath, (F.) Bain /rats, from 
C0° to 75° ; the Cold Bath, Balneum frig'idum, 
Frigida' riutn, (F.) Bain froid, Bain tres froid, 
(of some,) from 30° to 60°; and the Vapour 
Bath, Balneum vapo'ris, (F.) Bain de Yapeur, 
JEtuve Humide, from 100° to 130°, and upwards. 
See Vaporarium. A Warm Air Bath, or Hot 
Air Bath, consists of air the temperature of 
which is raised. 

Bath, Med'icated, Balneum Medica'tum, (F.) 
Bain medicinal, is a bath, formed of decoctions 
or infusions of vegetable substances, or of any in- 
gredient, introduced into the water for therapeu- 
tical purposes. 

B&.TH, Mercurial, Bath, antisyphilitic — b. 
Nitro -muriatic acid, Scott's acid bath. 

Bath, Plunge, see Bath. 

Bath, Sand, Balneum Are'nm, (F.) Bain de 
Sable, consists of a vesse 1 tilled with sand, and 
placed over the fire into this vessel, the one is 

put which contains the substance to be evapo- 
rated. See Psammismus. 

Bath, Sea Water, Balneum Mar'ice, (F.) 
Bain Marie, consists of a vessel filled with boil- 
ing sea water, or salt water, in which the vessel 
is placed, that contains the substance to be eva- 
porated. Bain Marie is, however, at the present 
day often employed for any ft rno of watex bath. 

Bath, Shower, Implu'vium, is one in which 
the water is made to fall like a shower on the 
body. See Douche. 

Bath, Sitz, see Bath, half. 

Bath, Steam, may be formed by introducing 
steam into a properly closed vessel in place of 
water, as in the water bath. 

Bath, Succes'sicn, Transition bath. A term 
applied to the rapid succession or transition from 
a cold to a warm or hot bath, or conversely. — Hell. 

Bath, Sulphur, Bal'neum Sulph'uris. A bath 
much used in psora, and other chronic c-ataneous 
affections. It may be composed of two ounces 
of diluted sulphuric acid, and eight ounces of 
sulphuret of potassium added to each bath. 

Bath, Tan. An astringent bath, prepared, at 
times, by boiling two or three handfuls of ground 
oak-bark, — such as is used by tanners— in two 
or three quarts of water, for half an hour, and 
then adding the decoction to the water of the 

Bath, Temperate, see Bath, hot — b. Tepid, 
see Bath, hot. 

Bath, Transition, Bath, succession. 

Bath, Vapour, see Bath, hot, and Vapora- 
rium — b. AVarm, see Bath, hot. 

Bathing is much employed in the treatment of 
disease. The cold bath, especially the cold sea 
bath, is a sedative and indirect tonic : the warm 
bath a relaxant; and the hot bath a stimulant. 

The regular use of the bath is extremely con- 
ducive to health; but if too much indulged in, it 
is apt to produce injurious effects. 

Batho'nia: vel Bud'izas, Aquee Solis, Aqute Bad'~ 
igiia. Celebrated thermal springs at Bath, in 
England. They contain but little impregnation, 
and are chiefly indebted to their temperature, 
from 112° to 117° Fahrenheit, for their utility. 
The main ingredients are sulphate of lime, chlo- 
ride of sodium, sulphate of soda, carbonate of 
lime, protoxide of iron, free carbonic acid and 

These waters are employed in the most hete- 
rogeneous cases ; and are serviceable where the 
simple thermal springs are indicated, as in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, &c. 

BA'TIIER, same etymon; Balnea'rius, Bali. 
nea'tor, Balnea'tor, (F.) Baigneur. One who 
bathes. Anciently, the name was given to those 
that administered baths to the diseased, — the 
Etuvistes of the French. At the present day. in 
remote districts in Germany, the country people 
call their medical practitioners Bader, or 'bath- 
men,' and Feldscheeren, or 'army barbers.' 

BATHMIS, Bathmus, 'base, support.' The 
cavity of a bone, which receives the eminence of 
another; and especially the two 7-'.,™, it, e at the 
inferior extremity of the humerus into which the 
processes of the ulna are received, during the 
flexion and extension of the fore-arm. 

BATJIBON, Baihrum Hippoc'ratis, Scamnum 
Hippoc'ratis, Bate'rion, 'a step, a ladder.' (F.) 
Bancd'ffippoerate. An instrument, used for the 
extension of a limb, in cases of fracture or luxa- 
tion. The description of it is found in Galen, 
Oribasius, and Seultetus, with a figure 


BATTA, Retort. 





tisse is three leagues from Clermont, in France. 
The water is tepid, and contains subcarbouate 
and sulphate of soda, sulphates of lime and iron, 
muriate of magnesia, and carbonate of lime. 

BATOS, Rubus Idseus. 


BATTALISM'US, BattarU'mua, from (tarra- 
l-eiv. ' to stammer.' Balbuties. Stammering with 
incapacity to pronounce the R. 

BATT'ALUS, Bai'tarus, same etymon. A 
stammerer, a stutterer. 

BATTARISMUS, Battalismus. 

BATTARUS, Battalus. 

BATTATA VIRGINIANA, Solanum tubero- 

Cozur fvetal. 

BATTEMENT, Pulsation. 

Baudricourt is a town of France, two leagues 
and a half from Mirecourt. The waters are sul- 


BAUH1N, VALVE OF, Valve of Tul'pius, 
V. of Fallo'pius, V. of Varo'lics, E'eo-caecal 
Valve, Ileo-colic Valve, VaV ' vula llei, Val'vula 
Coli, V. Oveci, Oper'culum lie!, Sphincter llei. 
This name is given to the valve situate trans- 
versely at the place where the ileum opens into 
the ccecurn, and which Bauhin says he discovered 
at Paris, in 1759. It had, however, been pre- 
viously described by several anatomists ; as by 
Vidus Vidius, Postius, &c. 

BAUME, Balsam — b. d'Acier, Balsam, chaly- 
beate — b. Aromatique, Balsam, aromatic — b. d' Ai- 
guilles, Balsam, chalybeate — b. Apoplectique, Bal- 
sam, apoplectic — b. d'Arcceus, Arcseus, balsam of; 
see, also, Balsam of Arcseus — b. d'Arceus, Un- 
guentum elemi compositum— b. Benjoin, Benjamin 
b. Blanc, see Amyris Opobalsamum — b. du Bresil, 
Copaiba — b. de Canada, see Pinus balsaniea — b. 
de Oannelle, Laurus cinnamomum — 6. de Carpa- 
thie, Balsam of Carpathia — b. de Carthagene, see 
Toluifera balsamum — b. de Constantinople blanc, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. de Copahu, Copaiba 
— b. Cordiale de Senncrte, Balsam, cordial, of 
Sennertus — b. d'Eau a feuilles ridees, Mentha 
crispa — b. de Feuillet, Balsam, green, of Metz — 
b. de Fioraventi spiritueuse, Balsam, spirituous, 
of Fioraventi — b. de Fourcroy ou de Laborde, 
Balsam of Fourcroy or Laborde — b. de Gulaad, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. de Genevieve, Bal- 
sam of Genevieve — 6. Grand, Tanacetum bal- 
samita — b. du Grand Caire, see Amyris opobal- 
samum — 6. Hypnotique, Balsam, Hypnotic — b. 
Hysterique, Balsam, hysteric — b. des Jardins, 
Mentha viridis — b. de Lucatel, Balsam, Luca- 
telli's — b. Nervin, Balsam, nervous — b. de Perou, 
see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. du Samaritain, 
Balsam of the Samaritan — b. Saxon, Balsam, 
Saxon — 6. de Soufre, Balsam of sulfur — 6. 
de Sympathie, Balsam of sympathy — 6. Tran- 
quille, Balsam, tranquil — b. de Tolu, see Tolui- 
fera balsamum — b. de Vanille, Vanilla — b. Vert, 
see Fagara octandra — b. Vert de Metz, Balsam, 
green, of Metz — 6. de Vie d' Hoffmann, Balsam 
of Life, of Hoffmann — b. de Vie de Lelievre, Tinc- 
tura aloes eomposita — b. Vrai, see Amyris opo- 
balsamum — b. Vulneraire de Minderer, Balsam, 
vulnerary, of Mindererus. » 

BAURAC, (Arab.) Nitre, or salt in general. 
From this word comes Borax. 

is a village four leagues from Roye, department 
of Somme. The waters are strongly chalybeate. 

BAVE, (F.) Sali'va ex ore jtuens, Spuma, Hu- 
mor Sali'vus. Frothy, thick, viscid saliva, issu- 

ing from tho mouth. 

This drivelling or slaver- 

ing, we see in children, old people, &c. The term 
is, also, applied to the frothy liquid, which flows 
from the mouth of rabid animals. Sauvages uses 
it synonymously with salivation. 

BAY, CASTOR, Magnolia glauca — b. Rose, 
Rhododendron chrysanthemum — b. Rose, Ame- 
rican, Rhododendron maximum — b. Sweet, Lau- 
rus — b. White, Magnolia glauca and M. macro- 

BDALSIS, Sucking. 

BDELLA, Hirudo. 

BDEL'LIUM. Myrrha imperfecta, Bolchon, 
Madeleon, Balchus. A gum-resin, brought from 
the Levant and India, and supposed to be ob- 
tained from a species of Amyris, little known. 
It is solid, brittle, of a deep brown colour, of an 
acrid and bitter taste, and sweet odour. It was 
much vaunted by the ancients, but is now little 
employed. Two different gum-resins have been 
in the shops distinguished by the names Indian 
and African bdellium. Dr. Royle was informed 
that the former was obtained from Am'yris Com- 
miph'ora, growing in India and Madagascar. 
The latter is said to be from Heudelo'tia Afri- 
ca'na, which grows in Senegal. 

BDELLOM'ETER, from fihXXa, 'a leech,' and 
UtTpov, 'measure.' An instrument, proposed as 
a substitute for the leech ; inasmuch as we can 
tell the quantity of blood obtained by it, whilst 
we cannot by the leech. It consists of a cupping- 
glass, to which a scarificator and exhausting 
syringe are attached. 




BDESMA, Flatulence. 

BDOLUS, Fart. 

BEAD TREE, Melia Azedarach. 

BEAN, CARTHAGENA, Habilla de Cartha- 
gena — b. Egyptian, Nymphaja nelumbo — b. 
French, Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Garden, com- 
mon, Vicia faba — b. Indian, Catalpa — b. Kidney, 
Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Malacca, Avicennia to- 
mentosa — b. Pontic, Nymphaea nelumbo — b. 
Red, Abrus precatorius — b. Sacred, Nelumbium 
luteum — b. St. Ignatius's, Ignatia amara — b. 
Trefoil tree, see Cytisine. 

BEAN TREE, WHITE, Crataegus aria. 

BEARBERRY, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BEARD, Barba, Pogon, Genei'on, Barbi'tinm, 
(F.) Baibe. The hair which covers a part of the 
cheeks, the lips, and chin of the male sex, at the 
age of puberty. 

BEAR'S BREECH, Acanthus mollis— b. Foot, 
Helleborus foetidus — b. Fright, Heptallon gra- 
veolens — b. Whortleberry, Arbutus uva ursi. 

LEARWEED, Veratrum viride. 

BEASTINGS, Colostrum. 


Beaugency is a quarter of a league from Orleans. 
The waters contain subcarbonate of soda, iron, 
magnesia, and lime. They are tonic and ape- 

BEAUMONT ROOT, Gillenia trifoliata. 

These waters are chalybeate. Beauvais is in 
Picardie, France. 

BEAVER, Castor fiber — b. Wood, Magnolia 
glauca — b. Tree, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BEBEERIA, see Bebeeru. 

BEBEERINE, see Bebeeru. 

BEBEERU, Sipeeri. A tree of British Gui- 
ana, which yields two alkalies — Bcbcerin, Bebee- 
ri'na, Bebee'ria, and Sipeerine ; and in its pro- 
perties resembles the Cinchona. It hay been re- 
ferred to Nectan'dra Jiodiei. The timber of the 
tree is known to ship-builders by the name gret» 




heart. The Snlpliate of Bebeeria has been em- 
ployed in intermittent*. Warburg's Fever Drops, 
Tiiutu'ra antifebri'lis Warbw'gi, an empirical 
antiperiodic preparation, have by some been con- 
sidered to be a tincture of the seeds of the Be- 
beeru, but this is questionable. 

BEG, (F.) Rostrum, Beak. This name has 
been applied to various parts. 

BEC CORACOlDfEX, (F.) Cor'acoid beak, 
is the end of the coracoid process. 

BEC BE CUILLER, Ham'ulus. An instru- 
ment used for the extraction of balls. It consists 
of an iron rod, 7 or S inches long, having at one 
extremity a small cavity, into which the ball is 
received to be drawn outwards. See Cochleari- 

BEC BE GRUE MUSQUE, Geranium Mos- 
chatum — b. de Grue Robertin, Geranium Roberti- 
anum — b. de Lievre, Harelip. 

Beak of the Calamus Scripto'rius, is a small cavity 
at the superior part of the medulla oblongata, 
■which forms part of the 4th ventricle. 

is six leagues from Rouen, in Normandy. The 
water is strongly chalybeate. 

BECCABUNGA, Veronica Beccabungi. 

BECHiESTHE'SIS, from /?>;£, 'cough,' and 
aiaBnaii, ' sensation.' The excitement or desire 
to cough. 

BE CHI A, Tussis. 

BECHIAS, Tussis. 

BE'CHICS, Be'chica, Beelia, Bec'chica, Be'- 
chita, from 0ijf, 'cough,' (F.) Bechiques. Medi- 
cines adapted for allaying cough. 

BECHITA, Bechic. 

BECHIUM. Tussilaeo. 


BECUIBA, Ibicuiba. 

BED'EGAR, Bedeguar, Bcdcgnard, Spon'gia 
Cynos'bati, Fungus Rosa' rum, F. Cynos'bati, (F.) 
Pomrue mousscuse, Eponge d'eglantier. An ex- 
crescence, which makes its appearance on dif- 
ferent species of wild roses, and which is pro- 
duced by the puncture of a small insect, — Cy- 
nips Rosa. It was formerly employed as a 
lithontriptic and vermifuge, but is not now used. 
It was slightly astringent. 

ford is a village, situate on the great Western 
Turnpike road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, a 
few miles east of the chief elevation of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. There are various* springs, 
saline, chalybeate and sulphureous. — The most 
celebrated contains carbonic acid, sulphate of 
magnesia, chlorides of sodium and calcium, and 
carbonate of iron. 

BED ST RAW, Galium verum — b. Ladies, 
greater, Galium mollugo, Galium verum — b. 
Rough, Galium asprellum — b. Ladies, rough, 
Galium asprellum. 

BEE, Sax. beo. Apis, A. meUif'ica seu domest'ica, 
Mclh'sa, Melitta, (F.) Abeille. This insect was 
formerly exhibited, when dried and powdered, as 
a diuretic. 

Bee in the Bonnet, see Insanity. 

BEEBREAD, Propolis. 

BEECH, Fagus sylvatica — b. Drop, Orobanche 
Virginiana — b. Drops, false, Hypopitys lanugi- 
nosa — b. Albany, Pterospora Androinedea — b. 
Mast, see Fagus sylvatica. 

BEEF ESSENCE, see Beef tea. 

Beef Tf.«., Jus bovi'num. An infusion of beef, 
much u«ed in debilitating maladies, and in con- 
raL'scence. It may be made as follows : Take 
two pounds and a half of lean beef; cut it in 
small pieces into three parts of water in an earthen 
pipkin : let this simmer, but never boil, until the 

liquor is consumed to a pint and a half: then 
strain carefully. It ought to be entirely free 
from fat or grease. — Dr. E. J. Seymour. 

Essence of beef — as it has been called — maybe 
made by putting a pound of good beef, freed from 
fat, and cut into small pieces, into a porter-bottle, 
corking lightly. The bottle must be put into 
boiling water, and kept there until the water has 
been boiling at least half an hour. As the boiling 
goes on, the cork may be inserted a little more 
tightly, to retain the contents of the bottle. The 
juices of the beef are thus separated, and consti- 
tute the 'essence,' which may be seasoned to the 
taste. It contains much nutriment. 

BEEN, Centaurea behen. 

BEER, Cerevisia — b. Black, see Falltranck — 
b. Pipsissewa, see Pyrola umbellata. 

BEET, Beta. 

BEGAIEMENT, Balbuties. 

BEGMA, — according to some, Bregma, — from 
Pnaauv or (iprjaativ, 'to expectorate after cough- 
ing.' Coughing; also, the sputum or expectorated 
matter. — Hippocrates. 

BEGO'NIA. The Begonia grandiflo'ra and 
B. tomc.nto'sa have astringent roots, which are 
used in Peru in cases of hemorrhage, scurvy, low 
fevers, &c. 

BEGUE, Bulbus. 

BEHEN ABIAD, Centaurea behen — b. Al- 
bum, Centaurea behen — b. Officinarum, Cucu- 
balus behen ■ — b. Rouge, Statice limonium — 6. 
Vulgaris, Cucubalus behen. 

BE 11 MEN ACKMAR, Statice limonium. 

BEIAHALALEN, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BEIDELSAR, Asclepias procera. 

BE.TUTO, Habilla de Carthagena. 

BELA-AYE or BE-LAHE. A tonic and 
astringent bark of a Madagascar tree. Du-petit- 
Thouars and Sonnerat think it may be substi- 
tuted for the Simarouba. 

BELADAMBOC. A species of convolvulus of 
the Malabar coast, which contains an acrid milky 
juice. From this a liniment is formed with oil 
and ginger, which is used against the bites of 
rabid animals. 

BE-LAHE, Bela-aye. 

BELA-MODAGAM. A kind of Scarola of 
the Malabar coast, the leaves of which are con- 
sidered diuretic and emmenagogue. 

BELANBRE, (F.) A litter, surrounded with 
curtains, in which patients are sometimes carried 
to hospitals. 

BELCHING, Eructation. 

BELEMNOID, Belenoid. 


or BEL'OID, BelcnoV des or Belemno'i'des Pro- 
cessus, from /ScXof, 'an arrow,' and tttos, 'shape.' 
This name has been given to styloid processes 
in general — Processus belenoV des. 

BKLESME, see Bellesme. 

BELESON, Balsam, Mussajnda frondosa. 

BELILLA, Mussamda frondosa. 

BELINUM. Apium Graveolens. 

BELI OCULUS, Belloculus. 

BELL, CANTERBURY, Campanula trache- 

BELLADONE. Atropa belladonna. 

BELLADON'NA, in the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is the officinal name of the leaves 
of Atropa Belladonna. 

Belladonna Baccifera, Atropa belladonna — 
b. Trichotoma, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLE DAME, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLEGU, Myrobalanus. 

BELLEREGI, Myrobalanus. 





B»llcsme is about three leagues from Montague 
in France. Tho waters are chalybeate. 

waters at Belley, department of Ain, in France, 
are saline aperients. 

BELLIDOIDES, Chrysanthemum leucan- 

BELLIS, Bellus ('pretty,') B. peren'nis seu 
minor seu horten'sis, Sym'phytum min'imum, 
Bruisewort, Common Daisy, (F.) Paquerette vi- 
vace, petite Marguerite. The leaves and flowers 
are rather acrid. They were, at one time, con- 
sidered to cure different species of wounds. See 
Osmitopsis asteriscoides. 

Bellis Hortensis, Bellis — b. Major, Chrysan- 
themum leucanthemum — b. Minor, Bellis — b. 
Perennis, Bellis — b. Pratensis, Chrysanthemum 

BELL METAL, Cal'cocos, (F.) Airain, Metal 
dee cloches. An alloy of copper, zinc, tin, and a 
small quantity of antimony, used for making 
bells. Tho mortars of the apothecary are often 
formed of this material. They require to be kept 
clean, to avoid the formation of verdigris. 

BELLOC'ULUS, Bcli Oc'ulus. A kind of gem, 
which the Assyrians considered efficacious in the 
cure of many diseases. They imagined that the 
figure of an eye could be seen in it, and hence its 
name, Bel's Ei/e. 

BELLON, Colic, metallic. 

BELLOTAS, see Ilex major. 

BELLOWS' SOUND, Bruitdesovfflet—h.s. En- 
cephalic, see Bruit de soufflet. 

Bellows' Sound, Funic, a single murmur of 
the bellows kind, synchronous with the first 
sound of the heart; heard by some observers, 
and referred by them to diminished calibre of the 
umbilical arteries, either by pressure or stretching 
of the funis, or both. 

Bellows' Sound, Placental, Bruit placen- 
tal re. 

BELLWORT, SMALLER, Uvularia perfoliata. 

BELLY, Venter; from Ir. bolg, 'the belly, a 
bag or pouch.' At the present day, the abdomen. 
Formerly, all the splanchnic cavities were called 
bellies; — the lower belly, venter in'fimus, being 
the abdomen ; the middle belly, venter mc'dius, 
the thorax ; and the ttpper belly, venter supre'mus, 
the head. Also, the womb. See Venter. 

BELLY-ACH, Colica — b. Dry, Colic, me- 
tallic — b. Root, Angelica lucida. 

FILLY-BAND, Belt, Russian. 

BELLY, POT, Physconia. 

BELMUSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BELNILEG, Myrobalanus. 

BELOID, Belenoid. 

BELOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid processes. 

BELOXE, Needle. 

BELONODES. Styloid. 

BELONOID, Belenoid. 

BEL'S EYE. Belloculus. 

BELT, RUSSIAN, Ventra'le,— vulgarly, Belly- 
band, — Abdominal supporter. A broad bandage 
applied to the abdomen, -so as to support, and 
make methodical pressure upon it. Different 
forms have been termed obstetric binders, utero- 
abdominal supporters, &c. 

BELUL'CUM, from /?eXo?, 'a dart,' and UXku, 
1 1 draw out.' An instrument used fur extracting 
darts or arrows. Many instruments of this kind 
have been noticed by surgeons.— Ambrose Pare, 
Fubricius ab Aquapendente. 

BELZOE, Benjamin. 

BELZOIM, Benjamin. 

BELZOINUM, Benjamin. 

BEN, Guilandina moringa — b. of Judaea, Ben- 
jamin — b. Nut, Guilandina moringa. 

BENATH, Pustule. 



naturae — b. de Ventre, see Beneficium naturae. 

BENEFICIUM NATU'R^E, (F.) Benefice de 
la nature. This term is used by the French pa- 
thologists, for cases, in which diseases have got 
well without medical treatment. With them, 
Benefice de nature, or 11. de ventre, is synonymous 
also with Alvi Profiu'vium ; — a spontaneous diar- 
rhoea, often acting favourably either in the pre- 
vention or cure of disease. 

BENEL, Croton racemosum. 

BENEOLENS, from bene, 'well,' and olere, 'to 
smell.' Euo'des, Suaveolens. A sweet-scented 
medicine, as gums, &c. 

BENG, Bangue. 

BENGALE INDORUM, Cassumuniar. 

BENGAL ROOT, Cassumuniar. 

BENGI, Hyoscyamus. 

BENIGN', Be'nig'nus, Eueth'es, (F.) Benin, 
Benigne. Diseases of a mild character are so 
called : as well as medicines whose action is not 
violent, as a Benign Fever, Febris benig'na im- 
pu'tris, &c. 

BENIN, Benign. 

BEN'JAMIN, Ben'zoin, Benzo'inum (Ph. U. S.), 
Benzo'inum venim, Benzo'inum, Assa odora'ta, 
Benjui, Benjuin, Assa dulcis, Ben'jaoy, Bervjo'- 
inum, Ilelzoe, Belzoim, Ben'zoe, Sty'raeis Benzo'- 
ini Bal'samnm, Liquor Cyreni'acus, Croton Ben- 
zoe, Ben of Judce'a, Acor Benzo'inus, Sal Ac"idum 
seu essentia' le seu volat' He Benzoes, (F.) Benjdin, 
Baume Benjoin, Assa doux. A resinous, dry, 
brittle substance, obtained from Styrax Benzoin, 
Arbor Benivi, Laurus Benzoin, of Sumatra. The 
odour is extremely fragrant, and taste slightly 
aromatic. It is principally used for the prepara- 
tion of the acid which it contains. It is also 
employed in some vulnerary tinctures, and as an 
expectorant. Benzoic Acid, Ac"idum Benzo'iattn, 
is obtained from it by sublimation. The purest 
Benjamin is in amygdaloid masses: hence called 
(F.) Benjoin amgydaloide. 

Ben'jaiiin, Flowers of, Ben'zoic Acid, Ac"- 
idum Benzo' icum, Flores Benzoes, Flores Benzo'- 
ini, Ac"idum Bcnzo'icum per sublimalio'nem, (F.) 
Acide Benzoiquc. This acid exists in all the 
balsams, but chiefly in Benzoin, from which it is 
obtained by sublimation. It is in vanilla, canella, 
the urine of infants, and of herbivorous animals. 
Its odour is aromatic and fragrant ; taste hot, 
slightly acidulous, and agreeable. The crystals 
consist of white, satiny flakes, slightly ductile. 
It is probably stimulant; and has been used, as 
such, in chronic catarrh ; but it has little efficacy. 

BENJAOY, Benjamin. 

BENJOINUM, Benjamin. 

BENJUI, Benjamin. 

BEN MOEN JA. A Malabar tree. An alexi- 
pharmic decoction is made of its roots, in the 
country, which is much praised in cases of ma- 
lignant fever. Its bark, boiled with Calamus 
aromaticus and salt, forms a decoction used in 
bites of poisonous serpents. 

BENNE, Sesamum orientale. 

BENNET, HERB, Geum urbanum, and G. 

BENOITE, Geum urbanum — b. Aqua/ique, 
Geum rivale — b. des Ruisseanx, Geum rivale — « 
b. de Virginie, Geum Virginianum 

BENZIN, see Anaesthetic. 


BENZOE, Benjamin. 

BENZOENIL, Vanilla, 

BENZOIN, Benjamin — b. Odoriferum Laimu 




BERBERINE, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BERBERIS, Oxycantha Galeni— b. Canaden- 
sis, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BERCE, Heracleum spondylium. 

BERENDAROS, Ocyinuni basilicum. 

BERENICE, Succinum. 

BERENICIUM, Potassae nitras. 

BERENISECUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BERGAMOTE, Bergamot'ta, (F.) Bergamotte. 
A small orange, of a very agreeble taste ; and 
peculiar odour. From its bark an oil, Oleum 
Berga'mii, (Ph. U.S.) is obtained, which is much 
employed as a perfume, and sometimes in medi- 

BER'IBERI, Beribe'ria, Syn' clonus Beribe'- 
ria, Indosyn' clonus, Paral'ysis Ber'iberi, from 
beri in the Singhalese language, which signifies 
'weakness;' therefore, beriberi, ' great weakness.' 
This word is also said to be Hindusthanee, and 
to mean a sheep. — Bontius. Beriberi is an In- 
dian disease, little known in Europe. It con- 
sists in debility aud tremors of the limbs, — some- 
times, indeed, of the whole body; with painful 
numbness of the affected parts, &c. : — the patient 
walking doubled ; and imitating the movements 
of sheep ! Some authors have esteemed it rheu- 
matic ; others, paralytic ; others, to be a kind of 
chorea. It is, almost always, incurable; is 
rarely fatal; and is treated by exercise, stimu- 
lant friction, sudorifics, &c. It is sometimes 
called Bar'biers, but this would seem to be a 
different disease. 

BERICOCCE, Prunus armeniaca. 


BEUL UE, Metamorphopsia. 

invalids are occasionally sent to Bermuda, but 
the principal objection to a winter residence 
there, is the prevalence of strong winds ; espe- 
cially of the dry, sharp, and cold north-west 
winds, during the winter and spring. Still, it 
affords a good winter retreat for the phthisical, 
from any part of the United States, provided due 
care be selected in choosing a suitable locality. 
The neighbourhood of Hamilton has been strongly 
recommended with this view. 


BERRIES, INDIAN, see Menispermum coc- 
culus — b. Turkey, yellow, see Piper cubeba. 

BERS. A sort of electuary, composed of pep- 
per, seed of the white hyoscyamus, opium, euphor- 
bium, saffron, &c. The Egyptians used it as an 
excitant. — Prospero Alpini. 

in Champagne, France. The waters are slightly 

BERULA, Sium nodiflorum — b. Angustifolia, 
Sium nodiflorum. 

BESASA, Ruta. 

BESICLES, Spectacles. 

BESOIN, Want — b. de Respirer, see Want — 
b. de la Vie, Necessary of life. 

BESSANEM. A word used by Avicenna, for 
redness of the skin, limbs, and face, produced by 
the action of cold. 

BESSON, \ e _ ., 

BESSONNE, J See Gemellu s. 

BETA. The Beet, Sic'ula, (F.) Bette, Bette- 
rave. Fam-ly, Chenopodeaa. Sex. Syst. Pentan- 
dria Digynia. A genus of plants, of which the 
following are the chief varieties. 

Beta Hy'brida, Root of Scarcity. Root red, 
outside; white, within. Very nutritive; yields 

Beta Vulga'ris Alba, White Beet. The root 
yields sugar, and the leaves are eaten as a sub- 
stitute for spinach. 

Beta Vulga'ris Rubra, Red Beet. Root refl 
and nutritive; yields a small quantity of sugar. 

BETEL, Piper Petri. A species of pepper, cul- 
tivated in several parts of India. The East In- 
dians are in the habit of chewing the leaves with 
lime and areca; and they give the name Betel to 
this preparation. It is used in all the equatorial 
countries of Asia. Betel is said to be t:mie and 
astringent. It is also called Bette, Betre, Betle. 
See Areca. 

BETIIROOT, Trillium latifolium— b. Broad, 
leaf, Trillium latifolium. 

BETISE, Dementia. 

BETOINE, Betonica officinalis — b. des 3fon- 
tagnes, Arnica Montana — b. des Savoyards, Ar- 
nica montana. 

BETON, Colostrum. 

BETONICA AQUATICA, Scrophularia aqua- 

Beton'ica Officinalis, Cestron, Beton'ica 
purpu'rea, Veton'iea Cordi, &c, Bet'ony, Wood 
Betony, Psychot 'rophum, Veroni'ca purpu'rea, 
(F.) Betoine. Family, Labiata:. Sex. Syst. Di- 
dynamia Gymnospermia. Betony was in much 
esteem amongst the ancients, who employed the 
flowers and leaves, in decoction, in gout, sciatica, 
cephalalgia, &c. It was so called, according to 
Pliny, from being in great repute among the Vet- 
tones, or Bettones, an ancient people of Spain. 
Antonius Musa is said to have written a volume 
in praise of it; recommending it in no less than 
47 different diseases. It has, however, little or 
no virtue. The leaves are said to be aperient, 
and the root emetic. 

Betonica Pauli, Veronica. 

BETONY, Betonica officinalis — b. Paul's, Ly- 
copus sinuaius, Lycopus Virginicus — b. Water, 
Scrophularia aquatica — b. Wood, Betonica offici- 

BETRE, Betel. 

BETTE, Beta. 


BET'ULA ALBA. The Birch, (F.) Bouleau 
commun. The young leaves are slightly odorous, 
astringent, and bitter. They are applied to 
wounds aud ulcers. They have been regarded 
as antiscorbutic and anthelmintic. The tree fur- 
nishes a saccharine juice, which is considered 
antiscorbutic and diuretic. 

Betula Emarginata, Alnus glutinosa — b. Glu- 
tinosa, Alnus glutinosa. 

Betula Lenta, Sweet Birch, Black Birch, 
Cherry Birch, Mountain Mahogany, is an Ameri- 
can species, the bark and leaves of which have 
the smell and taste of Gaultheria procumbens. 
An infusion is sometimes made of them, and used 
as an excitant and diaphoretic. The volatile oil 
is nearly if not wholly identical with that of 

BEURRE, Butter— b. de Bambouc, Butter of 
bambouc — b. de Cacao, Butter of cacao — 6. di 
Coco, Butter of cocoa — b. Vegetale, Persea gatis- 

Beuvrigny is in the vicinity of Bayeux in Nor- 
mandy. The water is chalybeate. 

BEVUE, Diplopia. 

BEX, Tussis — b. Convulsiva, Pertussis — b. Hu- 
mida, Expectoration — b. Theriodes, Pertussis. 

BEXIS, Tussis. 

BEXU'GO. Under this name, a purgative 
root was formerly introduced into Europe from 
Peru. It is supposed to have been the root of a 

BEZ'OAR, Bez'aar, Bez'ehard, Pa'zahar, from 
Persian Pa, 'against,' and zahar, poison. Lapu 
Bezoar'dicus, Vul' cuius Bez'oar, Enter oFithus Be- 




toar'dus, Bezoard. A calculous concretion, found 
in the stomach, intestines, and bladder of ani- 
mals. Wonderful virtues were formerly attri- 
buted to these Bezoars. There were two great 
varieties : the Bez'oar orient a' le, An'imal Bezoar' - 
ticum oricnta'le, formed in the fourth stomach of 
the gazelle of India (Gazel'la In'dica, or rather 
Antil'ope. eervica'pra :) and the Bez'oar occiden- 
ta'le, Animal Bezoar'ticum occidenta' le, found in 
the fourth stomach of the wild goat or chamois 
of Peru. These substances were esteemed to be 
powerful alexipharmics ; but the former \v;is the 
more valued. It was believed that no poison, 
and no eruptive, pestilential, or putrid disease, 
could resist its influence. As so many virtues 
were ascribed to it, other animal concretions were 
substituted for it; and factitious Bezoards were 
made of crabs' eyes and claws, bruised and mixed 
with musk, ambergris, <fec. 

Bez'oar Bovi'num, (F.) Bezoard de Bceuf, Be- 
zoard of the beef. A concretion formed in the 
fourth stomach of beeves ; also, a biliary calcu- 
lus found in the gall-bladder. 

Bez'oar of the Deer, B. of the Lach'rymal 
Fossa of the Deer, Deer's Tears. A moist, highly 
odorous, fatty matter, found below the anterior 
eanthus of the orbit of the red deer — Cervus el'e- 
phas. It has been used, like castor, as an anti- 
spasmodic, in the dose of from 5 to 15 grains, two 
or three times a day. 

Bezoar Equinum, Bezoard of the horse — b. 
Hystricis, Bezoard of the Indian porcupine. 

Bez'oard op Catman. This was once much 
prized. It is now unknown. 

Bez'oard op the Chamois, and B. op the 
Horse, Bezoar equi'num, Hippol'ithus, &c, exhi- 
bit their origin in the name. 

Bez'oard of the Indian Por'cupine. Bez'oar 
Hys'tricis, Lapis Porci'nus, Lapis Malucen'cis, 
Petro del Porco, (F.) Bezoard de Pore-Epic, was 
formerly the dearest of all the Bezoards, and was 
gold at an enormous price in Spain and Portugal. 
Bez'oard Mineral, Antimonium diaphoreti- 
cum — b. Vegetable, see Calappite. 

BTZZ0AB,'I)IC,Bezoar'dicu8,(F.)Bezoardiqne J - 
concerning the bezoard. Bezoardic medicines are 
those supposed to possess the same properties 
with the bezoard ; as antidotes, alexiteria, alexi- 
pharmics, cordials. 

BEZOARDICA RADIX, Dorstenia contra- 

ceutical preparation, regarded by the ancients as 
antihysteric. It was formed of protoxide of lead, 
butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Huma'num. Urinary calculi 
were formerly employed under this name as 
powerful alexipharmics. 

Bezoar'dicum Jovia'le. A sort of greenish 
powder, used as a diaphoretic, and formed of an- 
timony, tin, mercury, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Luna're. A medicine formerly 
regarded as a specific in epilepsy, convulsions, 
megrim, Ac. It was prepared of nitrate of sil- 
ver, and butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Martia'le. Atonic medicine, 
used by the ancients in diarrhoea. It was pre- 
pared from the tritoxide of iron and butter of an- 

Bezoar'dicum Mercurta'le. A medicine, 
formerly vaunted as an antisyphilitic, and pre- 
pared from the mild chloride of mercury, butter 
of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicum Minera'le" ; the deutoxido of 
antimony ; so called because its properties were 
supposed to resemble those of animal bezoard. 
Bezoar'dicum Sola're. A diaphoretic medi- 

cine, prepared of gold filings, nitric acid, and 
butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Ven'eris. A pharmaceutical 
preparation, formerly employed in lepra, diseases 
of the brain, Ac. ; which was made from filings 
of copper, butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 
BHANG, Bangue. 

BI, as a prefix to words, has the same signifi- 
cation as Di. 
BIAIOTHANATI, Biothanati. 
EIBITORIUS, Rectus internus oculi. 
BIBLIOG'RAPHY, MED'ICAL, from j3 ( /3Xo f , 
. a book,' and ypa<j>u>, 'I describe.' Skill in the 
knowledge of medical books. The most distin- 
guished medical bibliographers have been : J. A. 
Van der Linden, Amstelod. 1662, octavo, (L.) 
M. Lipenius, Francf. ad Mcen. 1679, fol. (L.) 
G. A. Mercklein, Norimb. 1686, (L.) J. J. 
Manget, Genev. 1695 to 1731, (L.) Tarin (ana- 
tomical,) Paris, 1753, (F.) A. von Haller, 
Ziirich, 1774, &c (L.) Vigiliis von Creut- 
zenfeld (surgical,) Vindob. 1781, (L.) C. G. 
Kuhn, Lips. 1794, (L.) C. L. Schweickard 
(anat., phys., and legal .medicine,) Stuttgard, 
1796 to 1800, (L.) G. G. Ploucquet, Tubing. 
1808 to 1814, (L.) C. F. Burdach, Gotha, 1810 
to 1821, (G.) J. S. Ersch, (since 1750,) Leipz. 
1822, (G.) Th. Ch. Fr. Enslin, (of Germany, 
since 1750,) Berlin, 1826, (G.) J. B. Montfal- 
con, Paris, 1827, (F.) J. Forbes, M. D., F. R. 
S., London, 1835. A. C. P. Callisen, Copen- 
hagen, 1845, (G.) E. Morwitz, Leipzig, 1849, 
(G.) / 
BICAUDALIS, Retrahens auris. 
BICAUDA'TUS, Cauda'tus, ' double-tailed.' 
A monster having two tails. 

BICEPHA'LIUM, Dicepha'lium. A hybrid 
word, from hi and KcQaXr/, 'head.' Sauvages ap- 
plies this epithet to a very large sarcoma on the 
head, which seems to form a double head. 
BICEPHALUS, Dicephalus. 
BICEPS, from bis, 'twice/ and caput, 'head.' 
That which has two heads. This name has been 
particularly given to two muscles; one belonging 
to the arm, the other to the thigh. 

Biceps Exter'nus Mus'culus. The long por- 
tion of the Triceps Brachia'lis. — Douglas. 

Biceps Flexor Cruris, Biceps Crvris, Biceps, 
(F.) Biceps Crural, Biceps Fem' oris, Is' chio-fem' - 
oro-peroniei — (Ch.) A muscle on the posterior 
part of the thigh ; one head arising from the tu- 
berosity of the ischium, and the other from a 
great part of the linea aspera. It is inserted into 
the top of the fibula. It serves to bend the leg 
on the thigh. 

Biceps F-lexor Cu'biti, Biceps Bra'chii, Cor', 
aco-radia'lis, Biceps, Biceps mantis, Biceps in- 
ter'nus, Biceps inter'nus hu'meri, (F.) Scapulo-ra- 
dial, (Ch.) — Biceps Brachial. A muscle, situate 
at the anterior and internal part of the arm ; ex- 
tending from the edge of the glenoid cavity and 
from the top of the coracoid process to the tube- 
rosity of the radius. It bends the fore-arm upon 
the arm. 

BICHE DE MER, Sea Slug. A molluscous 
animal, belonging to the genus Holothuria, which 
is caught amongst the islands of the Feejee group, 
New Guinea, &c, and when prepared finds a 
ready sale in China, where it is used as an ingre- 
dient in rich soups. 

BWHET, Terra Orleana. 

BICHICH'IjE. Pectoral medicines, composed 
of liquorice juice, sugar, blanched almonds, &c. — 

BICIIIOS. Dracunculus. 

BICIIO, Dracunculus— b. di Culo, Proctocaee. 

BICHOS. A Portuguese name fcr + he worm* 




that penetrates the toes of people in the Indies; 
and which are destroyed by the oil of the cashew 

BICIP'ITAL, from biceps (bis and caput) 'two- 
headed.' ltelating to the biceps. 

Bicipital, Groove, (F.) Coulisse ou Gouttih-e 
bicipitale, Coulisse humerale, (Ch.,) is a longitu- 
dinal groove, situate between the tuberosities of 
the os humeri, which lodges the long head of the 

Btcip'lTAL Tu'BERCLE, Bicipital tuberosity, 
(F.) Tuberosite bicipitale ; — a prominence near 
the upper extremity of the radius, to which the 
tendon of the biceps is attached. 

BICORNE RUDE, Ditrachyceros. 

BICUS'PID, Bicuspida'tus, from bis, 'twice,' 
and cuspis, 'a spear.' That which has two points 
or tubercles. 

Bicus'pid Teeth, Dentes Bicuspida'ti, (F.) 
Bents bicuspidees, the small molares. See Molar. 

BIDENS ACMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 

BIDET, (F.) Bidet; pronounced beeday. A 
Email horse formerly allowed to each trooper for 
carrj-ing his baggage. Hence, perhaps, applied 
to a chamber bathing apparatus, which has to be 
bestridden. It is a useful arrangement, in case 
of hemorrhoids, prolapsus ani, aifections of the 
sexual organs, &c. 

BIECHO, Bische. 

BfERE, Cerevisia. 

BIESTINGS, Colustrum. 


BIFURCATION, Bifurca'tio, from bis, 'twice,' 
and furca, 'a fork.' Division of a trunk into 
two branches; as the bifurcation of the trachea, 
aorta, &C. 

BIGASTER, Digastricus. 

BIG BLOOM, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGEMINAL BODIES, Quadrigemina tuber- 

BIGGAR. A disease of Bengal, remarkable 
for the intensity and danger of the cerebral symp- 
toms. —Twining. 

BIG-LEAF, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGLES, see Strabismus. 

BIGNONIA CATALPA, Catalpa — b. Radi- 
cans, Tecoma radicans. 

Bigno'nia In'bica. The leaves are employed 
in India, as emollients, to ulcers. 

BIJON, see Pinus sylvestris. 

zay is a town in France, two leagues from Thouar, 
department of Deux Sevres, near which is a ther- 
mal sulphureous spring. Temperature about 77° 

BILBERRY, Vaecinium myrtillus — b. Red, 
Yaccinium vitis idaea. 

BILE, Bilis, Eel, Ohol'os, Chole, Choler, (F.) 
Bile, Fiel. A yellow, greenish, viscid, bitter, 
nauseous fluid, secreted by the liver. It is dis- 
tinguished into hepatic and cystic ; according as 
it flows immediately into the duodenum from the 
liver or from the gall-bladder. It contains, ac- 
cording to Muratori, water; a peculiar fatty 
matter; colouring matter, (CKolepyr'rMn or Bil'i- 
pha'in;) eholesterin, combined with soda; picro- 
niel or bilin; extract of flesh, mucus; soda, phos- 
phate of soda; phosphate of lime, and chloride 
of sodium. 

The use of the bile is to remove from the body 
superfluous hydro-carbon ; and it is probably in- 
Kcrvient to useful purposes in digestion. 

Bile, Furunculus — b. Black, Atrabilis — b. de 
Iceuf, see Bile — b? Repandue, Icterus. 

Bile op the Bear, Gall of the Bear, Eel Ursi, 
was thought to be anti-epileptic; and that of the 
Eel, Fel anguil'la, to facilitate labour. 

Bile of the Ox, Gall of the Ox, Ox Gall, Fel 

Tauri, FelBovis, E. Bori'num, (F.) Bile de Bccuf, 
was once reputed cosmetic and detergent, anti- 
otalgic and emmenagogue ; as well as to possess 
the power of facilitating labour. It has also been 
given as a bitter stomachic and anthelmintic; 
and as a tonic and laxative, in cases of deficiency 
of the biliary secretion. 

BIL'IARY, Bilia'ris, Bilia'rius, Fel'leut. 
That which relates to bile. 

Bil'iary Appara'tus, B. organs, B. passages. 
The collection of parts that concur in the secre- 
tion and excretion of bile : — viz. the liver, pori 
biliari or tubuli biliferi ; hepatic, cystic, and 
eholedoch ducts, and gall-bladder. 

Bil'iary Concre'tions are concretions found 
in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 

Biliary Ducts, Pori biliarii. 

BILTEUX, Bilious. 

BILIMBI, Averrhoa bilimbi. 

BILIMB1NG TERES, Averrhoa bilimbi. 

BILIN, Picromel. 

BILTOUS, Bilio'sus, Chol'icus, Chol'ius, Eel- 
lin'eus, Epich'olos, Picroch'olvs, Fcl'leus. (F.) 
Bilieux. That which relates to bile, contains 
bile, or is produced by bile. An epithet given 
to certain constitutions and diseases, which are 
believed to be the effect of superabundance of the 
biliary secretion : as Bilious temperament, B. 
symptoms, B. fever. 

BILIPILEIN, see Bile. 

BILIS FLUXIO, Cholera morbus. 

BILITICUS, Cholagogue. 

BILIVERD'IN, from bilis, 'bile,' and viridis, 
'green.' On adding an acid to a solution of the 
yellow colouring matter of bile, a precipitate of 
green flocculi takes place, which possesses all the 
properties of chlorophyll, or the green colouring 
matter of leaves. This is the bilivcrdin of Ber- 

BILOCULAR, see Unilocular. 


BI'MANUS, from bis and manus, 'a hand. 
One that has two hands. A term applied only 
to man, because he is the sole mammiferous ani- 
mal that possesses two perfect hands. 

BINDER, Bandage. 

BINDERS, OBSTETRIC, see Belt, Russian. 

BINDWEED, Polygonum aviculare — b. Fid- 
dle-leaved, Convolvulus pandnratus — b. Great, 
Convolvulus sepium — b. Lavender-leaved, Con- 
volvulus Cantabrica — b. Sea, Convolvulus solda- 
nella — b. Virginian, Convolvulus panduratus. 

BINKOHUMBA, Phyllanthus urinaria. 

BINOCULAR, Binocida'ris : same etymon as 
the next. Relating to or affecting both eyes — as 
' binocular vision' — vision with both eyes ; or from 
impressions made upon both retina;, which are 
amalgamated into single vision. 

BINOC'ULUS, Bin'ocle, TKopJithal'mica Fas'- 
eia, Oc'ulis duplex, from bis, 'twice,' and oculus, 
'an eye.' (F.) G3il double. A bandage applied 
over both eyes. It was, also, formerly called 

BlN'SICA. Disorder of the mind. Accord- 
ing to Van IIelmont, an atrophy of the organ 
of imagination. 

BIOCHYMIA, Chymistry, vital. 

BIOD, Vis vitalis. 

BIODYNAM'ICS, Biodynam'ica, Biodynam'- 
ice, Biosoph'ia, from (3io S , 'life,' and Svvauts, 
'power,' 'force.' The doctrine of the vital ac- 
tivity, or forces. 

BIOGAMIA, Magnetism, animal. 

BIOLOGY, Physiology. 

BIOLYCHNION, Biolych'nium, from p,o S , 
'life,' and Ad^iiov, 'a lamp.' Innate heat, vital 
heat, animal heat. Lych'nium, Lychnid'ium, 
Thermum em'phytum, Elamma seu Elam'mula 




vita'lia seu cordis. Also, a secret preparation of 
which Beguin and Burgrave make mention. 

BIOLYSIS, see Biolytic. 

BIOLYT'IC, Biohjt'icus ; from /?«>?, 'life,' and 
Xntrts, 'solution.' Relating to the destruction of 
life. A ' biolytic agent' is one that causes biol'y- 
tis, (ir destruction of life. — Schultz. 

BIOMAGNETISMUS, Magnetism, animal. 

BIONOMY, Physiology. 


BIOS, /Jtoy. Life. Also, what is necessary for 
the preservation of life. 

BIOSOPHIA, Biodynamics. 

BIOSTATICS, Statistics, medical. 

BIOTE, Life. 

BIOTHAN'ATI, Biaiothan'ati, from (}iog, 
'life,' and S-avaro;, 'death.' Those who die of a 
violent death very suddenly, or as if there was 
no space between life and death. 

BIOTIC, Vital. 

BIOTICS, Physiology. 

BIOTOMIA, Vivisection. 

BIPARIETAL SUTURE, Sagittal suture. 

BIPIN'NA, from bis, 'twice,' and pinna, 'a 
wing-feather.' A term used by the ancients for a 
diminutive penis, not exceeding in size two quills. 

BIR, Thorax. 

BIRA, Cerevisia. 

BIR Oil, Betnla alba — b. Black, Betula lenta — 
b. Cherry, Betula lenta — b. Sweet, Betula lenta. 

BIRDS' NEST, Hypopitys lanuginosa. 

BIRTH, CROSS, Presentation, preternatural 
b. Live, see Born alive — b. Plural, see Multi- 

BIRTIIWORT, Aristolochia — b. Snakeroot, 
Aristolochia serpentaria. 

BISCHE, Biecho. A malignant kind of dy- 
sentery, which often prevails in the island of 

BISCUIT, Biscoc'tus, bis, 'twice,' and coctus, 
'baked,' (F.) 6/* and cuit, 'twice baked.' A 
kind of dry, hard bread, or cake, which is va- 
riously made ; and, when without eggs or butter, 
is easy of digestion. It was formerly called Bi- 
pyri'tes, and Di'pyros. 

BISCUIT, MEAT. An alimentary prepara- 
tion, proposed by Mr. G. Borden, Jr., of Texas, 
which consists in combining the matters ex- 
tracted from meat by boiling with flour, so as to 
form biscuits; which keep well, and are of course 

BISERMAS, Salvia sclarea. 

BISFERIENS. Dicrotus. 


BISLINGUA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BISMALVA, Althaja. 

BISMUTH, Antimo'nium album, Chalcitas, 
Buna imperfecta, Stannum glacia'te seu cinereum, 
Bismu'thum, Wismu'thum. Reg'ulua of Bis'muth, 
Marcasi'ta, Tin glass, (F.) Etain gris, E. de 
Glace. A metal, in spicular plates, of a yel- 
lowish-white colour; s. gr. 9.822 ; fusible at 400° 
Fahrenheit, and volatilizable at a high tempera- 
ture. It is used only in the preparation of the 

Bismuth, Oxyd of, Bismuth, Subnitrate of — 
b. Regulus of, Bismuth. 

Bismuth, Subni'trate of, Bismu'thi subni'tras, 
Marcasi'ta alba, Plumbum cine'reum, Magiste'- 
rium Marcasi'ta seu Bismuthi, Bismu'thum Nit'- 
ricum, B. Subnit'ricum, Xitras Subbismu'thicum, 
Nitras Bismuthi, Calx Vismu'thi, Bismu'thum 
oxydula' turn album, Oxyd of Bismuth, Mag"istery 
of Bismuth, Pearl White, Spanish White. (F.) 
Sousnitrate tie bismuth, Oxide blanc de B., Blanc 
de fard, Blanc de perle. (Bismuth, in frustulis, 
?.j. Acid nitric, f^ij. Aq. destill. q. s. Mix a 
fluid ounce of distilled water with the nitric acid, 

and dissolve the bismuth in the mixture. When 
the solution is complete, pour the clear liquor 
into three pints of distilled water, and set the 
mixture by, that the powder may subside. Lastly, 
having poured off the supernatant fluid, wash the 
subnitrate of bismuth with distilled water, wrap 
it in bibulous paper, and dry with a gentle 
heat. Ph. U. S.) It is considered to be tonic 
and antispasmodic, and has been chiefly used in 

Bismuth, Valerianate of, Bismu'thi valeri- 
anas, Bismu'thum valerian' icum. Prepared by 
mixing a neutral solution of oxide of bismuth in 
nitric acid, with valerianate of soda; washing, 
and drying the precipitate. Used in gastrodynia, 
chronic gastralgia, neuralgia, and chronic palpi- 
tation, as a nervine. Dose, ^ a grain to 2 grains, 
three or four times a da}', in pill. 

BISMUTHI NITRAS, Bismuth, Subnitrate 
of — b. Valerianas, Bismuth, valerianate of. 

BISMUTHUM, Bismuth— b. Nitricum, Bis- 
muth, subnitrate of — b. Oxydulatum album, 
Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. Subnitricum, Bismuth, 
subnitrate of — b. Valerianieum, Bismuth, vale- 
rianate of. 

BISPIRUS, Dipnoos. 

BISSUM, Hydrangea arborescens. 

BISSUS. The silky filaments which fix the 
Pinna Jlari'na to the rocks. In Italy and Cor- 
sica, clothes are made of these, which are consi- 
dered to favour perspiration, and are recom- 
mended to be worn next the skin in rheumatism, 
gout, <fec. See Byssus. 

BISTORT, OFFICINAL) Pylygonum bistorta 
— b. Virginian, Polygonum virginianum. 

BISTORTA, Polygonum bistorta. 

BISTORTIER, (F.) A name given by the 
Pharmacien to a long wooden pestle used for 
reducing soft substances to powder, and in the 
preparation of electuaries. 

BISTOURI, (F.) Pistorien'sis gla'dius, Scal- 
pel'lus, Scal'peum, Bistoury. A small cutting- 
knife, used in surgery, — so called, according to 
Huet, from the town of Pistori, which was for- 
merly celebrated for the manufacture of those 
instruments. A bistoury has the form of a small 
knife, and is composed of a blade and handle. 
The blade, which is most commonly movable in 
the handle, may be fixed by a button, spring, &c. 
When fixed in the handle, the bistouri is called 
by the French, B. a lame fixe ou dormante. 

The chief bistouries are : — 1. The straight B. 
(F.) B. droit, in which the blade and cutting 
edge are straight, the point being fine, round, or 
square. 2. The CONVEX B. (F.) B. convexe ; the 
blade of which is convex at the cutting edge, 
concave at the back. 3. The concave B. (F.) 
B. concave ; the blade of which is concave at its 
edge, and convex at the back. 4. Blunt-pointed 
B. (F.) B. boutonne ; the blade of which has a 
button at its extremity. 5. The blunt or probe- 
pointed Bistoury of Pott; concave at its cut- 
ting edge, and its point blunt; so that it can be 
carried on the palmar surface of the index finger, 
to divide the stricture, in strangulated hernia- 
Sir Astley Cooper has recommended a useful 
modification of this, to avoid wounding the intes- 
tine, should it come in contact with the edge of 
the knife. His Bistoury has an edge of not more 
than eight lines in length, situate about five lined 
from the point. 6. Bistouri a la lime, (F.) is 
a straight bistoury ; the blade fixed in the handle, 
the extremity with a button, and the edge made 
with a file. It is chiefly used for dilating parts 
7. Bistouri royal, (F.) A Bistoury used in ope- 
rating upon Louis XIV., for fistula in ano. 8. 
Bistouri gastrique, (F.) A complicated instru- 
ment, invented by Morand, for dilating woundj 




of the abdomen. 9. Bistouri cache, B. herniaire, 
ou Attrape-lourdaud de Biennaise, Forceps de- 
ceptu'ria. A curved bistouri, the blade of which 
is placed in a canula, whence it issues on press- 
ing a spring. 

The word Bistouri is used by the French, at 
times, where we would employ knife. 

BIT NOBEN, Salt of Bitu'men, Padnoon, 
Sirucherloon, Khala mimuc. A white, saline sub- 
stance, which is a Hindoo preparation of great 
antiquity, and has been supposed to be the Sal 
asphalti'tes and Sal Sodome' nus of the ancients. 
It is used by the Hindoo in the prevention or 
cure of almost all diseases. 

BITIINIMAL'CA, Gas'teranax. Two un- 
meaning words, used by Dolaeus, to designate an 
active principle supposed to have its seat in the 
stomach, and to preside over chymification, &o. 

BITIOS DE KIS, Proctocace. 

BITTER, Amarus— b. Bark, Pinckneya pu- 
bens — b. Bloom, Chironia angularis — b. Holy, 
Hiera picra — b. Redberry, Cornus Florida — b. 
Root, Apoeynum androssemifolium, Gentiana 
Catesbaei, Menyanthes verna — b. Sweet night- 
shade, Solanum Dulcamara — b. Sweet vine, So- 
lanum Dulcamara. 

BIT'TERNESS, Amaritu'do, Amarit'ies, Am- 
a'ror, Pi'cria, (F.) Amertume. A particular taste, 
which belongs to many substances. In some 
diseases there is a sense of bitterness felt in the 

BITTERS, COLUMBO, Tinctura Calumbse — 
b. Spirit, Tinctura gentians? composita — b. Wine, 
Vinum gentianae compositum. 

BITTERSWEET, Solanum dulcamara. 

BITTERWEED, Ambrosia trifida. 


BITTOS. A disease, in which the chief symp- 
tom is an acute pain in the anus. — Chouiel. 

BITUMEN, GLUTINOUS, Pissasphaltum — 
b. Judaicum, Asphaltum — b. of Judaja, 
tum — b. Petroleum, Petrolaeurn — b. Malta, Pissas- 
phaltum — b. Salt of, Bitnoben — b. Solidum, As- 

BIVENTER, Digastrieus — b. Cervicis, Corn- 
plexus museulue — -b. Maxillae, Digastricus. 

LUM, see Lobe, biventral. 

BIXA AMERICANA, see Terra Orleana — b. 
Orleana, see Terra Orleana — b. Orellana, see 
Terra Orleana. 

BLABE, Wound. 

BLACCI/E, Rubeola. 

BLACIA, Debility. 

fruticosus — b. High or standing, see Rubus fru- 

BLACK DOSE, see Infusum Sennae compo- 

BLACK DRAUGHT, see Infusum Senna) 

BLACK DROP, Guttae nigra?. 

BLACK LION. A term given to a sloughing 
syphilitic ulcer, under which the British soldiers 
suffered greatly in Portugal. 

BLACK ROOT, Aletris farinosa, Leptandria 


BLADDER, GALL, see Gall Bladder— b. Irri- 
table, Cysterethismus — b. Swim, Air bladder — 
b. Urinary, see Urinary Bladder. 


BL^ESITAS, BlcBsa lingua. Some authors have 
used this word as synonymous with stammering. 
See Balbuties. Suurages understands by it a 
defect iu pronunciation, which consists in substi- 

tuting soft consonants for those that are hard; 
as the z for s, the d for t, the s for o and j, Ac. 
Also, Lisping, Traidie'mus, Trail' lotes, (F.) Bll- 
eite, Ble. (parler.) 

BL.ESul'obES, see Kvllosis. 

BLvESOPUS, see Kvllosis. 

BL2ESUS. A distortion ; especially the out- 
ward distortion of the legs. Also, a stammerer. 

BLAFARD, (F.) Pal'lidus, Pallid'ulus. This 
epithet is sometimes given to the skin, when pale 
and dull; but, most frequently, to the flesh of a 
wound, when it has lost its colour, and become 
white. The word is, also, sometimes used syno- 
nymously with Albino. 

' BLANG DE BALEINE, Cctaceum — b. de 
Ford, Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. de I'tL'i/, Scle- 
rotic — b. d' Givf, Albumen ovi — 6. de Perle, Bis- 
muth, subnitrate of. 

BLANC-MANGER, (F.) Cibns albus, Leuco- 
pha'ijium, Leucoph' 'agum, Argyrotrophe'ma. An 
animal jelly, so called on account of its colour, 
combined with an emulsion of sweet almonds, to 
which sugar has been added, and some aromatic. 
It is sometimes prescribed as a nutriment in con- 
valescence and chronic diseases. 

BLANC-RAISIN, Blanc Rhazis. 

BLANC RHAZIS, Blanc-raisin. An oint- 
ment composed of cerussa, white was, and olive 

BLANCA, Plumbi subcarbonas. 

BLANCH, TO, from (F.) blanchir, 'to whiten, 
to bleach.' To whiten by depriving of the outer 
rind ; as ' to blanch almonds ;' i. e. to peel them. 

BLANCHE T, (F.) A blanket. A term given, 
by the French Pharmaciens, to the woollen 
strainer through which they filter syrup and 
other thick fluids. See, also, Aphthae. 

BLANCHING, Etiolation. 

BLANCNON ORIBASII, Polypodium filix 

BLAS. An unmeaning term, invented by Van 
Helmont to designate a kind of movement in the 
body; at times, local, — at others, under extrane- 
ous influence. Thus, he siHmks of the Bias mete- 
orns of the heavenly bodies, and the Bias huma'- 
num, that which operates in man. 

Blas Altekativum, Plastic force. 

BLASE, (F.) An epithet given to one whom 
the abuse of enjoyment has prevented from any 
longer deriving satisfaction or pleasure from it. 

BLASTE'MA, Blaste'sis, from PXaaravw, 'I 
bud.' A germ. The sense of this word, which 
is often used by Hippocrates, is obscure. Castelli 
thinks it means the eruption of some morbific 
principle at the surface of the body. Also, the 
matrix or general formative element of tissues. 

BLAS'TEMAL, Blastema'lis. Relating or ap- 
pertaining to a blastema, — as ' blastema I forma- 
tions,' those that are formed from a blastema. 

BLASTODERMA. see Molecule. 

BLATTA BYZAN'TIA, Unguis odora'tus, (F.) 
Blatte de Bi/zance. This name seems, formerly, 
to have been given to a marine production from 
some of the Conchylia. It had an agreeable 
smell, a reddish tint, and the shape of a nail. It 
was prescribed in epilepsy, hysteria, and hepatio 
obstructions. Rondelet affirms that it was the 
production of the shell-fish murex or purpuras 
and that the name Blatta is derived from the 
Greek (iXarru;, ' purple.' 

BLA VELLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAVEOLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAVEROLLE, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLAZING-STAR, Chamtelirium luteum, Li- 

BLE, Bladum. This word answers, in France, 




to the word Corn in England; i. e. any kind of 
grain employed for making bread. Wheat being 
most commonly used for this purpose, Ble is 
sometimes restricted to this. Ble meteil is a 
mixture of wheat and rye. 

BLE COBNU, Ergot — 6. d'Espagne, Zea mays 
— b. d'ltalie, Zea Mays — b. Meteil, see Ble — 
b. Noir, Polygonum fagopyrum — b. de Turquie, 
Zea mays. 

BLE (P ABLER,) Blsesitas. 

BLEABERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 

BLEACHING LIQUID, Eau dejavelle. 

BLEAR-EYE, Lippitudo. 

BLEB. Bulla. 

BLECHNON, Polypodium filix mas. 

Bcolopendrium — b. Squamosum, Asplenium ce- 

BLECHROPYRA, see Blechros. 

BLECHROPYRUS, Typhus mitior. 

BLECHROS, |3.\i7Xpoj, 'weak, feeble, slow.' 
An epithet applied to different affections, and 
particularly to fevers. Hence Blechrop'yra, ' a 
slow fever:' Blechrosphyq' mia, 'a slow pulse.' 


BLED, Corn. 
• BLEEDING, Bloodletting, Haemorrhagia. 

— b. Heart, Cypripedium luteum. 

BLEME, (F.) This word has nearly the same 
signification as Blafard. Generally, however, it 
includes, also, emaciation of the countenance. 

BLENNA, Mucus — b. Narium, Nasal mucus. 

BLENXADENI'TIS, from jiXcwa, 'mucus,' 
a&nv. ' a gland,' and itis, denoting inflammation. 
Inflammation of mucous follicles. 

BLEXXELYT'RIA, from p\cvva, 'mucus,' and 
iXvtijov, 'a sheath.' A discharge of mucus from 
the vagina. Leucorrhcea. — Alibert. 

BLENNEM'ESIS. Blennoem'esis, Vom'itus 
pituito'ius, from (IXtvva, 'mucus,' and epeois, 
'vomiting.' Vomiting of mucus. 


BLEXXISTH'MIA, fromPXcwa, 'mucus,' and 
igSjios, ' the gullet. Increased flow of mucus 
from the pharynx and larynx. — Alibert. 

BLEXXOCHEZIA, Diarrhoea, mucous. 

BLEXXOCYSTIDES, Bursse mucosae. 

BLEXXODES, Muciform. 

BLEXNOEMESIS, Blennemesis. 

BLEXNOG"ENOUS, Blennog"enus, Mueif'io, 
Mucif'icus, from fiXevva, 'mucus,' and ytrau, 'I 
form.' Forming or generating mucus. Breschet 
and Roussel de Vauzeme describe an apparatus 
of this kind for the secretion of the mucous mat- 
ter that constitutes the cuticle, composed of a 
glandular parenchyma or organ of secretion situ- 
ate in the substance of the true skin, and of 
excretory ducts, which issue from the organ, 
and deposite the mucous matter between the 

BLEXXOIDES, Muciform. 


BLENNOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia, (puru- 

BLEX T NOP'TYSIS, from fiXevva, and tttvo>, 'I 
spit.' Expectoration of mucus. Catarrh. 

BLENNOP'YRA, Blennopy' Ha, from (SXtvva, 
and trvp, 'fire.' Alibert has classed, under this 
head, various fevers with mucous complications; 
as Mesenteric fever, Adeno-meningeal fever, &c. 

BLEXXOURIIAGIA, Gonorrhoea— b.'Genita- 
lium, Leucorrhcea— b. Notha, Gonorrhoea spuria 
. b. Spuria, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

nia humoralis. 

spuria — b. du Gland, Gonorrhoea spuria. 


BLENNORRHEA, Blcnnorrhoe, Blennor- 
rhag"ia, Phlegmorrhae'a, Phlegmorrhag" ia, from 
PXcvva, ' mucus,' and pcoi, ' I flow.' Inordinate 
secretion and discharge of mucus. Also, Gonor- 

Blennorrrcea Chronica, (gleet,) see Gonor- 
rhoea — b. Genitalium, Leucorrhoea — b. Luodes, 
Gonorrhoea impura — b. Nasalis, Coryza — b. Oculi, 
see Ophthalmia — b. Oculi gonorrhoea, see Oph- 
thalmia — b. Ofculi neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — 
b. Oculi purulent*, see Ophthalmia — b. Urethralis, 
Gonorrhoea, Cystorrhoea — b. Ventriculi, Gastror- 
rhcea — b. Vesicas, Cystorrhoea. 

BLENNO'SES, from QXtvva, 'mucus.' Affec- 
tions of the mucous membranes. — Alibert. 

BLENNOTHORAX, Catarrh, Peripneumonia 
notha — b. Chronicus, Asthma humidum. 



BLENNURIA, Cystorrhoea. 

BLEPHARADENITIS, Ophthalmia Tarsi. 

tis gangrceno'sa, Oarbuncula'tio Oc'uli. Gangre- 
nous inflammation of the eyelids. 



BLEPHARIDOPLASTICE, Blepharoplastice. 


BLEPHARITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi — b. Gan- 
graenosa, Blepharanthracosis. 

purulent — b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia (pu- 
rulenta infantum.) 

rosyndesmi'tis, from jiXcipapov, ' an eyelid,' and 
conjunctiva. Ophthalmia affecting the conjunc- 
tiva and eyelids. 

BLEPHAR0DYSCHR03'A, from (JXecpapo,, the 
'eyelid,' Svs, 'with difficulty,' and x? oa > ' c °h'ur.' 
Discoloration of the eyelid. Naevus of the eye- 
lid. — Von Ammon. 


BLEPHARON, Palpebra— b. Atoniaton, Ble- 

BLEPHARONCO'SIS, Blephavon'cus, hie- 
pliarophy'ma, Palpebrarum Tumor, from (3Xt<pi*- 
pov, ' eyelid,' and oy/coj, ' tumour.' A tumour of 
the evelid. 

BLEPHARONCUS, Blepharoncosis. 

BLEPHAROPTHALMIA, Ophthalmia tarsi 
— b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — b. Purulenta, 

SA, Ophthalmia, purulent, of infants. 

BLEPHAROPHYMA, Blepharoncosis. 

BLi:i>llAROT>LAS'TICE, Blepharidoplas'tice, 
Insit"io Cilio'rum, from {lXc<papov, ' the eyelid,' 
and -nXacriKos, 'forming,' 'formative.' The for- 
mation of a new eyelid. 

BLEPHAROPLEGIA, Blepharoptosis. 

BLEPHAROPTO'SIS, Blepharople'gia, Casus 
pal'pebrcB snperio'ris, Delap'nus pal'pebra, Pro- 
lap'sus pal'pcbrce, Propto'sis pal'pebrtp,,' Pto'uis 
pal'pebrce, Atoniaton blepharon, from fiXc<papov, 
'the eyelid,' and tttwcis, 'fall.' A falling down 
of the upper eyelid over the eye, caused by a 
paralysis of the Levator pat 'pebra mperioris mus- 
cle. This paralysis is an unfavourable symptom, 
as it is generally connected with a stale of the 
brain favouring apoplexy or palsy. 

Blepharoptosis Ectropium, Ectropium — b» 
Entropion, Entropion. 




BLEPHAROPYORRH03'A, Blepharophthal'- 
n>ia purulen'ta, Pyorrhea' a pal'pebrce, from /3At0- 
apov, 'eyelid;' tvov, 'pus,' and ptiu, 'I flow.' 
Secretion of pus from the eyelids. 

Blepharo-ptorrhcea Neonatorum, see Oph- 
thalmia (purulenta infantum.) 

BLEPHARORRHffi'A, from (3\t<papov, 'eye- 
lid,' and pm, 'I flow.' A discharge of mucus 
from the eyelids. 

BLEPHAROSPAS'MUS, from $\t<p a pov, 'eye- 
lid,' and a-naapos, ' spasm.' A spasmodic action 
of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 


BLEPHAROTIS, Ophthalmia tarsi— b. Glan- 
dularis contagiosa, see Ophthalmia. 

BLEPHAROTITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 


BLEPHAROXY S'TUM, Blepharoxys'trum, 
from (l\t(bapov, ' eyelid,' and £uu>, ' I scrape.' An 
instrument used, by the ancients, for removing 
callosities, which made their appearance in the 
affection called, by the Greeks, rpa^ta^a. — Paulus 
of .iEgina, Gorrasus. 

BLEPHIL'IA HIRSU'TA, Ohio Horsemint, 
Hairy Horsemint ; an indigenous plant of the 
Mint family, Labiates, which has the aromatic 
properties of the Mints. 

BLESITE, Blaesitas. 

BLESSURE, Abortion, Wound. 

BLESTRIS'MUS. Restlessness of the sick.— 

BLETA. A word, used by Paracelsus for white 
or milky urine, arising from diseased kidneys. 
Biota alba has the same meaning. 

BLEU BE PRUSSE, Prussian blue. 

ville is a village about two miles from Havre. 
The waters are acidulous chalybeate. 

BLIGHT IN THE EYE, Ophthalmia, catar- 

BLINDNESS, Caecitas— b. Colour, Achroma- 

BLISTER, Vesicato'rium, Emplas'trum Vesica- 
to'rium, Emplas' trum Lytt<B,Epispas' ticnm, Blister 
plaster, from vesica, 'a bladder,' (F.) Vesicatoire, 
Vesicant. Any substance which, when applied to 
the skin, irritates it, and occasions a serous secre- 
tion, raising the epidermis, and inducing a vesicle. 
Various articles produce this effect, as cantha- 
rides, mustard, garou, euphorhium, garlic, ammo- 
nia, &c. Blisters are used as counter-irritants. 
By exciting a disease artificially on the surface, 
we can often remove another which may be at 
the time existing internally. A j>erp K lual blister 
Is one that is kept open for a longer or a shorter 
time by means of appropriate dressings. 

Blister or vesication also means the vesicle 
produced by vesicatories. 

Blister, Mag"istral, (F.) Vesicatoire magis- 
tral. A prompt means of producing vesication 
rcommended by M. Valleix. It is prepared as 
follows : — Take powdered cantharides and wheat- 
flower, of each equal parts ; vinegar, a sufficient 
quantity to form a soft paste. 

Blister Beetle, Cantharis. 

Blister Fly, Cantharis. 

Blistew Plaster, Blister. 

BLISTERWEED, Ranunculus acris. 

BLISTERING FLY, Cantharis— b. Paper, see 
Bparadrapum vesieatorium — b. Tissue, Sparadra- 
pum vesieatorium. 

BLITUM AMERICANUM, Phytolacca de- 

BLOOD, Anglo-Saxon, bloo, from bleoan, 'to 
bleed.' Sanguis, Cruor, Lapis anima'lis, Hcema, 
'aifxa, (F.) Sang. An animal fluid formed chiefly 
from the chyle ; acquiring important properties 

during respiration ; entering every organ through 
the circulation ; distributing the nutritive princi- 
ples to every texture, and the source of every 
secretion. The blood is white in the molluscous 
and inferior animals, which have been, hence, 
called white-blooded, to distinguish them from 
the red-blooded, which class includes the mam- 
malia, birds, reptiles, and fishes. Human blood 
is composed of water, albumen, fibrin, an animal 
colouring substance, a little fatty matter — hcema- 
telce'uw, and different salts; as chlorides of potas- 
sium and sodium, phosphate of lime, subcarbonate 
of soda, lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, and lactate 
of soda, united with an animal matter. Arterial 
blood is of a florid red colour, strong smell, temp. 
100°; s. g. 1.049. Venous blood is of a brownish 
red: temp. 98°; s. g. 1.051. The difference in 
colour has given occasion to the first being called 
red blood ; the latter, black. The former, which 
is distributed from the heart, is nearly the same 
through its whole extent: the latter is the re- 
mains of the arterial blood after the different 
elements have been taken from it in nutrition, 
and probably differs in composition. It likewise 
contains different substances absorbed. Venous 
blood, taken from a vessel and left to itself, be- 
comes solid, and separates into two distinct parts, 
— the serum or watery, supernatant fluid; and 
the cruor, coag'ulum, crassamen' turn, hepar seu 
placen'ta san'guinis, placen'ta cruo'ris, in'sula, 
thrombus, or clot. The serum is chiefly water, 
holding albumen in solution and the salts of the 
blood. The clot contains the fibrin, colouring 
matter — hcematosin, a little serum, and a small 
quantity of salts. M. Le Canu found the blood to 
be composed — in 1000 parts — of water, 785.690; 
albumen, 69.415 ; fibrin, 3.565 ; colouring matter, 
119.626; crystallizable fatty matter, 4.300; oily 
matter, 2.270 ; extractive matter soluble in alco- 
hol and water, 1.920 ; albumen combined with 
soda, 2.010 ; chlorides of sodium and potassium ; 
alkaline phosphates, sulphates, and subcarbon- 
ates, 7.304; subcarbonate of lime and magnesia, 
phosphate of lime, magnesia and iron, peroxide 
of iron, 1.414; loss, 2.586. The four principal 
components of the blood are fibrin, albumen, 
corpuscles, and saline matter. In the circulating 
blood they are thus combined — 

Albumen I * n solut i° n forming Liquor Sangui- 
Salts, ') nie ' 

Red Corpuscles — suspended in the Liquor San- 

In coagulated blood they are thus combined : 

Fibrin, ) Forming the crassamentum or 

Red Corpuscles, J clot. 

Albumen, j Remaining in solution, forming 
Salts, J serum. 

The following table exhibits the computations 
of different physiologists regarding the weight 
of the circulating fluid — arterial and venous. 

Harvey, ) )1)a 

Lister, i 

Moulins, f -- ••• 8 

Abildguard, J 

Blmneubacli, ) 

pbb, [ io 

Lower, ) 

Sprenwl 1 to 15 

f;, ,!, , l,hcr 15 to 20 

iiliike ](ji to 18J 

Miillcr and Burdach " oo 

Wagner - . .y// 20 ^35 

Unrsinu 27 

F Hoffmann <jg 

g a,ler '• • .... . to 30 

Young 40 

Hamberger go 

Keill '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.iw 




The proportion of arterial blood to venous is 
about 4 to 9. 

Much attention has been paid to the varying 
condition of the blood in disease. The average 
proportion of each of the organic elements in 
1000 parts of healthy blood is as follows, accord- 
ing to Le Canu, and MM. Andral and Gavarret: — 
fibrin, 3; red corpuscles, 127; solid matter of the 
serum, SO ; water, 790. 

Dried human blood was, at one time, consi- 
dered to be anti-epileptic; that of the goat, dried, 
Sanguis hirci sicca'tus, sudorific and antipleu- 

Blood, Arterial, see Blood — b. Black, see 
Blood — b. Black, Vascular system of, see Vascu- 
lar — b. Casein, Globulin — b. Cerpuscles, Globules 
of the blood — b. Disease, Haimatonosos — b. Disks, 
Globules of the blood — b. Dried, see Blood — b. 
Loss of, Haemorrhagia — b. Red, see Blood — b. 
Bed, system of, see Vascular — b. Spitting of, 
Haemoptysis — b. Venous, see Blood — b. Vomit- 
ing of, Hajmatemesis— b. White, Lymph. 
BLOODING, Bloodletting. 
BLOOD-LETTING, Misaio seu Detrac'tio 
San'guinis, Hamax 1 is, Cataschas'mus, Blooding, 
Bleeding, (F.) Saignee, Emission sanguine. A 
discharge of a certain quantity of blood produced 
by art : an operation which consists in making 
an opening into a vessel to draw blood from it. 
When practised on an artery, it is called Arteri- 
ot'omy ; on a vein, Pklebot'omy, Vencesec'tio, Ve- 
nesec'tion ; and on the capillary vessels, local or 
capillary, in contradistinction to the former, 
which is termed general. Blood-letting is used 
both during the existence of a disease, as in in- 
flammation, and in the way of prophylaxis. It 
is employed to fulfil various indications. 1. To 
diminish the actual mass of blood; — when it is 
termed, by the French pathologists, Saignee eva- 
cuative. In such case, fluids ought not to be al- 
lowed too freely afterwards. 2. To diminish the tur- 
gescence in any particular organ — ( (F.) Saignee 
revulsive, Revulsive bloodletting or bleeding, Ve- 
ncesec'tio revulso'ria, when performed far from the 
part affected; and Saignee derivative, when near.) 
'i. To diminish the consistence of the blood, (F.) 
Saignee spoliative. The immediate effects of 
blood-letting are : diminution of the mass of 
blood and of heat ; retardation of the pulse, and 
sometimes syncope. Blood-letting from the veins 
— phlebotomy, is practised on the subcutaneous 
veins of the neck, the face, the fore-arm, and the 
leg; sometimes on those of the hand or foot. 
The necessary apparatus consists of a bandage 
or riband, a compress of rag, and a lancet or 

The veins selected for the operation, are, 1. In 
the fold of the arm, five; — the cephalic, basilic, 
the two median, and the anterior cubital. 2. In 
the hand, the cephalic and salvatella. 3. In the 
foot, the great and little saphena. 4. In the neck, 
the external jugular. 5. In the forehead, the 
frontal. 6. In the mouth, the ranine. The ope- 
ration of phlebotomy in the limbs is performed 
by tying a circular bandage round the limb, in 
order that the subcutaneous veins may become 
turgid by the course of the blood being ob- 
structed : the bandage not being so tight, how- 
ever, as to compress the arteries of the limb. A 
puncture is made into the vein, and the desired 
quantity allowed to flow. The ligature is now 
removed, and a compress and retaining bandage 
applied. Capillary or local blood-letting is prac- 
tised on the skin or mucous membranes, by 
means of leeches, the lancet, or cupping. 

Bloodletting, Capillary, see Bloodletting— 
b. Derivative, see Bloodletting— b. Evacuative, 
see Bloodletting — b. General, see Bloodletting — 
b. Local, see Bloodletting — b. Revulsive, see 
Bloodletting — b. Spoliative, see Bloodletting. 

BLOODLIKE, Sanguine. 

BLOODROOT, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

BLOODSHOT, Hyperreniic. 

BLOODSTONE, Hamiatites. 

BLOOD VESICLE, Globule of the blood. 

BLOOD VESSEL, (F.) Vaisseau sangvin. 
vessel destined to contain and convey blood. 

Blood Ves%el, breaking, bursting, ruptur- 
ing or A. Hreniorrhagia. 

BLOODWEED, Asclepias curassavica. 

BLOODWORT, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

BLOODY, Sanguin'eus, Cruen'tus, Sanguin'- 
eous, (F.) Sanguin. Having the character of 
blood. Relating to blood. See Sanguine. 

BLOOM, HONEY, Apocynum androsasinifo- 


BLOW, Ictus, Plege, (F.) Coup. Effect pro- 
duced by one body striking another. The im- 
pression made by any body which strikes us, or 
against which we strike; — a common cause of 
wounds, contusions, fractures, <tc. 

BLOWING SOUND, Bruit de Souffle. 

BLUE-BELLS, Gentiana catesba'i. 

BLUE-BERRY, Caulophyllum thalictroides, 

BLUE BOTTLE, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus 

BLUE STONE, Cupri sulnhas. 

BLUET DES MOISSONS, Cyanus segetum. 

BLUSH, see Flush. 

Blush, Cutaneous, see Efflorescence. 

BOA, Boia. An eruption of red, ichorous pim- 
ples. — Pliny. See, also, Hiuroa and Sudamina. 

Boa Upas, Upas. 

'BOM, Syphilis. 

BOBERRI, Curcuma longa. 

BOCHIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOCIUM, Bronchocele. 

springs of Booklet, in Bavaria, are acidulous 

BODY, Corpus, Soma, (F.) Corps ; from (Teu- 
tonic) boden, the 'fundus or bottom.' (?) The 
human body is the collection of organs wLLn, 
compose the frame. At times, however, body is 
used synonymously with trunk. We say, also, 
body of the femur, of the sphenoid, &c, to desig- 
nate the shaft or middle portion of those bones j 
body of the uterus, &c. Also, the rectum. 

Body, Coming down op the, Proctocele. 

BODY-SNATCHER, Resurrectionist. 

BOE, Cry. 

BOELLI, Intestines. 

BOETHEMA, Medicament. 

BOG-BEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata. 


1 mi A, Boa. 

BOIL, Furunculus — b. Gum, Parulis — b. Ma- 
lignant, see Furunculus — b. Wasp's nest, see Fu- 

BOISDE CAM PL CHE, Hsematoxylum Cam- 
pechianum — b. de Chypre, Rhodium lignum — 6. 
de Couleuvre, see Strychnos — b. de 3/arais, Ce- 
phalanthus oocidentalis — b. de Plomb, Dirca pa- 
lustris — b. Puant, Primus padua — b. de Hose, 
Rhodium lignum — Ik de Sappan, t'.rsalpinia sap- 
pan — b. Sudorifique, Wood, sudorific. 

waters are situate about half a league from Fon- 
tenay-le-Compte, in France. They are purgative, 




and seem to contain carbonate and sulphate of 
lime and chloride of sodium. 

BOISSON, Drink. 

BOITE, (F.) A box or case, Capisa, Pyxis. 
An apparatus for the reception of any matters 
■which it may be desirable to preserve. In Sur- 
gery and Anatomy Bottes & dissection, B. d am- 
putation, B. a trepan, B. d cataracte, &c, mean 
the cases containing these various instruments. 
Boite du Crane is the bony case which receives 
the brain. Boite is, also, the portion of the 
stem of the trephine which receives the pyra- 
mid or centre-pin. Boite de Petit' is a machine, 
invented by M. Petit, to retain the fractured por- 
tions of bone in apposition, when the leg has been 
fractured in a complicated manner. Boite is, also, 
a kind of case put before an artificial anus to re- 
ceive the fasces, which are continually being dis- 
charged. The vulgar, in France, give the name 
Boite to various articulations, — B. de genou, B. 
de la hanche ; "knee-joint, hip-joint." 

BOtTEMENT, Claudication. 

BOITIER, (F.) Appareil, Gap'sula unguenta'- 
ria, Capsa,' rium. A Dressing-case. A box, con- 
taining salves and dilferent apparatus, used more 
particularly by the dressers in hospitals. 

BOL, Bolus — b. d'ArmSnie, Bole, Armenian — 
b. Blanc, Bolus alba. 

BOLA, Myrrha. 

BOLCHON, Bdellium. 

BOLE, Bolus, (F.) Bol, Terre bolaire, meant, 
with the older writers, argillaceous earth, used 
as an absorbent and alexipharmic. The various 
boles had different forms given to them, and were 
stamped, as in the following : 

Bole Arme'nian, Bole Arme'niac, B . Ar'me- 
nic, Argil'la ferrugin'ea rubra, A. Bolus rubra, 
Sinapi'sis, Arena' men, Bolus Orienta'lis, Bolus 
Armeniaca, B. Arme'niae, B. rubra, (F.) Bol 
d'Armenie. A red, clayey earth, found not only 
in Armenia, but in several countries of Europe, — 
in Tuscany, Silesia, France, <fee. It was once 
esteemed a tonic and astringent, and was applied 
as a styptic. It is now, scarcely, if ever, used. 
It consists of argil, mixed with lime and iron. 

BOLESIS, Coral. 

BOLE&ON, Balsam. 

BOLET ODORANT, Dsedalea suaveolens. 

BOLETUS AGARICUS, B. Laricis— b. Albus, 
Boletus laricis — b. Diseoideus, Dtedalea suaveo- 

Bole'tus Esculen'tus, (F.) Morelle. An 
eatable mushroom, found in the woods in Eu- 
rope, and much admired by Gastronomes. It was 
formerly esteemed to be aphrodisiac. 

Boletus Fulvus, B.igniarius — b. Hippocrepis, 
B. igniarius. 

Bole'tus Ignia'rius. The systematic name 
for the Ag'aric, Agar'icus, Agar'icum of the 
Pharmacopoeias, Agar'icus Chirurgo'rum, Agar'- 
icus Querciis seu ignia'rius, Polyp'orus ignia'rius, 
Is'ca, Bole'tus ungula'tus seu fulvus seu hippo- 
crepis seu obtu'sus, Spunk, Am'adou, Punk, Fun- 
gus Ignia'rius, Fungus Querci'nus, Agaric of the 
Oak, Touch wood, Touchwood Boletus, Female 
Agaric, Tinder, (F ) Agaric de chene, Amadou- 
vier. It was formerly much used by surgeons as 
a styptic. 

Bole'tus Lar'icis, B. Lariei'nus, Fun'gus 
Lar'icis, Polyp'orus officinalis, Agar'icus albus 
feu Lar'icis, Polyp'orus officinalis, A. Albus op'- 
limus, B. p.rgans, B. albus, B. agar'icus, B. offi- 
eina'lis, White Agaric, (F.) Agaric blanc. On 
the continent of Europe it has been given as a 
cathartic and emetic, as well as to moderate the 

sweats in phthisis. — De Hacn. Externally, 

Boletus Obtusus, B. igniarius — b. Officinalis, 
B. laricis — b. Purgans, Boletus laricis — b. Salicis, ^ 
Diedalea suaveolens — b. Suaveolens, Da?dalea \ 
suaveolens — b. Touchwood, Boletus igniarius. 

BOLI MARTIS, Ferrum tartarisatum. 

BOLISMOS, Boulimia, 

BOLI'TES. The mushroom ; perhaps the 
Agar'icus Aurantiactis. — Pliny, Martial, Seuto- 
nius, Galen. It was so called, in consequence 
of its shape, — from Bolus. 

BOLUS, 0u>\os, a morsel, a mouthful, a bole, 
(F.) Bol. A pharmaceutical preparation, having 
a pilular shape, but larger; capable, however, of 
being swallowed as a pill. 

Bolus Alba, Terra Sigilla'ta, Argil'la pal- 
lid' ior : called sigilla'ta, from being commonly 
made into small cakes or flat masses, and stamped 
or sealed with certain impressions. (F.) Bol 
blanc, Terre Sigillee, Argile ochreuse pale. It 
was used like Bole Armenian, and was brought 
from Etruria. See Terra. 

Bolus, Alimen'tary, Bolus Alimenta'rius. 
The bole formed by the food, after it has under- 
gone mastication and insalivation in the mouth; 
and been collected upon the tongue prior to de- 

Bolus Orienta'lis. A kind of bolar earth, 
only distinguished from Bole Armenian in being 
brought from Constantinople. See Bole, Arme- 

Bolus Rubra, Bole, Armenian. 

BOMA'REA SALSIL'LA. The inhabitants 
of Chili use this plant as a sudorific. It is given 
in infusion in cutaneous diseases. 

BOMBAX, Gossypium. 


BOMBUS, Au'rium fluctna'tio, A. Sib'ilus, A. 
Son'itus, A. Susur'rus, (F.) Bombement. A kind 
of ringing or buzzing in the ears;— characterized, 
according to Sauvages, by the perception of 
blows or beating repeated at certain intervals. 
Also, Borborygmus. See Flatulence, and Tin- 
nitus Aurium. 

BOMBYX MORI, see Serieum. 

BON, Coffea Arabica. 

BONA. Phaseolus vulgaris. 


BONA FEVER, see Fever, Bona. 

BONDUE, Gymnocladus Canadensis. 

BONE, Os, Os'teon, Os'tcum, (F.) Os, Saxon, 
ban. The bones are the solid and hard parts, 
which form the basis of the bodies of animals 
of the superior classes; and the union of which 
constitutes the skeleton. The human body has, 
at the adult age, 208 bones, without including 
the 32 teeth, the ossa Wormiana, and the sesa- 
moid bones. Anatomists divide them, from their 
shape, into 1. Long bones, which form part of the 
limbs, and represent columns for supporting the 
weight of the body, or levers of different kinds 
for the muscles to act upon. 2. Flat bones, which 
form the parietes of splanchnic cavities ; and, 3. 
Short bones, met with in parts of the body where 
solidity and some mobility are necessary. Bones 
are formed of two different textures ; spungy and 
compact. They afford, on analysis, much phos- 
phate and carbonate of lime, a little phosphate 
of magnesia, phosphate of ammonia, oxides of 
iron and manganese, some traces of alumina and 
silica, gelatin, fat, and water. The uses of the 
bones are mentioned under each bone. They 
give shape to the body, contain and defend the 
viscera, and act as levers to the muscles. 





Bones of 




Bones of the 
Cranium or ■{ 



Bones of the ! 
Face. } 

Bones of 


Bone of the J 
Tongue. \ 

Bones of the 


Frontal 1 

Parietal 2 

Occipital 1 

Temporal 2 

Ethmoid l 

Sphenoid l 

Superior Maxillary. ... 2 

Jugal or Cheek 2 

Nasal 2 

Lachrymal 2 

Palatine 2 

Inferior Spongy 2 

Vomer ] 

Inferior Maxillary .... 1 

Incisores 8 

Cuspidati 4 

Molares 20 

Hyoid 1 

Malleus 2 

Incus 2 

Orbiculare 2 

Stapes 2 

Cervical 7 

Dorsal 12 

Lumbar 5 

Bones of 
the Up- 
per Ex- 


Os Coccygis . 

The Thorax. 

The Pelvis. 

The Shoulder. 

The Arm. 



■o Carpus 
§ or 

3q <j Wrist. 


Sternum 1 

Ribs 24 

Innominatum 2 

Clavicle 2 

Scapula 2 

Humerus 2 

Ulna 2 

Radius 2 

Naviculare 2 

Lunare 2 

Cuneiforme 2 

Orbiculare 2 

Trapezium 2 

Trapezoides 2 

Magnum 2 


_ Phalanges 

f The Thigh. 
The Leg. 

Bones of 





I Metatarsus 
(. Phalanges ■ 



Femur 2 

Patella 2 

Tibia 2 

Fibula 2 

Calcis Os 2 

Astragalus 2 

Cuboides 2 

Naviculare 2 

Cuneiforme C 

: 10 


Total, 240 

Bone-Ach, Osteocopus — b. Back, Vertebral 
column — b. Bar, Pubis, os — b. Blade, Scapula — 
b. Boat-like, Os scapboides — b. Breast, Sternum 
— b. Crupper, Coccyx. 

Bone Fever, see Inflammation. 

Bone, Haunch, Ilion — b. Interparietal, Inter- 
parietal bone — b. Rump, Coccyx — b. Share, Pu- 
bis — b. Splinter, Fibula. 

Bone Nippers, Osteul'cum, Tenac'ula, from 
teneo, 'I bold.' (F.) Tenaille incisive. An in- 
strument used for cutting off splinters and car- 
tilages. It is a kind of forceps, the handles of 
which are strong, and the edges, which touch 
each other, cutting. 

BONEBINDER, Osteocolla. 

BONE-DOCTOR, Renoueur. 

BONESET, Eupatorium perfoliatum — b. Up- 
land, Eupatorium sessilifolium. 

BONE-SETTER, Renoueur. 

ossium— b. Friability of the, Fragilitas ossium— 
b. Salt of, Ammoniae carbonas — b. Softening of 
the, Mollities ossium. 

BONIFACIA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BONNE DAME, Atriplex hortensis. 


is a village six leagues from Pan, in the depart- 
ment Basses Pyrenees, France. Here are several 
thermal springs. They were celebrated as early 
as the time of Francis I., under the name Eaux 
d'Arquebusade. They contain chlorides of sodium 
and magnesium, sulphates of magnesia and lime, 
sulphur, and silica. The temperature is from 78° 
to 98° Fahrenheit. 

The factitious Eau de Bonnes is made of Hy- 
droaulphureUed ivater, f^iv; pure water, Oj. and 
f^ss; chloride of sodium, gr. xxx; sulphate of 
magnesia, gr. i. 

BONNET, Reticulum. 


poe'rates, ilitra Hippocrat'ica, Eas'cia capita'lis, 
Pi'leus Hippocrat' ieus. A kind of bandage, the 
invention of which is ascribed to Hippocrates. 
It consists of a doubLe-headed roller, passed over 
the head so as to envelop it like a cap. The 
French, also, name it, Bonnet d deux globes, 
Capeline de la tete. 

BONNTCLABBER, Clabber, from Irish, 
baine, ' milk,' and clabar, ' mire.' In Ireland, 
sour buttermilk. In this country, the thick part 
of sour milk. 

febrifuga — b. Trifoliata, Cusparia febrifuga. 

BONTIA GERMINANS, Avicennia tomen- 

BONUS GENIUS, Peucedanum— b. Henricus, 
Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 

BONY, Osseous. 

BOON UPA,^ Upas. 

BOONA, Phaseolus vulgaris. 


BOOTIKIN. A glove with a partition for the 
thumb, but no separate ones for the fingers — like 
an infant's glove — made of oiled silk. — Dr. E. J. 
Seymour. Horace Watpole speaks in raptures 
of the benefit he derived from bootikins in gout. 

BORAC'IC ACID, Ae"idum Borac"icum, Sal 
sedati'vus Homber'gi, Boric Acid, (F.) Acicle 
boraeique. An acid obtained from borax, which 
was once looked upon as sedative. It was also 
called Acor Borac"ieus, Sal vitrioli narcot 1 icum, 
Sal volat'ile Bora'cis, and Flores Bora'cis. 

BORAGE, Bora?o officinalis. 

BORA'GO OFFICINALIS, Buglos'sum ve- 
rum, Bug. latifo'lium, Borra'go, Corra'go. Bo- 
rago horten'sis, Borage, (F.) Bourrache. Nat. 
Ord. Boragineaa. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Mono- 
gynia. The leaves and flowers have been con- 
sidered aperient. 


BORATHRON, Juniperus Sabina. 

BORAX, Boras Soda, Soda Bibo'ras, Subbo- 
ras Soda., Boras supersat'urua soda, Soda Bo- 
raxa'ta, Chrysocol'la, Capis'trum auri, Sitbborate 
of protox'ide of So'dium, Subprotobo'rate of So- 
dium, Boras Soda alcales'cens seu alcali'num, 
Boras superso'dicus, Borax Ven'etus, Subbo'ras 
Na'tricum, Borax'trion, Nit.runi factU'tium, &o. 
Subbo'rate or Biborate of Soda, Borate of Soda, 
(F.) Borate ou Sous-borate de Sonde, Borate snr- 
sature de soude. It is found in an impure state in 
Thibet and Persia. It is inodorous; taste cool, 
and somewhat alkaline; soluble in 12 parts of 
water. Borax is seldom used except as a lotion 
in aphthae. 

Borate of Mercury has been recommended 
as an antisyphilitic. 


African shrub, used in asthma and hydrothorax. 
In decoction, it is given as a diuretic— Pappe. 





BORBORYG'MUS, from Popfiopvfa, 'I make a 
dull noise' Murmur seu Bombus seii Motus In- 
teatino'rum, Anile'ma, Anile' sis, Ccp.lopsoph'ia, In- 
tona'tio intestina'lis. Murmur ventris seu intesti- 
na'le, Borborygm, (F.) Gargouillement, Grouille- 
ment d'Entrailles. The noise made by flatus in 
the intestines. This happens often in health, 
especially in nervous individuals. 

BORD, (F.) Margo, Edge, Margin. Anato- 
mists have so named the boundaries of an organ. 
Thus, the bones, muscles, &c, have bords as well 
as bodies. The 'free edge,' bord libre, is one not 
connected with any part ; the ' adhering edge,' 
bord adherent, one that is connected; and the 
bord articulaire, or 'articular margin, or edge,' 
that which is joined to another bone. 
BORD OlLlAIRE. Ciliarv margin. 
Near this great city, in the south-west of France, 
is a saline, chalybeate spring. It contains oxide 
of iron, carbonate and sulphate of lime, chlorides 
of sodium and calcium, subcarbonate of soda, and 
6ulphate of magnesia. 
BORE, Boron. 

BORGNE, (F.) Codes, Unoc'uhu, Luscus, 
Luscio'sus. One who has only one eye, or sees 
only with one. The word has been used, figu- 
ratively, for blind, in surgery and anatomy. See 
BORIUM, Boron. 

BORKHATJSENIA CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 
BORN ; past particle of bear, (F.) ne. Brought 
forth from the womb. 

Born Alive. It has been decided by English 
judges, that 'to be born alive,' means that acts 
of life must have been manifested after the whole 
body has been extruded; and that respiration in 
transitu is not evidence that a child was born 
alive. It must be 'wholly born alive;' hence res- 
piration may be a sign of life, but not of live birth. 
BORON, Bo'rium, Borum, (F.) Bore. A simple 
substance, the basis of boracic acid ; obtained, by 
heating potassium with boracic acid, as a dark 
olive-coloured powder, devoid of taste and smell. 
Heated in the air or in oxygen, it is converted 
into boracic acid. 

BOR'OSAIL, Zael. Ethiopian names for a 
disease, very common there, which attacks the 
organs of generation, and appears to have con- 
liderable analogy with syphilis. 
BORRAGO, Borago officinalis. 
BORRI, Curcuma longa. 
BORRIBERRI, Curcuma longa. 
B village in Beam. The waters are chalybeate. 
BORUM, Boron. 

BOSA. An Egyptian name for a mass, made 
or the meal of darnel, hemp-seed, and water. It 
L inebriating. — Prospero Alpini. 

lum glaucum. 

BOSOM, see Mamma. 
BOSSA, Plague token. 

BOSSE, Hump, Protuberance — b. Nasale, 
Nasal protuberance. 
BOSWELLIA SERRATA, see Juniperus lycia. 
BOTAL FORA'MEN, For a' men Bota'li seu 
Botal'lii j the Fora'men ova'le, (F.) Trou de 
Botal, Trou ovale. A large opening which exists 
In the fcetus in the partition between the two 
auricles of the heart; and by means of which 
the blood passes from one to the other. Its 
discovery is generally attributed to Leonard Bo- 
iiillus, Botal, or Botalli, who wrote in 1502. It 
was spoken of, however, by Vesalius, and even 
by Galen. 
BOTANE, Herb. 

B TA XIQ UE MED WALE, Botany, medical. 
BOT'ANY, MBD'ICAL, Botan'ica Med' Ira, 
Medici' na Botan'ica, Phytolog"ia med'ica; from 
(ioravn, 'an herb,' (F.) Botanique Medicate. Tha 
knowledge of the properties, characters, <fec, of 
those vegetables which are used in medicine. 

BOTAR'GO, (F.) Botargue. A preparation 
made in Italy and the south of France, with the 
eggs and blood of the Mugilceph 'a/us or Mullet/ 
strongly salted, after it has become putrescent. 
It is used as a condiment. 
BOTARGUE, Botargo. 

BOTHOR. An Arabic term for abscess in the 
nares. It means, also, a tumour in general ; 
especially those which are without solution of 

BOTIIRIOCEPH'ALUS, Botrioceph' alus la. 
tns, Bothrioceph' alum, Botrioceph' alus, from fiuO- 
piov, ' a small pit,' and Kc<pa\n, ' head,' Ta'nia lata, 
T. vulga'ris, Lvmbri'cus lutus, Plate'a, T. os'ctdis 
lateral'ibus gem'inis, T. grisea, T. membrana'cea, 
T. tcnel'la, T. denta'ta, T. huma'na iner'mis, Hal'- 
ysis membrana'cea, T. prima, T. os'culis lateral'- 
ibus solita'riis, T. aceph'ala, T. oscnlis superfi- 
cial'ibus, T. d anneaux courts, T. non arrni, Ver 
solitaire, Broad Tape worm. Common in Swit- 
zerland, Russia, and some parts of France. It 
inhabits the intestines of man, and extends to an 
enormous length. A broken specimen has been 
obtained CO yards long. — Goeze. 

BOTH'RION, Both'rium, from Po$pos, 'a pit, 
cavity,' <fec. An alveolus or small fossa. A 
small deep ulcer on the cornea. — Galen, Paulus 
of jEgina. See Fossette. 

BOTHRIUM, Bothrion, Fossette. 
BOTHROS, Fovea. 
BOTIN, Terebinthina. 
BOTIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOTOTIIINUM. An obscure term, used by 
Paracelsus to denote the most striking symptom 
of a disease : — the Flos morbi. 
BOTOU, Pareira brava. 
BOTRIOCEPHALUS, Bothriocephalus. 
BOTRION, Alveolus. 


BOTRYS, Chenopodium botrys, see Vitis vini- 
fera — b. Ambroisioides, Chenopodium ambro- 
sioides — b.Americana,Chenopodiumambrosioides 
— b. Anthelminticum, Chenopodium anthelmin- 
ticum — b. Mexicana, Chenopodium ambrosioides. 
BOTTIXE, (F.) A thin boot or buskin, O'crea 
le'vior. An instrument, which resembles a small 
boot, furnished with springs, straps, buckles, <fec., 
and used to obviate distortions of the lower ex- 
tremities in children. 
BOTTLE-NOSE, Gutta rosea. 
BOTTLE-STOOP. In Pharmacy, an arrange- 
ment for giving the proper inclination to a bottle 
containing a powder, so as to admit of the con- 
tents being readily removed by the knife, in dis- 
pensing medicines. It consists of a block of 
wood with a groove in the upper surface, to re- 
ceive the bottle in an oblique position. 
BOUBALIOS, Momordica elaterium, Vulva. 
BOUBON. Bubo. 

BOUCAGE MAJEUR, Pimpinella magna — 
6. Mineur, Pimpinella saxifraga — b. Petit, Pim- 
pinella saxifraga, 
BOUOHE, Mouth. 
B UCLEMEXT, Lobulation. 
BOUES DES EAUX, (F.) Boues Minh-ales, 
Bal'nea Cveno'sa. The mud or swamp, formed 
near mineral springs, impregnated with the sub- 
stances contained in such springs, and conse- 
quently possessing similar properties. The Bouea 
arc applied generally and topically, in France, 
at the springs of St. Amand, Bagner'es dc Luchon, 




Bagnols, Bareges ; in the United States, at the 
White Sulphur in Virginia, &c. 

BOUES MINERALES, Bones des eaux. 

BOUFFE, (F.) The small eminence, formed 
by the junction of the two lips. — Dulaurens. 

BOUFFISSURE, Puffiness. 

BOUGIE, (F.) A wax candle: Candel'ula, 
Oande'la, C. ce'rea, Cande'la medica'ta, Ce'rewn 
medica'tum, Cereolus Chirurgo' rum, Da'dion, 
Specil'lum ce'reum, Virga ce'rea, Cereolus. A 
flexible cylinder, variable in size, to be intro- 
duced into the urethra, oesophagus, rectum, <fcc, 
for the purpose of dilating these canals, when 
contracted. A Simple Bougie is composed of 
solid and insoluble substances; as plaster, elastic 
gum, catgut, <fcc. It acts of course only mecha- 

Bougie, Med'icated, (F.) B. Medicamenteuse, 
has the addition of some escharotic or other sub- 
stance to destroy the obstacle; as in the Caustic 
Bougie, which has a small portion of Lunar Caus- 
tic or Common Caustic inserted in its extremity. 
Ducamp has recommended a Bougie, which swells 
out near its extremity, for the better dilating of 
the urethra. This he calls B. d ventre. The 
metallic Bougie, invented by Smyth, is a compo- 
sition of metal, allowing of great flexibility ; and 
a holloio Bougie is one, with a channel running 
through it, to be used in the same manner as the 
catheter, or otherwise. 

BOUILLIE (F.), Pultic'ula, Pap, from (F.) 
bouillir, 'to boil.' Flour, beaten and boiled with 
milk. It is a common food for infants. 

BOUILLON, (F.) from bouillir, 'to boil,' Jus, 
Sorbit"io. A liquid food, made by boiling the 
flesh of animals in water. The osmazome, gela- 
tin, and soluble salts dissolve ; the fat melts, and 
the albumen coagulates. Bouillon is nourishing, 
owing to the gelatin and osmazome. The Jus de 
Viande is a very concentrated Bouillon, prepared 
of beef, mutton, veal, <fec. 

BOUILLON, in common language, in France, 
means a round fleshy excrescence, sometimes 
Been in the centre of a venereal ulcer. 

BOUILLON BLANC, Verbascum nigrum. 

MACEUTIQUES, Medicinal or Pharmaceutic 
Bouillons, contain infusions or decoctions of me- 
dicinal herbs. The Bouillon aux herbes is gene- 
rally composed of sorrel or beet. 

BOUILLON d'OS, (F.) Bouillon from bones, 
is obtained by treating bones with muriatic acid, 
in order to dissolve the earthy parts. The gela- 
tin, which remains, is then boiled with a little 
meat and vegetables. — D'Arcet. Bouillon, how- 
ever, can be easily obtained from the bones of 
roast meat by simple coction. 

B UILL ONNEMENT, Ebullition. 

BOUIS, Buxus. 

BOULE UACIER, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. 
de Mars, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Molsheim, 
Ferrum tartarizatum — 6. de Nancy, Ferrum tar- 

BOULE AU COMMUN, Betula alba. 

BOULESIS, Voluntas. 

BOULIM'IA, Bulim'ia, Bulim'im, Bu'limus, 
Bou'limos, Bulimi'asis, Bolismos, Eclim'ia, Fames 
cani'na, Appeti'tus caninus, Appeten'tia cani'na, 
Adepha'gia, Cynorex'ia, Orex'is cyno'des, Bvpi'- 
na, Btipei'na, Phaga'na, Phagedm'na, Fames 
Bovi'na, F. Lupi'na, from Qovs, ' an ox,' and Xi/hk, 
'hunger;' or from (is, augmentative particle, and 
^ifioi, 'hunger,' (F.) Boulimie, Faint canine, F. 
devorante, Polyphagie. An almost insatiable 
hunger. A canine appetite. It is sometimes 
seen in hysteria and pregnancy; rarely under 
ether circumstances. 

BOULIMIE, Boulimia. 


Boulogne is in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 
France. The waters are chalybeate. 

(F.) from bouquet, a collection of flowers or other 
substances tied together. A name given, by some 
anatomists, to the collection of ligaments and 
muscles, inserted into the styloid process of the 
temporal bone. 

Bouquet Fever, Dengue. 

BOURBILLON, see Furunculus (core.) 

OF. Bourbon-Lancy is a small village in the 
department of Saone-et-Loire, France; where 
there are thermal saline springs, containing car- 
bonic acid, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
soda, chloride of calcium, carbonate of lime, iron, 
and silica. Their heat is from 106° to 135° 

WATERS OF. This town is in the department 
of Allier, six leagues west from Moulins, and 
has been long celebrated for its thermal chaly- 
beate waters. They contain sulphohydric acid, 
sulphate of soda, magnesia, and lime, carbonate 
of iron, and silica. Their temperature varies be- 
tween 136° and 145° Fahrenheit. 

WATERS OF. These springs are seven leagues 
from Langres, department of Haute -Marne, 
France. They are thermal and saline, and have 
been long celebrated. Temperature from 106° 
to 133° Fahrenheit. The Factitious water, (F.) 
Eau de Bonrbonne-les-Bains, Aqua Borvonen'sis, 
is composed of water, containing twice its bulk 
of carbonic acid, f ^xxss ; chloride of sodium, 
f£j> chloride of calcium, gr. x, <fec. 

A village near Mount d'Or, where there are two 
thermal saline springs. 

BOURDAINE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURDONNEMENT, Tinnitus aurium. 

BOURDONNET, Pulvil'lus, P. e linamen'tis 
con/ec'tus, P. rotun'dus, Dossil. A term in French 
surgery for charpie rolled into a small mass of 
an olive shape, which is used for plugging wounds, 
absorbing the discharge, and preventing the 
union of their edges. In cases of deep and pene- 
trating wounds, as of the abdomen or chest, a 
thread is attached to them by which they may 
be readily withdrawn, and be prevented from 
passing altogether into those cavities. 

BOURGENE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURGEON, Granulation, Papula— 5. Char- 
mi, Granulation. 

BOURGEONS, Gutta rosea. 

BOURRACIIE, Borago officinalis. 

BOURRELET {¥.), A Pad, a Border. A 
fibro-cartilaginous border, which surrounds cer- 
tain articular cavities, such as the glenoid cavity 
of the scapula and the acetabulum ; by which the 
depth of those cavities is augmented. 

BOURRELET ROULE, Cornu ammonis. 

BOURSE d BERGER, Thlaspibursa — b. d 
Pasteur, Thlaspibursa. 

BOURSES, (LES,) Scrotum. 

B URSO UFL URE, Puffin ess. 

BOUTON, Papula— -b. d'Alep, see Anthrax— 
b. Malin, see Anthrax — b. d'Or, Ranunculus 

BOUTONNIERE (F.), Fissu'ra, Incis'io. A 
small incision made into the urethra to extract a 
calculus from the canal, when it is too large to 
be discharged. 

Also, a small incision or puncture, made in the 
peritoneum, or above the pubis, to penetrate the 
bladder in certain cases of retention of urin*>. 




BOYACHEVO, Datura sanguinea. 

BOVILL^E, Rubeola. 

BOVISTA, Lvcoperdon. 

BOWEL, Intestine. 

BOWLEGGED, see Cnemoscoliosis. 

BOWMAN'S ROOT, Euphorbia corollata, Gil- 
lenia trifoliata, Leptandria purpurea. 

BOXBERRY, Gaultheria. 

BOX, MOUNTAIN, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BOX TREE, Buxus, Cornus Florida. 

BOXWOOD, Cornus Florida. 

BOYAU, Intestine. 

BRABYLON, Prunum Damascenum. 



BRACHIA COPULATIVA, see Peduncles of 
the Cerebellum. 

BRACHIA PONTIS, see Peduncles of the 

•BRACHIJEUS, Brachial — b. Internus, Bra- 
chialis anterior. 

BRA'CHIAL, Brachia'lis, Brachial' us, from 
Brachium, 'the arm.' What belongs to the arm. 

Brachial Aponeurosis. An aponeurosis, 
formed particularly by expansions of the tendons 
of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and del- 
toides muscles, and which completely envelops 
the muscles of the arm. 

Brachial Artery, Arte'ria brachia'lis, Hu'- 
meral Artery, (F.) Artere ou Tronc brachial. 
The artery, which extends from the axilla to the 
bend of the elbow; where it divides into A. cubi- 
taiis and A. radialis. It passes along the inter- 
nal edge of the biceps, behind the median nerve 
and between the accompanying veins. Under 
the name Brachial Artery, 51. Chaussier includes 
the subclavian, axillary, and humeral, the last 
being the brachial proper. 

Brachial Muscle, Anterior, Mub' cuius Bra- 
chia'lis Ante'rior, Brachia'lis internus, B. anti'- 
cus, Brachial' us, Brachi a' us internus, (F.) Muscle 
brachial interne, Humero-cubital — (Ch.) This 
muscle is situate at the anterior and inferior part 
of the arm, and before the elbow-joint. It arises, 
fleshy, from the middle of the os humeri, and is 
inserted into the coronoid process of the ulna. 
Use. To bend the fore-arm. 

Brachial Plexus, Plexus Brachia'lis, is a 
nervous plexus, formed by the interlacing of the 
anterior branches of the last four cervical pairs 
and the first dorsal. It is deeply seated in the 
hollow of the axilla, and extends as far as the 
inferior and lateral part of the neck. It gives 
off the thoracic nerves, supra and infra scapular, 
and the brachial (which are six in number,) the 
axillary, cutaneous, museulo-cutaneous, radial, 
cubital, and median. 

Brachial Veins are two in number, and ac- 
company the artery, frequently anastomosing 
with each other: they terminate in the axillary. 
Under the term Brachial Vein, Chaussier in- 
cludes the humeral, axillary, and subclavian. 


BRACHIAL'GIA, Neural' gia Brachia'lis, 
from (Spa X iov, 'the arm,' and a\yos, 'pain.' Pain 
in the arm, neuralgia of the arm. 

BRACHIALIS, Brachial— b. Anticus, Brachial 
muscle — b. Externus, see Triceps extensor cubiti 
— b. Internus, Brachial muscle. 




nate arteria — b. Veins, Innominate venaj. 

B R A 'C H I O-C U' B I TAL, Brachio-cubita'lis. 
That which belongs both to the arm and cubitus. 
This name has been given to the internal lateral 
ligament of the elbow-joint ; because it is at- 

tached to the os brachii or os humeri and to the 
cubitus or ulna. 

BKACHIOCYLLO'SIS, from Ppa X iu>v, 'the 
arm,' and kvWwois, 'the act of making crooked.' 
Curvature of the arm inwards.' 1 aralysis or loss 
of power from curvature of tho arm. 

BRACHION, Brachium. 

BRACHION'CUS, from 0pa X twv, 'the arm,' 
and oyKos, 'a swelling.' A tumour of the arm. 

BRA'CHIO-RA'DIAL, Braehio-radia'lia. That 
which belongs to the brachium and radius. This 
name has been applied to the external lateral 
ligament of the elbow-joint, because it is attached 
to the humerus and to the radius. See Supinator 
radii longus. 

BRACHIORRHEU'MA, RheWnatis'mvs bra'. 
chii, from l3pa X iwv, 'the arm,' and ptvpa, 'deflux- 
ion, rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the arm. 


BRA'CHIUM, Bra'chion, Lacer'tus, (F.)Bras, 
the arm. The arm from the shoulder to the wrist, 
or the part between the shoulder and elbow. See 
Humeri, Os. 

Bra'chium Ante'rius. A rounded process, 
which passes from the anterior pair of the cor- 
pora quadrigemina (nates) obliquely outwards 
into the thalamus opticus. 

Brachium Movens Quartus, Latissimus dorsi. 

Bra'chium Poste'rius. A rounded process, 
which passes from the posterior pair of the qua- 
drigemina (testes) obliquely outwards into the 
optic thalamus. 

BRACHUNA, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

BRACHYAU'CHEN, from (3pa X v<;, 'short,' and 
av X r)v, 'neck.' One who has a short neck. 

BRACHYCEPH'ALiE, (Gentes) 'short heads,' 
from 0pa X vg, 'short,' and KzipaXrj, 'head.' In the 
classification of Retzius, those nations of men 
whose cerebral lobes do not completely cover the 
cerebellum — as the Sclavonians, Fins, Persians, 
Turks, Tartars, &c. 

BRACHYCHRON'IUS, from 0pa X v S , 'short,' 
and X povos, 'time.' That which continues but a 
short time. A term applied to diseases which 
are of short duration. — Galen. 

BRACHYGNA'THUS, from (3pa X v<;, 'short,' 
and yvadog, ' the under jaw.' A monster with too 
short an under jaw. — Gurlt. 

BRACHYNSIS, Abbreviation. 

BRACHYPN(EA, Dyspnoea. 

BRACHYP'OTL from (3pa X v<;, 'short,' and 
voTTjg, 'drinker.' They who drink little, or who 
drink rarely. Hippoc, Galen, Foesius. 

BRACHYRHYN'CHUS; from 0pa X vg, 'short,' 
and pvy X os, ' snout.' A monster with too short a 

BRACHYSMOS, Abbreviation. 

BRACING, Corroborant. 

BRACKEN, Pteris aquilina. 

BRADY.ESTHE'SIA, from 0p«<W, ' difficult,' 
and aiaOriffts. 'sensation.' Impaired sensation. 

BRADYBOLISMUS, Bradyspermatismus. 

BRADYECOIA, Deafness. 

BRADYLOG"IA, Dysla'lia; from Ppaivs, 'diffi- 
cult, and \oyoq, 'a discourse.' Difficultv of speech. 

BRADYMASE'SIS, Bradymasse'sis, impro- 
perly Bradymaste'sis, Manduca'tio diffic"ilis, 
from Ppnivg, 'difficult,' and pani/ais, 'mastica- 
tion.' Difficult mastication. Sec Dvsmasesis. 

BRADYMASTESIS, Bradymases'is. 

BRADYPEP'SIA, Tarda cibo'rum concoc'tio, 
from PpaSvs, 'slow,' and rtTrroi, 'I digest.' Slow 
digestion. — Galen. See Dyspepsia. 

BRADYSPEKMATIS'MUS, Bradybolis'mus, 
Ejaeula'tio son'inis imped'ita, Dyspermatis'mun, 
from fipaivg, 'slow,' and enreppa, 'sperm.' A slow 
emission of sperm. 

BRADYSU'RIA, Tenea'mus vesi'ca, (F.) Ti- 




neame vSsical, from jipaSvs, 'difficult,' and ovpuv, 

to pass the urine.' Painful evacuation of the 

urine, with perpetual desire to void it. Dysuria. 

BRADYTOCIA, Dystocia. 

BRAG'GET, Braggart, Bragwort. A name 
formerly applied to a tisan of honey and water. 
See Hydromeli. 

BR A I, LIQUIDE, see Pinus sylvestris — b. 
Sec, Colophonia. 

BRAIN, Cerebrum — b. Fag, see Nervous dia- 
thesis — I). Little, Cerebellum — b. Pan, Cranium. 

is a small village, three leagues from Soissons, 
France, which has purgative waters similar to 
those of Passy. 

BRAKE, COMMON, Pteris Aquilina— b. Rock, 
Polypodium vulgare, Polypodium incanum — b. 
Root, Polypodium vulgare. 

fruticosus — b. Common, Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAN", Furfur. 


BRANCA GERMANICA, Heracleum spondy- 
lium — b. Ursina, Acanthus mollis — b. Vera, Acan- 
thus mollis. 

BRANCH, from (F.) Branche, originally, pro- 
bably, from /Jpa^iuv, 'an arm,'(?) because branches 
of trees, &c, go off like arms. A term applied, 
generally, to the principal division of an artery 
or nerve. The word is commonly used synony- 
mously with Kamiw; but often, with the French, 
Branche signifies the great division; — Bameau, 
Lat. Ramus, the division of the branches ; and 
Ramuscules, Lat. Ramusculi, the divisions of 
these last. 

The French, also, speak of the branches of the 
pubis for the Rami of that bone, branches of the 
Ischium for the rami of the ischium, &c. 

GE E (PETITES) Corpora restiformia. 

BRANCHI, Branches. Swellings of the ton- 
sils, or parotid, according to some ; — of the thy- 
roid gland, according to others. 

BRAN'CHIA, (Gr.) 8 P ay X ,a. The gills or re- 
spiratory organs of fishes, corresponding to the 
lungs of terrestrial animals. 

BRANCHUS, fipayxoi, Rauce'do. A catarrhal 
affection of the mucous membrane of the fauces, 
trachea, &e. — Galen. Hoarseness. 

BRANCI, Cvnanche tonsillaris. 

BRANCIA, Vitrum. 

BRANDY, (G.) Branntwein, Dutch, 
Brandwijn, ' burnt wine.' Vinum adus'tum 
seu crema'tum, Aqua Vita?, (F.) Eau de vie, (S.) 
Aguardiente. The first liquid product obtained 
by distilling wine. It is composed of water, al- 
cohol, and an aromatic oily matter, which gives 
it its flavour. Brandy is a powerful and diffusi- 
ble stimulant, and as such is used in medicine. 
It has been also called Liquor Aquile'gius. See 

Brandt, Apple, see Pyrus malus — b. Egg, 
<ee Ovum. 

BRANKS, Cynanche parotidaea. 

BRANKTIRSINE Acanthus mollis. 


BRAS. See Oryza. 

BRAS, Brachium — b. du Cervelet, Corpora res- 

RISM. An operation by ligature, proposed by 
Brasdor, which consists in the application of the 
ligature on the distal side of the tumour. 

Bras6gur is a place in the diocess of Rhodez, 
where there are cathartic waters. 

BRASENIA, B. Hydropeltis. 

Bhase'nia Hydropel'tis, Brase'nia, B. peU 
ta'ta, Hydropel'tis purpu'rea, Gclat'ina aquat'ica, 
Froglcaf, Little Water Lily, Water Jelly, Water 
shield, JJeer/ood. An indigenous plant, Nat. Ord. 
Ranunculaceas, Sex. Syst. Polyandria Polygynia, 
flourishing from Kentucky to Carolina and Flo- 
rida; and covering the surface of ponds, marshes, 
&c. The fresh leaves are mucilaginous, and have 
been used in pulmonary complaints, dysentery, 
&c, like Cetraria. 

Brasenia Peltata, B. Hydropeltis. 

BRASH, AVATER, Pyrosis. 

Brash, AVeaning, Atroph'ia Ablactato'rum. 
A severe form of diarrhoea, which supervenes at 
times on weaning. The Maladie de Cruveilhier 
appears to be a similar affection. 

BRASILETTO, see Cwsalpinia. 


BRASMOS, Fermentation. 

BRASS, Sax. bpav, Welsh, prSs. AurichaV- 
cum, Orichal'cum, JEsecavum, Clirysnchal'cos, 
(F.) Airain. A yellow metal, formed by mixing 
copper with calamine. The same general remarks 
apply to it as to copper. See Cuprum. 

BRAS'SICA, Crambe, Bras'sica olcra'cea : B. 
capita'ta seu cuma'na of the old Romans. The 
Cabbage, (F.) Chou pot age.r. Family, Cruciferae. 
Sex. Syst. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Cato wrote 
a book on its virtues. It is a vegetable by no 
means easy of digestion when boiled ; when raw, 
it appears to be more digestible. When forming 
a solid globular mass, like a head, it is the B. 
Capita'ta, (F.) Chou-Cabus, Chou Pomme. 

Brassica Canlna, Mercurialis perennis — b. 
capitata, Brassica — b. Cumana, Brassica. 

Bras'sica Eru'ca, B. his'pida, Eru'ca, E.fce'- 
tida seu sati'va, Sina'pis eru'ca, Sisym'brium 
erucas'trum, Garden Rocket, Roman Rocket, <fcc, 
(F.) Chou Roquette, Roquette. This was consi- 
dered by the Romans an aphrodisiac, — Colu- 
mella. The seeds were ordinarily used. 

Bras'sica Flor'ida, — Bras'sica Pompeia'na 
of the ancients — the Cauliflower, Caulis Flor'ida, 
(F.) Chou-fleur, is a more tender and digestible 

The Broc'coli, B. Sabel'lica of the Romans, B. 
Ital'ica, belongs to this variety. 

Brassica Hispida, B. eruca — b. Italica, B. 
Florida — b. Marina, Convolvulus soldanella. 

Bras'sica Napus, Napus Sylvestris, Bitnias, 
Rape, (F.) Navette. The seed yields a quantity 
of oil. 

Brassica Nigra, Sinapis nigra — b. Oblonga, 
B. rapa — b. Oleracea, Brassica — b. Pompeiana, B. 

Bras'sica Rapa, Rapa rotun'da seu oblon'ga, 
Rapum rnajus, Rapa napus, Sina'pis tuhcro'sa, 
Turnip, (F.) Chou navet, Navet, Rave. The tur- 
nip is liable to the same objection (but to a less 
extent) as the cabbage. 

Brassica Sabellica, B. Florida. 

BRATHU, Juniperus sabina. 

BRATHYS, Juniperus sabina. 

BRA YER, Truss. 



BRAZIL WOOD, Caesalpinia echinata. 

BREAD, see Triticum. 

Bread. Gluten. Bread made of wheat rlougb. 
deprived of the chief portion of its starch by 
washing. Bread, made of gluten only, cannot 
be eaten, on account of its hardness and tough- 
ness; hence one fifth of the normal quantit\°of 
starch is allowed to remain, and in this form* th» 




bread is said to be tolerably light, eatable, and 
moderately agreeable. 

Bread, Household, Syneomistos. 

BREAD-FRUIT TREE, Artocarpus. 

BREAST, Thorax, Matuuia — b. Abscess of the, 
Mastodynia apostematosa. 

BREAST-GLASS, Milk-glass. A glass applied 
to the nipple to receive the milk when secreted 
copiously by the mamma. 

Breast, Irritable, Neuralgia Mammae. 


BREAST-PUMP, Antlia Lactea. 

BREATH, Sax. bpaSe, Hal' Hub, Anhel'itus, 
An'imns, Spir'itus, At'nios, (F.) Haleine. The 
air expelled from the chest at each expiration. 
It requires to be studied in the diagnosis of tho- 
racic diseases especially. See Respiration. 

Breath, Opfens'ive ; Fwtor Oris, Catostoma- 
tosphre'aia, Hal'itus oris foe'tidua, Oze. An offen- 
sive condition, which is usually dependent upon 
carious teeth, or some faulty state of the secre- 
tions of the air passages. The internal use of the 
chlorides may be advantageous. 

Breath, Saturnine, see Saturnine — b. Short, 

BREATHING AIR, see Respiration. 

Breathing, Difficulty of, Dyspnoea. 

BREUHET, (F.) The Brisket. This name is 
given in some parts of France to the eartilago 
ensiformis, and sometimes to the sternum itself. 

BRECHMA, Bregma. 

BRECHMUS, Bregma. 

BREDISSURE, (F.) Trismus Capistra'tus. 
Incapacity of opening the mouth, in consequence 
of preternatural adhesion between the internal 
part of the cheek and gums; often occasioned by 
the abuse of mercury. 

BREDOUILLEMENT, (F.) Tituban'tia. A 
precipitate and indistinct mode of utterance, in 
which a part only of the words is pronounced, 
and several of the syllables viciously changed. 
This defect is analogous to stuttering, but differs 
from it in being dependent on too great rapidity 
of speech ; whilst stuttering is characterized by 
continual hesitation, and frequent repetition of 
the same syllables. 

BREED, Race. 

BREEDING, Generation, Pregnant. 

Breeding, Cross. The act of raising or breed- 
ing from different stocks or families. 

Breeding-in-and-in. The act of raising or 
breeding from the same stock or family. 

BREGMA, Brechma, Breahmw, from (Socyuv, 
',to sprinkle;' Fontanel' la, Sin'cipiit. The top 
of the head was thus called, because it was be- 
lieved to be humid in infants ; and, according to 
some, because it was conceived to correspond to 
the most humid part of the brain. 

BREGMATODYMIA, see Cephalodymia. 

BRENNING, Burning. 

BREPHOCTONON, Convza squarrosa. 

B RE P H T ROPIIE'UM, Ecthdobrephotro- 
phe'um, from Ppcfos, 'a new-born child,' and rpo- 
<pdv, ' to nourish.' A foundling hospital. 

BRESfLLET, Cassalpinia sappan. 

BRE'VIA VASA, Short Vessels. This name 
has been given to several branches of the splenic 
arteries and veins, which are distributed to the 
great cul-de-sac of the stomach. 

BREVIS CUBITI, see Anconeus. 

BRICK. (F.) Brique. Hot bricks are some- 
times used to apply heat to a part, as to the ab- 
domen in colic, or after the operation for popli- 
teal aneurism ; or, reduced to very fine powder, 
and mixed with fat, as an application to herpetic 
aim psoric affections. 

Bricks, Fornacece Teatce or Tiles were for- 

merly bruised in vinegar, and the liquid was used 
as a specific in cutaneous affections. They en- 
tered, also, into a cerate used for scrofulous hu- 
mours, <fec. To the Terra Forna'cum, or Brick 
earth, the same virtues were assigned. 

BRICUMUM, Artemisia. 

BRIDE (¥.), A bridle. Frenulum, Reti- 
nac'ulum. This term is given, in the plural, to 
membranous filaments, which are found within 
abscesses or deep-seated wounds, and which pre- 
vent the exit of pus. The term is, also, applied 
to preternatural adhesions, which occur in cica- 
trices of the skin, in the urethra, or in inflamed 
serous or synovial membranes. 

BRIER, WILD, Rosa canina. 

see Kidney, Bright's disease of the. 

BRIGHTON, CLIMATE OF. The air of this 
fashionable watering place, on the south coast of 
England, is dry, elastic, and bracing. According 
to Sir James Clark, its climate appears to the 
greatest advantage in the autumn and early part 
of the winter; when it is somewhat milder and 
more steady than that of Hastings. Accordingly, 
it is adapted for all cases in which a dry and 
mild air at this season of the year proves bene- 
ficial. In the spring months, owing to the pre- 
valence of, and its exposure to, north-east winds, 
the climate is cold, harsh, and exciting to the 
delicate. It is well adapted for convalescents, 
and for all who require a dry and bracing sea 

BRIMSTONE, Sulphur. 

BRINE, Muria. 

BRINTON ROOT, Leptandria purpurea. 

BRION, Corallina. 

BUI QUE, Brick. 

This town is three leagues from Cherbourg, in. 
France. The water contains chloride of iron. 

strument invented by Jacobson for crushing the 
stone in the bladder. 

BRISTOL HOT WELL, Bristolien'sis Aqua, 
Bristol is about thirteen miles from Bath, ii 
England. The water is an almost pure thermal, 
slightly acidulated. It contains chlorides oi 
magnesium and sodium, sulphate of soda, sul- 
phate of lime, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 
oxygen and azote. Temperature, 74° Fah. The 
Hot Well has been long celebrated. Its action 
is like that of thermal waters in general. The 
climate of Bristol is mild, and hence the water 
has been celebrated for the cure of incipient pul- 
monary consumption. See Clifton. 


BROAD, Sax. bpao, Latus, (F.) Large. Any 
body is so termed whose transverse extent is 
considerable compared with its length. The 
Broad Bones, such as the frontal, parietal, occi- 
pital, iliac, aid in forming the parietes of splanch- 
nic cavities. Broad Muscles generally occupy 
the parietes of cavities, and especially those of 
the chest and abdomen. The epithet has also 
been applied to other parts — as to the broad liga- 
ments of the womb, (fee. 

BROCCOLI, Brassica sabelliea. 

BR0C110S, fipoxog. Laqueus. A bandage. 

BROCH'THUS, (lpo X $o<;, Quia. The throat 
Also, a kind of small drinking vessel. — Hipp. 

BROCHUS, (ipoxos. This name has been given 
to one who has a very prominent upper lip. Ac- 
cording to others, it means one whose teeth pro- 
ject in front of the mouth. 

BRO'DIUM. A synonym of Jus or Jus'culum. 
Broth, or the liquor in which any thing is boiled, 
Brofdium salis — a decoction of salt. 

BROIEMENT, see Cataract, Laceration. 




BROKEN DOSES, see Doses, broken. 


BROMA, Aliment, Bromine. 


BROMATOG'RAPHY, Bromatograph'ia, Bro- 
mog'raphy, Bromograph'ia, from ppmpa, 'food,' 
and ypa<pn, ' a description.' A description of ali- 

BROMATOL'OGY, Bromatolog" ia, Sitiol'ogy, 
from fffno/ia, ' food,' and Xoyos, ' a discourse.' A 
treatise on food. 

BROME, Bromine. 

BROMEGRASS, Bromus ciliatus — b. Soft, 
Bromus ciliatus. 

BROxME'LIA ANA'NAS, called after Olaus 
Bromel, a Swede. Car'duus Brazilia'nus, Ana'- 
nas ova'ta seu acutea'ta, Anas'sa, Capa-Isiak'ka, 
Ana'nas or Pine Apple. A West India tree, 
which produces the most delicious of fruits. 

Brome'lia PlNGUIN, Ana' nas America' na, Pin- 
guin, Broad-leaved wild Ana'nas, &c. The West 
India plant, which affords the Pi nguin fruit. The 
fruit is refrigerant, and the juice, when ripe, very 
austere. It is used to acidulate punch. A wine 
is made from the Pinguin, which is very intoxi- 
cating, and has a good flavour. 

BROMIO, Bro' uncus : same etymon as Bro- 
mine. Containing bromine. 

BROMIDE OF IRON, see Bromine — b. of 
Mercury, see Bromine — b. of Potassium, see 

BROMIDRO'SIS, from j3pu/ios, 'stench,' and 
'iSpus, ' sweat.' Offensive sweat. 

BROMINE, Bro' mi mini, Bromin'ium, Broma, 
Bromin'eum, Bro'mium, Bro'mina, Bromum, Mu'- 
rina,, Brome. A simple body, of a very 
volatile nature, and highly offensive and suffo- 
cating odour, whence its name, from fipw/xos, ' a 
stench.' It is met with chiefly in sea-water, and 
in many animal and vegetable bodies that live 
therein. It has likewise been found in many 
mineral waters of this and other countries. In 
its chemical relations, it may be placed between 
chlorine and iodine. With oxygen it forms an 
acid, — the Bromic, and with hydrogen another — 
the Hydrobromir. 

Pure Bromine, Bromide of Iron, (dose, gr. i 
or ij,) and Bromide of Potassium, have been 
used medicinally, and chiefly in scrofulosis. — 
internally, as well as applied externally. Bro- 
mine may be dissolved in forty parts of distilled 
water, and six drops be commenced with as a 
dose. Bromides of Mercury (Hydrar'gyri Bro'- 
mida) have been given in syphilis. The proto- 
bromide and the bibromide are analogous in 
composition and medicinal properties to the cor- 
responding iodides of mercury. 

BROMIUM, Bromine. 

BROMOORAPHY, Bromatograpby. 

BROMOS, ppm/ios. One of the cerealia, sup- 
posed, by some, to be oats. See Avena. 


BROMUM, Bromine. 

BROMUS CILIA'TUS, B. purgane, Brome 
grass ; indigenous : Order, Graminea.' ; is said to 
be emetic, and anthelmintic ( ? ), cathartic and 
diuretic. It purges cattle. 

Bromus Glabkr, Triticum repens. 

Bromus Mollis, Soft Brome Gross. The seeds 
are said to cause giddiness in man ; and to be 
fatal to poultry. 

Bromus Purgans, B. ciliatus. 

Bromus Temulentus, Lolium temulentum. 

BRONCIIES, Bronchia — b. Ganglions lym- 
phatiuitcs drs, Bronchial glands. 

BRONCHI, Bronchia. 

BRON'CIIIA, Bron'chia, Bronchi, from jipay- 
xos, ' the throat.' The Latins used the term | 

Bronchus, for the whole of the trachea ; whilst 
they called its ramifications Bronchia. Bronchia, 
Bronchia, and Bronchi, (F.) Broaches, now mean 
the two tubes, with their ramifications, which arise 
from the bifurcation of the trachea, and carry air 
into the lungs,— -Can'wuloL pulmo'num. 

Bronchia, Dilatation of the, Dilated Bron- 
chia. The physical signs of this condition are 
the following : — Percussion usually clear, but not 
unfrequently less so than natural, although very 
seldom quite dull. Auscultation detects coarse 
mucous or gurgling rhonchi, increased by the 
cough, combined with, or replaced by, bronchial 
or cavernous respiration, which is often effected 
as if by a sudden puff or whiff. The resonance 
of the voice is increased, but it seldom amounts 
to perfect pectoriloquy. The most common situ- 
ations for dilated bronchia are the scapular, mam- 
mary, or lateral regions. They are almost always 
confined to one side. 

Bronchia, Obliteration or Compression of 
the. The inspiratory murmur on auscultation 
is weaker or wholly suppressed over a limited 
portion of the chest; the expiration is generally 
more distinct and prolonged: all the other con- 
ditions are natural. 

BRONCHIA, see Bronchia. 

BRON'CHIAL, Bronchic, Bronchia'lis, Bron'- 
chicus. That which relates to the bronchia. 

Bronchial Arteries, (F. ) Arteres Broneh iques. 
These are generally two in number, one going to 
each lung. They arise from the thoracic aorta, 
and accompany the bronchia in all their ramifi- 

Bronchial Cells, (F.) Cellules bronchiques. 
The Air-cells; the terminations of the bronchia. 

Bronchial Cough, (F.) Toux hronchique, T. 
tubaire. This generally accompanies bronchial 
respiration. They both indicate obstruction to 
the entrance of air into the air-cells. 

Bronchial Glands, Glan'dula Vesalia'nce, 
Glands of Vesa'lius, (F.) Glandes bronchiques ou 
Ganglions lymphatiques des bronches, are numer- 
ous glands of an ovoid shape ; of a reddish hue 
in the infant, and subsequently brown and black, 
seated in the course of the bronchia. Their func- 
tions are unknown. The bronchial glands may 
be presumed to be affected by scrofulosis, when, 
in addition to the existence of tumours in the 
neck, percussion gives a dull sound under the 
upper and central part of the sternum, whilst 
there is no appreciable lesion of the lungs. 

Bronchial Nerves, (F.) Nerfs bronchiques, 
are furnished by the two pulmonary plexuses. 

Bronchial Phthisis, see Phthisis bronchial — 
b. Respiration, see Murmur, respiratory. 

Bronchial Veins arise from the last divisions 
of the arteries of the same name, and pass, on 
the right side, into the vena azygos; on the left, 
into the superior intercostal. 

BRONCHIC, Bronchial. 

BRONCHIECTASIS, Dilata'tio bronchio'rum, 
from fipoyxoi, ' a bronchus,' and tKraois, 'dilata- 
tion.' Dilatation of one or more bronchial tubes. 

BRONCHIITIS, Bronchitis. 

BRON'CHIOLE, Bronehiolum, Broneh iolus ; 
diminutive of Bronchium or Bronchus. A minute 
bronchial tube. 

BRONCHIOSTENO'SIS. from Ppoy X os, 'a 
bronchus,' and (rrt»ttf<r(j, 'contraction.' Contrac- 
tion or narrowness of the bronchi. 


BRONCHI'TIS, Branch ii'i is, Inflamma'tio 
bronchio'rum, Cotar'rhus Pulmo'num, C. bron- 
cMo'rum, Pleuii'tis hu'mida, P. bronchia'lis. 
Bronchos' taste, Pulmonary Catarrh, Angi'nt» 
brouchialis, (F.) Inflammation des Bronchett. 
Inflammation of the lining membrane of thi» 




bronchial tubes. This is always more or less 
present in cases of pulmonary catarrh ; and is 
accompanied by cough, mucous expectoration, 
dyspnoea, and more or less uneasiness in breath- 
ing. The acute form is accompanied with all the 
signs of internal inflammation, and requires the 
employment of antiphlogistics followed by revul- 
sives. The chronic form, Tussis seni'lis, Catar'- 
rhus seni'lis, Rheuma catarrha'le, Peripneumo'- 
nia notka, Bronchorrhoz' a acu'ta, Winter cough, 
Chronic Catarrh, may be confounded with phthi- 
sis ; from which it must be distinguished mainly 
by the absence of hectic fever and of the physical 
signs that are characteristic of the latter, as well 
as by the nature of the expectoration, which is 
generally mucous, although at times muco-puru- 
lent. When the expectoration is little or none, 
the bronchitis is said to be dry, dry catarrh, (F.) 
Catarrhe Sec. 

When bronchitis affects the smaller tubes, it is 
termed capil'lary bronchi' 'tis, bronchi'tis capilla'- 
rie, bronchoc'ace infanti'lis ( ? ), and is often fatal 
to children. Vesic'ular bronchitis is the term pro- 
posed by MM. Rilliet and Barthez for the vesi- 
cular pneumonia of children. 

Bronchitis, Catarrh — b. Asthenica, Peripneu- 
monia notha — b. Capillary, see Bronchitis — b. 
Convulsiva, Pertussis — b. Membranacea, Polypus 
bronchialis — b. Plastic, Polypus bronchialis — 
b. Pseudomembranous, Polypus bronchialis — b. 
Summer, Fever, hay — b. Vesicular, see Bron- 

BRONCHITIS, Sterno-thyroideus. 

BRONCHLEMMITIS, Polypus bronchialis. 

BRONCHOCACE, Peripneumonia notha — b. 
Infantilis, see Bronchitis. 


BRONCHOCE'LE, from (Spoyxos, 'a bronchus,' 
and Kr]\r), 'tumour.' An inaccurate name for the 
affection which is called, also, Bo'chium, Bntium, 
Hernia gut'turis, Guttur tu'midum seu globo'svm, 
Trachelophy'ma, Hernia guttura'lis, Thyroce'le, 
Thyreoce'le, Tracheocele, Thyremphrax'is, Thy- 
reophrax'ia, Thyreon'cus, Thyron'cus, Deiron'- 
cus, Deron'cus, Thyrophrax'ia, Gossum, Go'tium, 
JExechebron' ehus, Gongro'na, Struma, Glans, Bo'- 
cium, Her'nia bronchia' lis, Tracheloce'le, Tuber 
gutturo'sum, Gutte'ria, &c, the Derbyshire neck, 
Swelled neck, Wen, Goitre, &c, (F.) Goitre, Gou- 
Itre, Hypertrophic du Corps Thyro'ide, Grosse 
Gorge, Gros Cou. This is no rupture, but con- 
sists of an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It 
is common at the base of lofty mountains in 
every part of the world ; and has been supposed 
to be owing to the drinking of snow-water, but 
it occurs where there is no snow. The tumour 
is sometimes very extensive. Iodine has great 
power over it, and will generally occasion its 
absorption, when the case has not been of such 
duration as to have ended in a cartilaginous con- 




BRONCHOPLAS'TIC, Bronchoplas'ticus, from 
(ff>oyx°s, ' a bronchus,' and izXaoaw, ' I form.' An 
epithet given to the operation for closing fistulas 
in the trachea. 

BRONCHOPNEUMONIA, from Ppoy X oi, 'a 
bronchus,' and Pneumonia. Inflammation of the 
bronchia and lungs. 

BRONCHORRIIffi'A, (F.) BronchorrUe, Ca- 
tarrhe pituiteux, Phlegmorrhagie pulmonaire, 
Flux bronchique, from (Ipoyxos, ' bronchus,' and 
peu, 'I flow.' An increased secretion of mucus 
from the air passages, accompanied or not by in- 
flammation : — a gleet, as it were, of the pulmo- 
nary mucous membrane. 

Bronchorrhcsa Acdta, Bronchitis (chronic.) 


BRONCHOTOME, Bronchot'omns, from Ppoy- 
%os, and rc/jveiv, 'to cut.' A kind of lancet, with 
a blunt and rounded point, mounted on a handle, 
and fitted to a canula, which passes in along with 
it, and is allowed to remain in the opening made 
in the trachea. 

BRONCHOT'OMY, Bronchotom'ia, (F.) Bron- 
chotomie. Same etymology. A surgical opera- 
tion, which consists in making an opening cither 
into the trachea, ( Tracheot'omy :) into the larynx, 
(Laryngot'omy :) or into both, ( Tracheo-hiryngot 1 - 
omy,) to extract foreign bodies or to permit the 
passage of air to the lungs. These different parts 
are divided transversely or vertically, according 
to circumstances. 

BRONCHUS, see Bronchia. Trachea. 

BROOKLIME, Veronica beccabunga. 

BROOM, Sophora tinctoria, Spartium scopa- 
rium — b. Butcher's, Ruscus — b. Clover, Sophora 
tinctoria, — b. Indigo, Sophora tinctoria- — b. Rape, 
of Virginia, Orobanche Virginiana — b. Spanish, 
Spartium junceum — b. Yellow, Sophora tinctoria. 

OF. Brossardiere is a chateau in Bas-Poitou, 
France. The waters contain carbonates of iron 
and lime, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
lime. They are aperient. 

BROSSE, Brush. 

BROTH, CHICKEN, see Chicken Broth. 

Broth, Vegetable. Take two potatoes, a car- 
rot, and an onion, all cut fine ; boil in a quart of 
water for an hour, adding more water from time 
to time, so as to keep the original quantity ; fla- 
vour with salt, and a small quantity of potherbs ; 
strain. A little mushroom catchup improves the 


BROUS'SAIST. One who is a believer in, and 
professor of, the physiological and pathological 
opinions of Broussais. The system itself was 
called BROUSSAisar, or the Physiological Doc- 

BROW, Front — b. Ague, Neuralgia frontalis. 

BROWN RED, Colcothar. 

BROWN'IAN, Broiono'nian, Bruno'nian. Re- 
lating to the system or opinions of John Brown. 

BROWNISM, Bru'nonism, Bruno' nianism. 
The doctrines of Brown. 

BROWNIST, Browno'nian, Bruno'nian. A 
follower of the svstem of Brown. 

after Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller. B. ferru- 
gin'ea, Angustu'ra spu'ria, (F.) Eausse Angus- 
ture, A. Eerrngineuse. The systematic name of 
the plant whence was obtained — it was supposed 
— false Angustura or false Cusparia Bark. It 
is really the bark of Strychnos nux vomica. 

BRUCIA, Brucine. 

BRUCINE, Bru'cia, Bruci'na, Bruci'nnm, 
Bru'cium, Pseudangusturi'num, Canirami' num, 
Vom'icine. An organic, salifiable base, disco- 
vered in the false angustura — Brucea anti-dy- 
senter'ica, and obtained from Strychnos mix mm'- 
ica. It is of a pearly white; crystallizes in oblique 
prisms with a parallelogrammatic base ; is very 
bitter, slightly acrid and styptic, and soluble in 
water, but more so in alcohol. Brucia is a less 
active poison than strychnia. It resembles it, 
however, and may be used as a substitute for it 
and for the extract of nux vomica. Hose, half a 

These springs are in Bavaria, and contain car- 
bonic acid and iron. 

Brucourt is three leagues and a half from Caen, 




In Normandy. The waters contain carbonic acid, 
chloride of sodium, and sulphate of soda, much 
Eulphate of lime, &c. 
BRUISE, Contusion. 

BRUISE ROOT, Stylophorum diphyllum. 
BRUISEWORT, Bellis saponaria. 
BRUISSE3IENT, (F.) Frem'itus. This word 
has much the same signification as Bourdonne- 
tnent, as well as Bruit. 

BRUIT, (F.) 'Sound.' A French term, ap- 
plied to various sounds heard on percussion and 
auscultation, viz. 

ment, Bruit de cuir neuf, 'sound of crackling, or 
bursting, or of new leather.' A sound produced 
by the friction of the pericardium, when dried 
and roughened by inflammation. 

BRUIT DU CCEUR FCETAL, Battemens dou- 
bles; Double bruit du Coeur du Foetus. The pul- 
sations of the foetal heart heard in auscultation 
in the latter half of utero-gestation. 

BRUIT BE CUIR NEUF, Bruit de craque- 

BRUIT BE DIABLE, Ronflement du Biable, 
Bruit de souffle & double courant, 'noise of the 
diable or humming-top.' Venous hum. A high 
degree of Bruit de soufflet, heard on auscultating 
the arteries or veins — probably the latter — of the 
neck in chlorosis. It denotes an impoverished 
state of the blood. 

Bruit du Coeur foetal — b. de Frolement, see Frole- 

NAIRE, see Froissement pulmonaire. 

DIQUE, see Frolement pericardique. 

ET DESCENDANT, 'Sound of friction of ascent 
and descent.' Sounds produced by the rubbing of 
the lung against the parietes of the chest, as it 
rises and falls during inspiration and expiration. 
They are distinctly heard in pleuritis, when the 
pleura has become roughened by the disease. 
Friction sounds, Rubbing sounds, To -and -fro 
sounds are also heard in pericarditis and perito- 

BRUIT HUMORIQUE, B. Hydropneuma- 
tique. The sound afforded on percussion when 
organs are filled with liquid and air. 


BRUIT DE 3IOUCHE (E.), 'fly sound.' A 
sound analogous to the Bruit de diable — so called 
from its likeness to the buzzing of a fly : — heard 
on auscultating the neck in chlorotic eases. 

BRUIT MUSCULAIRE. The sound accom- 
panying the first sound of the heart, referred by 
some to muscular contraction. Called, also, 
Bruit rotatoire, in consequence of its having 
been thought to resemble the rumbling of distant 

BRUIT MUSICAL, Sifflement moduU. 
tone.' A sound as if produced by two sheets of 
parchment applied to each other. It is said to be 
produced by thickening and rigidity of the valves 
of the heart. 

BRUIT PL AGENT AIRE, B. de soufflet pla- 
centaire, B. uterin. Souffle uterin, Souffle placen- 
taire, Placental bellows' sound, Utero-placen'tal 
murmur, Uterine murmur. The bellows' sound 
heard on auscultating over the site of the pla- 
centa in a pregnant female. It docs not appear 
to be owing to the placental vessels : but to the 
uterine tumour pressing upon the large vessels 
of the mother. 

BR UIT DE P T FEL£ ; ' Sound of a cracked 

vessel.' This sound is heard on percussion, when 
a cavern in the lungs is filled with air, and has a 
narrow outlet. 

BRUIT DE RACLEMENT, 'Sound of scra- 
ping.' A sound produced by the scraping of hard, 
solid membranes, as the pericardium, against each 

BRUIT DE RAPE, 'Sound of a rasp.' A 
sound heard during the contraction of either the 
auricles or ventricles. It is constant; and the 
contraction of the cavity is more prolonged than 
natural, and emits a hard, rough, and — as it 
were — stifled sound. 

It indicates contraction of the valvular orifices 
by cartilaginous deposits, or ossification, and is 
better heard near the apex of the heart, if the 
auriculo-ventricular valves be concerned, — near 
the base if the semilunar valves be the seat of the 

BRUIT ROTATOIRE, Bruit musculaire. 

BRUIT BE SCIE, or 'saw-sound,' and Bruit 
de lime a bois, or 'file-sound,' resemble the Bruit 
de Rape. 

RANT, Bruit de Diable. 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLET, Bruit de Souffle, 
'bellows' sound,' 'blowing sound.' A sound like 
that of a bellows, heard occasionally by the ear 
applied to the chest during the contraction of the 
ventricles, auricles, or large arteries. It coexists 
with affections of the heart, but is heard, also, 
without any disease in that organ, — whenever, 
indeed, an artery is compressed. An Encephalic 
bellows' sound, has been described by Drs. Fisher 
and Whitney. It is heard on applying the ear 
to the occiput or to the top of the head; and is 
considered to indicate turgescence of vessels, or 
inflammation. When such turgescence exists, 
the vessels are compressed, and the compression 
gives rise to the sound in question. 

Bruit placentaire — b. de Tiraillement, Bruit de 

BRUIT BE TAFFETAS. 'Sound of Taf- 
feta.' ' Sarcenet sound.' A respiratory sound, so 
named, by M. Grisolle, from its resembling the 
sound caused by the tearing of a piece of taffeta; 
and which he considers to indicate hepatization 
of the lung, limited to the surface, in pneumonia. 

BRUIT TY3IPANIQUE, 'Tympanic sound.' 
The clear sound afforded by percussing the sto- 
mach and intestines when containing air. 

BRUIT UTERIN, B. placentaire. 


BU UNELLE, Prunella. 

BRUNNER'S GLANDS, Brunneri Glan'dnlce, 
Glandules solita'ria, Solitary glands, Solitary 
follicles, Second pan'creas. Compound muci- 
parous follicles, seated between the mucous and 
muscular coats of the stomach, along the two 
curvatures of that organ, and in the duodenum ; 
so called from their discovery having been gene- 
rally attributed to Brunner. The solitary intes- 
tinal follicles are often known, at the present 
day, as the glands of Brunner, although Brunner 
restricted the latter term to the glands of the 

BRUNONIAN, Brownian. 


BRUNUS, Erysipelas. 

BRUSCUS, Ruscus. 

BRUSH, Scop'ula, (F.) Brosse. A well known 
instrument, used in medicine chiefly for the fol- 
lowing purposes. 1. To clean the teeth. 2. To 
remove the saw-dust which adheres to the teeth 
of the trephine, during the operation of trephin- 
ing. 3. To rub the surface of the body, for the 
purpose of exciting the skin, and favouring trana- 




piration. Westring, a Swedish physician, has 
recommended metallio brushes for the purpose 
of conveying galvanism to a part. These brushes 
consist of a plate of ebony fitted to another of 
gold, in which threads of the same metal are 
fixed; — the brush being connected with one of 
the poles of the galvanic pile. 

Brush, Stomach, Excutia ventriculi. 

BRUTA, Juniperus sabina. 

BRU'TIA. A sort of thick pitch, obtained 
from Brutia, in Italy. From Pix Brutia was 
obtained the O'leum Piei'num. 

Brutia, Instinct. 

BRUTTNO, Terebinthina. 

BRUXANELI. A Malabar tree, the bark and 
leaves of which have a strong smell, and are 
astringent. On the coast of Malabar, its juice, 
mixed with butter, is applied to boils. Its bark is 
esteemed to be diuretic, and its roots anti-arthritic. 

BRUYERE VULOAIRE, Erica vulgaris. 

Bray&res is a small village, 7£ leagues from 
Luneville. The waters are acidulous and chaly- 

BRYCETOS, see Algidus. 


BRYCHETOS, see Algidus. 

BRYGMA, Brygmus, Trials, Prists, Prismus, 
Odontoprisis, Stridor Den'tium, (F.) Grincement 
des Bents. Grinding of the teeth. A common 
symptom, in children, of gastric or other derange- 
ment, but often present when there is no reason 
to suspect any. 

BRYO'NIA AFRICA'NA. A South African 
remedy, common amongst the Hottentots, which, 
in the form of decoction, acts simultaneously as 
an emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. It is used by 
the natives in cutaneous diseases, dropsy, and 
syphilis. The tincture is a powerful emetic and 
cathartic. — Thunberg. 

BRYO'NIA ALBA; White Bry'ony, Vitia 
alba sylves'tris, Agros'tis, Agriam'pelos, Am'pelos 
a'gria, Archeos'tris, Echetro' sis, Bryo'nia as'pera, 
Cedros'tis, Chelido'nium, Labrus'ca, Melo'thrum, 
Qphrostaph'ylon, Psilo' thrum, Bryonia Dioi'ca. 
Nat. Ord. Cucurbitaceae. Sex. Syst. Moncecia 
Monadolphia. (F.) Couleuvree, Vigne vierge, V. 
blanche. The root is large and succulent, and 
has an acrid, bitter, and disagreeable taste. It 
is a drastic cathartic. Externally, it has been 
applied, in form of cataplasm, in gout. When 
repeatedly washed, a good starch is obtained 
from it. The active principle has been separated 
from it, and called Bry'onine. 

Bryonia Mechoacanna Nigricans, Convol- 
vulus jalapa — b. Peruviana, Convolvulus jalapa. 

BRYONINE, see Bryonia alba. 

BRYONY, WILD, Sycios angulatus. 

BRYTIA, Marc of grapes. 

BRYTON, Cerevisia. 

BU, (Sov, abbreviation of [iovs, 'an ox;' in com- 
position expresses, ' excess, greatness.' Hence 
Bulimus, Buphthal'mia, &o. 

BUBASTECORDIUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BUBE, Pustule. 

BUBO, (iovfiiav, Pano'chia, Panus ingnina'lis, 
Adenophy'ma inguina'lis, Bubonopa'nti-s, Bubo- 
non'oue, Buhon'cua, Oambu'ca, Aligns, Bonbon, 
Codoce'le, Codoscel'la, (F.) Bnbon, Poulain. In 
the works of Hippocrates and Galen, this word 
sometimes signifies the groin — Inguen; at others, 
the inguinal glands; and at others, again, swell- 
ing or inflammation of these parts. The moderns 
apply the term to an inflammatory tumour seated 
in the groin or axilla, and they generally distin- 
guish, 1. Simple or Sympathetic Bubo, which is 
independent of any virus in the economy. 2. 

Venereal Bubo, (F.) Bubon vfnfrien, which is 00- 
casioned by tho venereal virus. 3. Pestilential 
Bubo, or B. symptomatic of the Plague. The last 
two have by some been called malignant Bubo, 
(F.) Bubon malin. 

Primary Bubo, (F.) Bubon primitif, shows it- 
self with the first symptoms of syphilis : the con. 
secutive not till afterwards. 

BUBON, Bubo, Inguen — b. Gummiferum, see 
Ammoniac gum. 

BUBON DfEMBLEE, (F.) An enlargement 
and suppuration of one or more of the inguinal 
glands, not preceded by any other of the more 
common forms of venereal disease, nor by any 
other syphilitic symptom. 

Bubon Gal'banum. The systematic name 
of a plant which has been supposed to afford 
galbanum ; Meto' pion, Mato'riwm. The plant is 
also called Fer'ula Afriea'na, Oreoseli'num Afri- 
ca'num, Ani'sum frutico'sum galbani/'erum, Ani- 
sum Africa' num f rules' cens, Scli'num Galbanum, 
AgasylV is gal'banum, The long-leaved or lavage- 
leaved Gal'banum. Nat. Ord. Umbellifera3. The 
plant can scarcely, however, be considered to be 
determined. Galbanum is tho gummi-resinous 
juice. Its odour is fetid, and taste bitter and 
acrid : the agglutinated tears are of a white co- 
lour, on a ground of reddish-brown. It forms an 
emulsion, when triturated with water, and is solu- 
ble in proof spirits of wine, and vinegar: s. g. 
1.212. It has been given as an antispasmodic, 
and expectorant, in pill or emulsion. Lose, from 
gr. 10 to BO. Externally, it is applied as a cata- 

Bubon galbanum is a South African plant; and 
is reputed to be an excellent diuretic, under the 
name of Wild Celery. A decoction of the leaves 
is given in dropsy and gravel. According to 
Pappe, the resinous matter, which exudes from 
the stem, differs in appearance, smell, and in 
every respect, from Gummi Galbanum. 

Bubon Macedon'icum, Athaman'ta Macedon'- 
ica, Petroseli'num Macedon'icum, A'pium petree'. 
urn, Petra'pium, (F.) Persil de Jlaceduinc, Mace- 
do' n inn Parsley. Its properties are similar to 
those of common parsley, but weaker and less 
grateful. The seeds are an ingredient in the 
celebrated compounds, Mithridate and Theriac. 

BUBONA, Nipple. 

BUBONALGIA, from |3oi>/?a)v, 'the groin,' and 
a\yoq, 'pain.' Pain in the groin. 


BUBO'NIUM, Aster At' ticus, Golden Starwort. 
A plant anciently supposed to be efficacious in 
diseases of the groin, from povftuv, ' the groin.' 

B UBONOCE'LE, from j3ot/Ju>v, 'the groin,' and 
K.n\n, 'tumour,' 'rupture.' Her'nia inguina'lis, 
(F.) Hernie inguinale, In'guinal Hernia, or Rup- 
ture of the Groin. Some surgeons have confined 
this term to hernia when limited to the groin, 
and have called the same affection, when it has 
descended to the scrotum, Oscheocele, or Scrotal 
Hernia. The rupture passes throng! the abdo- 
minal ring: and, in consequence of the greater 
size of the opening in the male, it is more fre- 
quent in the male sex. 


BUBONOREX'IS, from Povfav, 'the groin,' 
and pi?fiy, 'a rupture.' A name given to bubo- 
nocele when accompanied with a division of the 
peritoneum, or when, in other words, it is devoid 
of a sac. 

BUBON'ULUS, Bubun'culus. A diminutive 
of Bubo. A painful swelling of the lymphatics 
of the penis, extending along tho dorsum of that 
organ to the groin. It is an occasional accom- 
paniment of gonorrhoea. 




BUBUKLE. A word used by Shakspeare for 
a red pimple on the nose. 

BUBUNCULUS, Bubonulus. 
BUCAROS, Terra Portugallica. 
BUCCA, Gnatlws. The mouth. The cheek 
and hollow of the cheek. Also, the vulva. 

BUCCAC'RATON, from Bucca, and xpau, 'I 
mix.' A morsel of bread sopped in wine, which 
served of old for a breakfast. — Linden. 

BUCCAL, Bucca'lis, from Bucca, ' the mouth,' 
or rather ' the cheek.' That which concerns the 
mouth, and especially the cheek. 

Buccal Artery, A. Sus-maxillaire, (Ch.) 
arises from the internal maxillary or from some 
of its branches, as the Temporalis profunda an- 
tica, or the Alveolar. It distributes its branches 
to the buccinator muscle, and to the buccal mem- 

Buccal Glands, Molar Glands. Mucous fol- 
licles, seated in the buccal membrane, opposite 
the molar teeth. They secrete a viscid humour, 
which mixes with the saliva, and lubricates the 

Buccal Membrane, (F.) Membrane Buccale. 
The mucous membrane, which lines the interior 
of the mouth. 

Buccal Nerve, or Bvecma'tor Nerve, Bucc»- 
labial — (Ch.,) is given off by the inferior maxil- 
lary. It sends its branches to the cheek, and 
especially to the buccinator muscle. 

Buccal Vein follows the artery. 

BUC'CEA, Buceel'la. The fleshy excrescence 
of nasal polypus, so called because it was believed 
to proceed from the mouth. — Paracelsus. Also, 
a mouthful. 

BUCCELA'TON, Buccela'tus. A loaf-shaped 
cathartic medicine ; made chiefly of scammony. 
— Aetius, Paulus of /Egina. 

BUCCELLA'TIO. A mode of arresting hemor- 
rhage, by applying a pledget of lint to the bleed- 
ing vessel. — Avicenna, Fallopius. 

BUCCINA. Turbinated bones. 

BUCCINA'TOR, from buccinare, 'to sound 
the trumpet.' The Buecina'tor Muscle, Retrac'- 
tor An'guli Oris, Bucco-Alveolo-maxillaire, Alve- 
olo-labial — (Ch..) Monso' rius, is situate in the 
substance of the cheeks. It extends between the 
posterior portions of the alveolar arches of the 
two jaws and the commissure of the lips, which 
it draws backward. It assists in mastication, by 
pushing the food back towards the teeth ; and, 
if the cheeks be distended by air, its contrac- 
tion forces it out. 

BUCCO. One who is blub-cheeked, or wide- 
mouthed. , 


BUCCO-LABIAL NERVE, Buccal nerve. 

BUCCO-PHARYNGE'AL, Bueeo-Pharynge'- 
us, (F.) Bucco-Pharyngien. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. The Baeeo-pAarynge'al 
Aponeurosis or Intermax' illary Li g' anient, ex- 
tends from the internal ala of the pterygoid pro- 
cess to the posterior part of the lower alveolar 
arch, and affords attachment, anteriorly, to the 
buccinator, and, posteriorly, to the constrictor 
pharvngis superior. 

BUC'CULA, from Bucca, 'the mouth.' A 
small mouth. The floshy part beneath the chin. 
— Bartholine. 

BUCERAS, Trigonella foenum — b. Fcenum 
Grsecum, Trigonella fcenum Graecum. 

BUCIIU, Diosma crenata — b. Leaves, Diosma 

BUCKBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata — b. Ame- 
rican, Menyanthos verna. 

BUCKBERRY, Vaccinium stamineum. 


BUCKEYE, iEsculus hippocastanum. 
BUCKHO, Diosma crenata. 
BUCKWHEAT, Polygonum fagopyrum — b. 
Plant, eastern, Polygonum divaricatum. 

BUCNEMIA, see Elephantiasis — b. Tropica, 
see Elephantiasis. 

BUCTON, Hymen. 

BUFF, INFLAMMATORY, Corium phlogis- 

BUFFY COAT, Corium phlogisticuin. 

BUG, (BED,) Cimex. 

BUGANTIA, Chilblain. 

BUG'GERY, Sod'omy, Sodom'ia, Co'itus So- 
domit'icus, (I.) Bugarone. Said to have been 
introduced by the Bulgarians. A carnal copula- 
tion against nature, as of a man or woman with 
any animal ; or of a man with a man, or a man 
unnaturally with a woman. The unnatural 

BUGLE, Prunella — b. Common, Ajuga rep- 
tans — b. Pyramidale, Ajuga — b. Rampante, Aju- 
ga reptans — b. Water, Lycopus Virginicus — b. 
Weed, Lycopus. 

BUGLOSE, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSS, DYER'S, Anchusa tinctoria — b. 
Garden, Anchusa officinalis — b. Upright, Ajuga. 

BUGLOSSA, Anchusa officinalis. 

Anchusa officinalis — b. Latifolium, Borago offici- 
nalis — b. Sativum, Anchusa officinalis — b. Syl- 
vestris, Anchusa officinalis — b. Tinctorum, An- 
chusa tinctoria — b. Verum, Boracic acid — b. 
Vulgare majus, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGRANDE EPINEUSE, Ononis spinosa. 

BUGRANE, Ononis spinosa — b. des Champs, 
Ononis arvensis. 

BUGULA, Ajuga — b. Chamaspitys, Teucrium 
chamaepitys — b. Pyramidalis, Ajuga — b. Rep- 
tans, Ajuga reptans. 

BUJS, Buxus. 

sard is two leagues from Chateau-Thierry, in 
France. The water contains chloride of calcium 
and carbonate of lime. 

BULB, Bulbus, (F.) Bulbe. A name, given 
by anatomists to different parts which resemble, 
in shape, certain bulbous roots. The Bvlb of the 
Aorta is the great sinus of the Aorta. Bulb of a 
Tooth ; the vascular and nervous papilla con- 
tained in the cavity of a tooth. The Bulb or 
Root of the Hair is the part whence the hair 
originates. The Bulb of the Urethra is the 
dilated portion formed by the commencement 
of the Corpus spongiosum towards the root of 
the penis. We say, also, Bulb, for Globe, of 
the eye. 

Bulb of the Eve, see Eye — b. of the Female, 
Bulbus vestibuli — b. Rachidian, see Medulla 

BULBE, Bulb — b. du Vagin, Bulbus vestibuli 
— b. de la Voute d trois Piliers, Mamillary tu- 

BULBI FORNICIS, Mamillary tubercles— b. 
Priorum Crurum Fornieis, Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBOCASTANEUM, Bunium bulbocas- 

BULBO-CAVERNOSUS, Accelerator urinse— 
b. Syndesmo-caverneux, Accelerator urina) — b. 
Urethral, Accelerator urinae. 

BULBOCODIUM, Narcissus pseudonarcissus. 

BULBONACH, Lunaria rediviva. 

BULBUS, Bulb. 

Bulbus Esculen'tus. The Esculent Bvlb: 
a particular kind, so denominated by the an- 
cients. It is supposed to have been the Cepa 
Ascalon'ica. — Dioscorides, Celsus, Pliny, <fcc 




Bulbus Glatjdulosus, Proventriculus — b. 
Oculi, see Eye — b. Olfactorius, see Olfactory 
Nerves — b. Pili, see Hair — b. Rachidicus, see 
Medulla oblongata — b. Vaginae, B. vestibuli. 

Bulbus Vestib'uli, B. Vagi'ncc, Plexus reti- 
form'is, Crura clitor'idis iutcr'na, Bulb or Semi- 
bulb of the Female, (F.) Bulbe du Vagin. A close- 
packed plexus of intricately anastomosing veins, 
inclosed in a fibrous investment, — being an im- 
mediate continuation and extension of the pars 
intermedia, and occupying the space between the 
beginning or vestibule of the vagina and the 
rami of the pubic arch. It is regarded by Louth, 
Taylor, Morgagni and Kobelt as the analogue 
of the male bulb. 

Bulbus Vomito'rius. A plant, said by Dios- 
eorides to be emetic and diuretic. It is the 
Musk-grape flower, according to Ray, — the Hya- 
einthns Mnxr.ari. 

BULESIS, Voluntas. 

BULGA, Vulva. 

BULIMIA, Boulimia. 

BU'LITHOS, from 0oi>y, 'an ox,' and hSos, 
' a stone.' A bezoar or stone, found in the kid- 
neys, gall-bladder, or urinary bladder of an ox 
or cow. 

BULLA, (F.) Bulle. A Bleb. A portion of 
the cuticle, detached from the skin by the inter- 
position of a transparent, watery fluid. It forms 
the 4th order in Willau's and Bateman's arrange- 
ment of cutaneous diseases, and includes erysi- 
pelas, pemphigus, and pompholyx. By some, 
Bulla has been used synonymously with Pem- 
phigus. See, also, Hydatid. 

BULLACE PLUM, Prunus invitia. 

Nabothi glandulae. 

BULL-FISTS, Lycoperdon. 

BUMBLLIA, Fraxinus excelsior. 

BUNA, Coffea Arabica. 

BUNDURH, Corylus avellana. 

BUNIAS, Brassica napus. 

BU'NIOID, Bunioi'des, Na'piform; from /?ou- 
viov, 'a turnip,' and ado;, 'resemblance.' An 
epithet for a form of cancer, bearing some resem- 
blance to a turnip. 

BUNION, Bunvon. 

BUNI'TES VINUM. A wine, made by in- 
fusing the Buuium in must. It is stomachic, but 
scarcely ever used. 

BUNIUM, Carvi, Carum. 

Bu'nium Bulbocas'tanum, fiowtov, so 
called, it has been supposed, from growing on 
hills, from fiovvos, 'a hill.' Balanoeas'tanwm, 
Bu'nium minus, Sium bulbocastanum, Seandex 
bulbocastanum, Carum bulbocastanum. The sys- 
tematic name of a plant, whose root is called 
Pig-nut, Agriocas'tanum, Nu'cula tcrres'tris, Bul- 
bocas' tannin ma jus et minus, Earth-nut, Hawk- 
nut, Kipper-nut, (F.) Terre-noix. The root is 
tuberous, and is eaten raw or roasted. It has 
been supposed to be of use in strangury. It is 
not employed in medicine. 

BUNNIAN, Bunyon. 

BUN'YON, Bun'ion, Bun'nian, from flovvoc, 
'an eminence.' (? ) An enlargement and in- 
flammation of the bursa mucosa at the inside of 
the ball of the great toe. 

BUOPIITHALMIA, Buphthalmia. 

BUPEINA, Boulimia. 

EUPHTHALMI HERBA, Anthemis tinctoria. 

BUPHTHAL'MIA, Buophthal'mia, Buphthal'- 
Utos, Elcphantom'ma, from (lov$, 'an ox,' and o<p- 
$a\pos, 'an eye.' Ox-eye. Under this name, 
the generality of authors have designated the 
first stage of nydrophthalmia. Others, with Sa- 
batier, mean, by it, turgescence of the vitreous 

humour, 'which, by pushing the iris forwa^rfs, 
forms around tin- crystalline a sort of border 

Pyrethruui — b. Majus, Chrysanthemum leucan- 

BUPHTHALMUS, Hydrophthalmia, Semper- 
vivum tectorum. 

BUPINA, Boulimia. 

BUPLEUROIDES, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

plcu'ron, BuplcuroVdes, from fiov, augmentative, 
and nXcvpov, 'side,' (F.) Ruplevre, Pereefeuille, 
Round-leaved Hare's Ear, Thorowwax. The herb 
and seeds are slightly aromatic. It was formerly 
celebrated for curing ruptures, being made into 
a cataplasm with wine and oatmeal. 

BVPLEVRE, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

BUR AC. Borax. Also, any kind of salt. 

BURDOCK, Arctium lappa — b. Lesser, Xan- 
thium — b. Prairie, Silphium terebinthaceum. 

BURIAL ALIVE, Zoothapsis. 

BURIS, Hernia, accompanied by scirrhous 
tumefaction ; or, perhaps, a scirrhous tumour 
only. — Aviccnna. 

BURN. Sax. bevnan or byrnan, 'to burn or 
bren.' Us'tio, Ambus'tio, Adus'tio, Tresis Causis, 
Erythe'ma Ambus'tio, Causis, Encau'sis, Pyri- 
caus'tum, Combitstu'ra, Catacau'ma, Combns'tio, 
(F.) Brulure. An injury produced by the action 
of too great heat on the body. Burns are of 
greater or less extent, from the simple irritation 
of the integument to the complete destruction of 
the part. The consequences are more or less 
severe, according to the extent of injury, and the 
part affected. Burns of the abdomen, when ap- 
parently doing well, are sometimes followed by 
fatal results. Their treatment varies, — at times, 
the antiphlogistic being required; at others, one 
more stimulating. 

BURNEA, see Pinus Sylvestris. 

BURNET, CANADA, Sanguisorba Cana- 

solution of chloride of zinc, first used by Sir 
William Burnett for preserving timber, canvass, 
&c, from dry rot, mildew, <fec, and afterwards 
as an antibromic and antiseptic, especially in the 
case of dead bodies. 

BURNING, Brcnning. A disease mentioned 
by old historians, from which authors have un- 
successfully endeavoured to demonstrate the an- 
tiquitv of syphilis. — Parr. 

BURNING OF THE FEF1T, see Feet, burn- 
ing of the. 

BURNT HOLES v A variety of rnpia, popu- 
larly known in Ireland under this name; and not 
unfrequent there amongst the ill-fed children of 
the poor. 

BUR-REED, GREAT, Sparganium rauionim. 

Spirit of Burrhus for diseases of the Womb. It 
is prepared by digesting, in alcohol, equal parts 
of myrrh, olibanum, and mastic. Boerhaave fre- 
quentlv prescribed it. 

BURSA CORDIS, Pericardium — b. Pastoris, 
Thlaspi bursa — b. Testium, Scrotum — b. Virilis, 

BURSiE MUCO'S^E, Bursa; mnco'sm resicu- 
la'res, Bursa: seu Cap'sula: synovia'les, Bleniio- 
ci/.f'tides, Sacci mnco'si, Vesi'ca; ungnino'sce tcn'- 
dinum, Vagi'na Synovia'les, Synovial Crypts or 
Follicles, (F.) Bourses Synoviales. Small mem- 
branous sacs, situate about the joints, particularly 
about the large ones of the upper and lower ex- 
tremities, and, for the most part, lying under the 
tendons. They are naturally filled with an oily 
kind of fluid, the use of which is to lubricate sur- 




faces over which the tendons play. In conse- 
quence of bruises or sprains, this fluid sometimes 
collects to a great extent. The bursas are, gene- 
rally, either of a roundish or oval form, and they 
have been arranged under two classes, the sphe- 
rical and the vaginal. 

Burs.*; Synoviales, Bursae mucosae. 

BURSAL, Bursa' li«. Relating or appertain- 
ing to bursas, — as a ' bursal tumour.' 

BURSALIS, Obturator internus.W 

Burse'ra Gummip'era, B. acumina'ta, Tere- 
hinth'us gummifera, Jamaica Bark Tree. A resin 
exudes from this tree, which, as met with in the 
shops, is solid externally ; softish internally ; of 
a vitreous fracture; transparent; of a pale yellow 
colour; turpentine smell, and sweet, perfumed 
taste. It has been used like balsams and tur- 
pentines in general, and is called, by the French, 
Gaehibou, Chibou, and Resine de Gomart. 

BURST, Hernia, Hernial. 

BURSTEN, see Hernial. 

BURSULA, Scrotum. 

BURTHISTLE, Xanthium. 

BURWEED, Xanthium. 

BURWORT, Ranunculus acris. 

sang is a village in the department of Vosges, 
France. The waters are acidulous chalybeates. 

BUSSEROLLE, Arbutus uva ursi. 

eoar'dic Spirit of Bussius. A preparation, re- 
garded as sudorific, diuretic, and antispasmodic; 
obtained by distilling subcarbonate and muriate 
of ammonia, amber, oil of cedar or juniper, &c. 

island is in the Frith of Clyde, about 18 miles 
below Greenock. The climate is mild and equa- 
ble, but rather moist; and, as a winter residence, 
it holds out advantages for those only that ap- 
pear to demand such a condition of the atmo- 
sphere. The climate resembles, in character, 
that of the S. W. of England and France, and 
the Channel islands ; although its temperature is 

BU'TEA FRONDO'SA, Erythri'na monosper'- 
ma, Rudolph'ia f rondo' sa, see Kino. A tree, 
common in Bengal, and in the mountainous parts 
of India ; Nat. Ord. Leguminosae ; from which 
gum butea flows. Dr. Pereira found this gum to 
be identical with a specimen marked gummi ru- 
brum astringens — the gorame astringente de Gam- 
bia of M. Guibourt. By some, this gum has been 
confounded with kino. 

BUTIGA, Gutta rosea. 

BUTOMON, Iris pseudacorus. 

BUTTER, from fiovrvpov; itself from /3ou?, 'ox,' 
and rvpos, ' any thing coagulated.' Buty'rum, 
J'ice'rion, (F.) Beurre. A sort of concrete oil, 
obtained from the cream that forms on the sur- 
face of the milk furnished by the females of the 
mammalia; especially by the cow and the goat. 
Fresh butter is very nutritious, whilst the rancid 
is irritating. The ancient chemists gave the 
name Butter to many of the metallic chlorides. 
It has also been applied to vegetable substances, 
which resemble, in some respects, the butter ob- 
tained from milk. 

Butter of Bambouc or Bambuc, (F.) Beurre 
de Bambouc ou Bambuk. A vegetable oil ob- 

tained from a species of almond, and used in 
Senegal in neuralgic and rheumatismal pains. 

Butter of Ca'cao, Oil of Ca'cao, Oleum Co- 
cao spissa'tum, 0. Theobro'mee Cacao expres'stim, 
(F.) Beurre de Cacao, Uuile de Cacao. A fat 
substance, of a sweet and agreeable taste, ob- 
tained from the Theobroma cacao, or chocolate 

Butter of Cocoa, (F.) Buerre de Coco. A 
fatty, concrete substance, which separates from 
the milk of the cocoa nut. It is sweet and 

BUTTERBUR, Tussilago petasites. 

BUTTERCUPS, Ranunculus acris. 

BUTTERFLY-WEED, Asclepias tuberosa. 

BUTTERMILK, (F.) Babeurre, Lait de 
Beurre. The thin, sour milk, separated from the 
cream by churning. It contains caseum and a 
little butter. It is a refreshing drink when 
newly made. 

BUTTERWORT, Pinguicola vulgaris. 

BUTTOCK-HUMP, Steatopvga. 

.BUTTONBUSH, Cephalanthus occidentalis. 

BUTTONWOOD SHRUB, Cephalanthus occi- 

BUTUA, Pareira brava. 

BUTYRUM, Butter — b. Amygdalarum dul- 
cium, Confection (almond) — b. Saturni, Unguen- 
tum plumbi superacetatis — b. Zinci, Zinci chlo- 

BUVEUR, Rectus internus oculi. 

tonien'ses Aqua. Buxton is a village in Derby- 
shire. The springs are thermal, and about 82° 
Fahrenheit. They contain sulphate of soda, 
chloride of calcium, chloride of sodium, chloride 
of magnesium, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 
and azote. They are used in cases in which 
thermal springs, in general, are recommended. 
They contain little or no mineral impregnation. 

BUXUS, Buxus sempervi' reus. The Box-tree, 
(F.) Buis ou Bouis. The leaves are bitter and 
aromatic, and, as such, have been used in medi- 
cine, in cases of worms, dyspepsia, &c, in the 
form of decoction. They are sometimes, also, 
added to beer. The seed was anciently called 

BYNE, Malt. 

BY'RETHRUM. A sort of cap or Couvrechef, 
filled with cephalic substances. — Forestus. 

BYRSA, jlvpoa. A leather skin to spread 
plasters upon. 

BYRSODEP'SICON. A tan stuff, with which 
CvELius Aurelianus sprinkled wool, which he 
applied in certain cases to the umbilical region : 
from fivpoa, 'leather,' and icipcu, 'I tan.' 


BYSAU'CHEN, from 0™, 'I stop up,' and 
av X r,v > ' * ne n 00 ^'' A morbid stiffness of the 
neck. One with a short neck, — Simotrache'his. 

BYSSOS, Vulva. 

BYSSUS, Bt/ssum. The ancients gave this 
name to several vegetable substances, which were 
used for the fabrication of stuffs prized for their 
fineness, colour, and rarity of material. It is 
now chiefly applied to the filaments, by the aid 
of which the acephalous mollusca attach their 
shells to the rocks. Byssus was formerly also 
applied to the female pudendum. 

BYTIIOS, 0v% { , ' depth.' An epithet used by 
Hippocrates for the fundus of the stomach. 





C. This letter in the chemical alphabet sig- 
nifies nitre. It is also sometimes used in pre- 
scriptions for calx. 

CAA-AP'IA, Dorste'nia Brazilien'sis seu cor- 
difo'lia seu placentoV des seu vitel'la. The root, 
according to Piso, is employed as emetic and 

CAA-ATAY'A. A plant of Brazil, supposed 
to be a species of gratiola. It is very bitter, 
and considered to be one of the best indigenous 

CAACICA, Euphorbia capitata. 

CAA-GHIYU'YO, Frutex bac'ci/er Brazilien'- 
«s. A shrub of Brazil, whose leaves, in powder, 
are considered detersive. 

CAAOPIA, Hypericum bacciferum. 

CAAPEBA, Pareira brava. 

CAAPONGA, Crithmum maritimum. 

CAAKOBA. A Brazilian tree, whose leaves, 
in decoction, promote perspiration. See Cera- 

CABAL, Cab'ala, Cabal'la, Cal'bala, Caba'lia, 
Kab'ala, Gaballu. This word is from the He- 
brew, and signifies knowledge transmitted by 
tradition. Paracelsus and several authors of the 
16th and 17th centuries have spoken much of 
this species of magic, which they distinguished 
into Judaic or theologian, and Hermetic or medi- 
cinal ; the latter being, according to them, the 
art of knowing the most occult properties of 
bodies by an immediate communication with 
spirits, — the knowledge being thus acquired by 
inspiration, and incapable of inducing error. It 
was also called Ars cabalis'tica, ' cabalistic art.' 

CABAL'HAU. A plant of Mexico, according 
to Dalechamps, which passes for an antidote to 
white hellebore, and yet is used for poisoning 
arrows. It is unknown to botanists. 

CAB'ALIST, Cabalis'ta. One instructed in 
the Cabal. 

CABALLATION, Cynoglossum. 

CABARET, Asarum. 

CABBAGE, Brassica — c. Cow, Nymphaea odo- 
rata — c. Irish, Bracontium foetidum — c. Skunk, 
Dracontium foetidum — c. Swamp, Dracontium 
foetidum — c. Water, Nymphaea odorata — c. Tree, 
Geofi'raaa inermis — c. Bark tree, Geoffraea inermis. 

CABBAGIUM, Geoffraea inermis. 

CABUREIBA, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CABUREICIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CACjE'MIA, Cachce'mia, from ko/cos, 'bad,' 
and 'aiua, ' blood.' A faulty or morbid condition 
of the blood. 

CACESTHE'SIS, Cacaasthe' sis, Cacowsthe'- 
8i8, from Ktucos, 'bad,' and atoQticts, 'feeling.' 
Morbid sensation. Morbid general feeling. In- 

CACAFERRI. Ferri subcarbonas. 

CAC'AGOGUE, Cacago'gus, from kcikkv, 'ex- 
crement,' and ayuv, 'to expel.' An ointment, 
composed of alum and honey ,• which, when ap- 
plied to the anus, produced an evacuation. — 
Paulus of jEjjina. 


phor'bium. A plant, which Dodoens and others 
considered to be capable of tempering the caustic 
properties of euphorbium. It is also called 
Klein' ia. 

Many varieties of the Cacalia are used, in dif- 
ferent countries, chiefly as condiments. 

CA'CAO, Ca'coa, Caca'vi, Qunhoil, Cacava'ta. 
The cocoa or chocolate nut; fruit of Theobro'ma 

Cacao, Co'coa Cacavif'era, Ca'cao minor sea 
sati'va, Cacao theobro'ma ; Family, Malvacea). 
Sex. Syst. Polydelphia Pentandria. 

CACATIQN, Defecation. 

CACATOUlA, Diarrhoea. 

CAC'ATORY, Cacato'rius, from cacare, 'to go 
to stool.' Febris cacato'ria ; a kind of intermit- 
tent fever, accompanied by copious alvine evacua- 
tions. — Sylvius. 


CACAVI, Cacao, Jatropha manihot. 

CACCE, Excrement. 

CACCION'DE. A sort of pill, chiefly formed 
of catechu, recommended by Baglivi in dysentery. 

CACEPHEBOTE'SIA, from kokos, 'bad,' and 
c<pe(ioTri(, ' puberty.' Morbid puberty. Disease 
occurring at the period of puberty. 

CACHANG-PARANG. A sort of bean of Su- 
matra, mentioned by Marsden, whose seeds are 
given in pleurisy. Jussieu considers it to be the 
Mimo'sa scandens. 

CACHECTIC, Cachec'tes, Cachec'ticus, same 
etymon as Cachexia. One attacked with ca- 
chexia. Belonging to cachexia. Cached tica 
remed'ia are remedies against cachexia. 

CACHEN-LAGUEN, Chironia Chilensis. 

CACHEX'IA, from kiikos, 'bad,' and 'tfo, 
'habit.' Status cachec'ticus, Cachexy, Dysthe'sis, 
(F.) Cachexie. A condition in which the body 
is evidently depraved. A bad habit of body, 
chiefly the result of scorbutic, cancerous, or ve- 
nereal diseases when in their last stage. Hence 
we hear of a Scorbutic Cachexia, Cancerous Ca- 
chexia, <fec. Sauvages and Cullen have included 
under this head a number of diseases — consump- 
tions, dropsies, &c. Cachexia has been some- 
times confounded with diathesis. Cachexia lc- 
ter'ica is jaundice or icterus itself, or a disposition 
thereto. Fluor albus is sometimes called Ca- 
chexia Uterina. 

Cachexia Africana, Chthonophagia — c. Cal- 
culosa, Lithia — c. Cancerous, see Cancer — c. 
Chlorotic, Chlorosis — c. Dysthetica, Dyscrasia — 
c. Icterica, Icterus — c. Lymphatica farciminosa, 
see Equinia. 

Cachexia Londinen'sis. The paleness and 
other evidences of impaired health presented by 
the inhabitants of London. A similar cachexia is 
seen in those of other crowded cities. 

Cachexia, Marsh, (F.) Cacheme pahtdienne. 
The state of cachexy observed in malarious dis- 

Cachexia Saturnine, Saturnismus. 

Cachexia, Scorbutic, see Purpura — c. Scro- 
phulosa, Scrofula. 

Cachexia Sple'nica. The state of scorbutic 
cachexia, which often accompanies diseases, es- 
pecially enlargement of the spleen, Splenal'gia 
Bengulen'sis, in India. 

Cachexia Venerea, Syphilis — c. Venous, Ve- 
nosity— c. Virginum, Chlorosis. 

CACHEXIE, Cachexia — c. Paludeenne, Ca- 
chexia, marsh. 

CACHEXY, Cachexia, 

CACHIBOU, see Bursera gummifera. 

CACHINLAGUA, Chironia chilensis. 

CACHINNA'TIO, from cachinno, 'I laugh 
aloud.' A tendency to immoderate laughter, as 
in some hysterical and maniacal affections. 

CACHIRI. A fermented liquor made, in Cay- 
enne, from a decoction of the rasped root of the 
manioc. Tt. resembles perry. 

CACHLEX. A small stone or pelble, found 




on the sea shore. One of these, when heated in 
the fire, and cooled in whey, communicates an 
astringency to the liquid, so that it was anciently 
esteemed to be useful in dysentery. — Galen. 

CACHOS. An oriental fruit, apparently of a 
Solatium, which is esteemed lithontriptic. 
CACHOU, Catechu. 

CACHRYS LIBANO'TIS. An umbelliferous 
plant which grows in Africa and the South of 
Europe. It is aromatic and astringent. Its seeds 
are extremely acrid. 

Cachrys Matutima, Crithmum maritimum. 
CACHUX'DE. An Indian troch or pastile 
oomposed of amber, mastic, musk, cinnamon, 
aloes, rhubarb, galanga, pearls, rubies, emeralds, 
garnets, <fcc. It is regarded by the people of In- 
dia as an antidote, stomachic and antispasmodic. 
CACO, KtiKo, properly only an abbreviation of 
Kaicos. In composition it means something de- 
fective ; as in the following words. 
CACOJESTHESIS, Cacsesthesis. 
CACO-ALEXITERIA, Alexipharmic. 
CACOCIIO'LIA, from kwcos, 'bad/ and x°^i> 
'bile.' Diseases iuduced by a depraved condition 
of the bile. 

CAC'OCHROI, Cac'ocJiri, from kukoc, 'bad,' 
and xp oa < ' colour.' Diseases in which the com- 
plexion is morbidly changed in colour. 

CACOCHYL'IA, from kcikos, 'bad,' and yuAoj, 
'chyle.' Depraved chylification. 

CACOCHYM'IA," Kakochym'ia, Oorrup'tio 
Humo'rum, from xaxos, 'bad,' and x v h°S: 'juice,' 
'humour.' Oacoch'ymy. Depravation of the 

Cacochymia Plujtbea, Lead poisoning — c. 
Scorbutica, see Purpura — c. Scrophulosa, Scro- 
fula — c. Venerea, Syphilis. 

CACOCH'YMUS, Cacochym'icus. One attacked 
with cacochymia. Belonging to cacochymia. 

CACOCXE'MUS, Ctuiocne'micits, Malis suris 
prcedi'tus ; from Kaxo;, 'bad,' and Kvtjfiri, 'the 
leg.' One who has bad legs. 

CACOCORE'MA, from k<ikos, 'bad,' and Koptw, 
' I purge, or cleanse.' A medicine which purges 
off the vitiated humours. 

CACODiE'MOX, from kokoc, 'bad,' and Sai^wv, 
'a spirit.' An evil spirit, to which were ascribed 
many disorders. The nightmare. 

CACO'DES, from Ka<os, 'bad,' and o(,uv, 'to 
smell,' — male ulens. Having a bad smell; Caco'- 
dia, Ciuos'mia. 

CACODIA, see Cacodes. 

CACOETHES, Cacoeth 1 "tens, from kokoc, 'bad,' 
and eSos, ' disposition, habit,' &c. Of a bad or 
vitiated character, as ulcus caeoe'thes, an ulcer 
of a malignant character. 
CACOETHICUS, Cacoethes. 
CACOGALAC'TIA, Cacoga'lia, from kokoc, 
'bad,' and yaKa, gen. yaXaKrog, 'milk.' A bad 
condition of the milk. 

CACOGALAC'TICA, same etymon as the last. 
One who suffers from a bad condition of the milk. 
CACOGALIA, Cacogalactia. 
CACOGEX'ESIS, from kukoc, 'bad/ and ycvc- 
ois, 'generation.' A morbid formation. 
CACOAIORPHIA, Deformation. 
CACOMOR PIIOSIS, Deformation. 
CACOPATHI'A, Pas'sio Mala, from kokoc, 
'bad/ and vaSoc, 'affection/ A distressed state 
of mind. — Hippocrates. 

CACOPHO'XIA, from kwcos, 'bad/ and <p<ovn, 
'voice/ vitia'ta vox. A dissonant condition of 

CACOPLAS'TIC, Cacoplas'ticus, Bysplasmat'- 
ic ; from kcikos, ' bad/ and nbao-oui, ' I form.' Sus- 
ceptible of only a low degree of organization, as 
the indurations resulting from low or chronic 
inflammation, fibro-cartilage, cirrhosis, &c. 

CACOPRA'GIA, Cacoprax vis, from kokoc., 
'bad/ and irparTiii, 'I perform.' Depraved con- 
dition of the organic functions. 

CACOPRAXIS, Caeopragia. 

CACORRHACHI'TIS, from kokoc, 'bad/ and 
pay<;, 'the spine.' Cacor'rhackis, Cacor/tachis, 
Cucorhachi'tie, Spondylalgia. Deformity of the 
spine. Disease of the spine. Spontaneous luxa- 
tion of the vertebrae and ribs dependent upon 
internal causes. 

CACORRHYTH'MUS, Arrhyth'mm, from ko- 
koc, ' bad/ and pvS/joc, ' rhythm/ ' order.' Irre- 

CACO'SIS. Mala disposWio, (F.) Vice. A 
bad condition of body. — Hippocrates. A diseased 
condition in general. 

CACOSIT'IA, from kokoc, 'bad/ and omov, 
'aliment.' Disgust or aversion for food — Fas- 
tid'ium cibo'rum. 

CACOSMIA, see Cacodes. 

CACOSOMI'UM, from kokoc, 'bad/ and ooiua, 
' the body.' An hospital for leprosy, and incura- 
ble affections in general. 

CACOSPERMA'SIA, Cacosperma'tia, Cacos- 
per'mia, from kokoc, 'bad/ and o-zcapa, 'sperm/ 
A bad condition of the sperm. 

CACOSPHYX'IA, from kokoc, 'bad/ and 
(70u£i?, 'pulse.' — Vitio'sus pul'sus. Bad state of 
pulse. — Galen. 

CACOSPLAXCH'XIA, from kokoc, 'bad/ and 
ovXayxyov, 'a viscus.' Indigestion. The ema- 
ciation dependent upon imperfect digestion. — 

CACOSTOM'ACHUS, from kokoc, 'bad/ and 
<Tro/<a,Y<)f, ' the stomach.' What disagrees with 
the stomach. Indigestible. — Gomeus. 

CACOS'TOMUS, from kokoc, 'bad/ and aroua, 
'a mouth.' Having a bad mouth. 

CACOTHYM'IA, Vit'ium An'imi, from kokoc, 
' bad/ and Svpoc, ' mind/ ' disposition.' A vitious 
state of mind. — Linden. 

CACOTRIBULUS, Centaurea caleitrapa. 

CACOTRICH'IA, from kokoc, 'bad/ and fy ( f, 
rpixoc, 'hair.' Disease of the hair. 

CACOTROPH'IA, from koko;, 'bad/ and rpo<pn, 
'nutrition.' — Vitio'sa nutrit"io j — disordered nu- 
trition. — Galen. 

OACOU, Cagot, Catechu. 

CACOU'CIA COCCIN'EA, Coucin'ea, Coc 
ein'ea, Schoueba'a eocdh'ea, Tikimma. A peren- 
nial twining shrub of South America, the plant 
of which, as well as the fruit, is possessed of 
emeto-cathartic properties. 

CACTIER, Cactus opuntia. 

CACTUS OPUX'TIA, Opun'Ua. The Indian 
Fig, (F.) Cactier, Raquette, Figuier d'Inde. This 
plant grows in South America, Spain, Italy, &c. 
Its fruit, which has the shape of the fig, is of a 
sweetish taste, and colours, the urine red when 
eaten. Its leaves are considered refrigerant. 

The fruits of different species of cactus are 
called Tunas. 

CADA'BA, Stroe'mia. A genus of the family 
Capparidem, natives of India and Arabia. The 
young shoots of the Cada'ba/armo'ea are consi- 
dered to be an antidote against venomous bites. 

CADA'VER, Ptoma, Necron. A dead body - 
a subject ; a carcass, (F.) Oadawe. The word 
has been supposed to come from cado, 'I fall; 
and by some to be a contraction from caro data 
vermibus, 'flesh given to the worms.' ( ? ) 

CADAVEROUS, Cadav'erie, Cadavero'ms, 
X. eero ■'<l.cs, (F.) Cadavereux. Belonging to the 
dead body; as cadaverous smell. The Cadav'~ 
erous or Eippocrat'ic face (see Face,) is an U£- 




favourable sign in disease, and generally denotes 
a fatal termination. 

Cadav'erous or Cadat'eric Hyperemia. 
The hypostatic hyperaemia observed in depend- 
ing parts of the dead body. 

CADDY INSECT, see Ectozoa. 

CADE, Juniperus oxycedrus. 

CADEJI-INDI, Malabathrum. 

CADEL-AVANACU, Croton tiglium. 

CADIA. An Egyptian, leguminous plant. 
The Arabs attribute to its fresh leaves the power 
of relieving colic. 


CADMIA, Calaraina, Tutia. 

CADMI'I SULPHAS, Cadmi'nm sulphu'ricum, 
Sulphas Cadmi'cus, Meli'ni Sulphas, Klapro'thii 
Sulphas, Klapro'thium Sulphu'ricum, Melinum 
Sulphu'ricum, Sulphate of Cadmium. Used in 
6pots on the cornea, and in chronic torpid inflam- 
mation of the conjunctiva, in the quantity of half 
a grain to a grain to the ounce of water. 


CADTCHU, Catechu. 

CADUCA HUNTERI, Decidua — c. Passio. 

CADU'CITY, bnbecil'litas, Dcbil'itas, Cadu'- 
eitas, from cadere, 'to fall.' The French use the 
word Caducite for the portion of human life which 
is comprised generally between 70 and 80 years. 
The age which precedes decrepitude. It is so 
termed in consequence of the limbs not usually 
possessing sufficient strength to support the body. 
The precise age must of course vary in indi- 

CADUQUE, Decidua membrana — c.Reflechie, 
see Decidua membrana — c. Vraie, Decidua mem- 


CAD US, Ka&os. A Greek measure equal to ten 
gallons English. — Pliny. Amphora. 

TERIUS) are situate at the fore and back parts 
of the tuber annulare of the brain, and at the 
extremities of the depression made by the verte- 
bral artery. The former is placed between the 
nerves of the third; and the latter between those 
of the sixth pair. 

(F.) Hemorrhoides aveugles, are those unaccom- 
panied by any discharge. 

C.55CAL, Cmca'lis. Belonging to the caecum, 
from ccecus, ' blind, hidden.' The Ccecal arteries 
and veins are the branches of the Arteries et vena 
colicm dextrcB inferiores, distributed to the caecuin. 

C2ECATRIX, Cicatrix. 

CiE'CITAS, Cce'citas, Ccecitu'do, Ablep'sia, 
Obcceca'tio, Ocemca'tio, Anap'sia, Ty'phlotes, 
Typhlo'sis, Blindness, (F.) Aveuglement, Cecite, 
Perte de la vue. Caecitas may be dependent upon 
many different diseases, — as upon amaurosis, 
specks, hypopyon, cataract, glaucoma, ophthal- 
mia, atrophy of the eye, <fcc. 

Caecitas Crepuscularis, Hemeralopia — c. 
Diurna, Nyctalopia — c. Nocturna, Hemeralopia. 

CtECITUDO, Caecitas. 

CjECUM, Caecum, Intesti'num ccBCum, Monom'- 
arhon, Monom'acum, Monnco'lon, Monocu'lum, 
Typhlo'teron monoco'lon, Typhlot'erum, Typhlo- 
en'terum, Init"ium intesti'ni crassi, Saccus Intes- 
tini crassi seu Coli, Cmcum Caput coli, Caput coli, 
Prima cella coli, Tnit"inm extu'berans coli, from 
catcus, 'blind.' The Blind Gut, so called from 
its being perforated at one end only. That por- 
tion of the intestinal canal which is seated be- 
tween the termination of the ileum and com- 
mencement of the colon ; and which fills, almost 
wholly, the right iliac fossa; where the perito- 

neum retains it immovably. Its length is about 
three or four fingers' breadth. The Ileo-ccecal 
valve or Valve of Bauhin shuts off all communi- 
cation between it and the ileum ; and the Appen- 
dix vermiformis caci is attached to it. 

Caecum Foua'men of the frontal bone is a small 
cavity at the inferior extremity of the internal 
coronal crest or crista. — Fronto-ethmoidal fora- 
men, (F.) Trou aveugle ou borgne. Morgagni has 
given the same name to the small cavity in the 
middle of the upper surface of the tongue, near 
its base; the sides of which are furnished with 
mucous follicles — Lacune de la langue — (Ch.) 

Caecum, Phlegmonous Tumour of the, Ty- 

CjECUS. 'Blind.' One deprived of sight, 
Ty phlups, (F.) Aveugle, Borgne. In anatomy, it 
is used to designate certain holes or cavities, 
which end in a cid-de-sac ; or have only one 

Blind Ducts of the Ure'thra, (F.) Conduits 
aveugles de I'urethre, are the Mucous Lacu'na 
of the Ure'thra. 

CiELA-DOLO, Torenia Asiatica. 


blue — c. Borussicum, Prussian blue. 


OiESALPI'NIA, Casalpi'nia sappan, S<ippan 
or Sampfen wood, (F.) Bresillet, Bois de Sappan, 
A small Siamese tree, the wood of which is used 
in decoction, in cases of contvsion. 

Brazil wood, Pernambuco or Fernambuco wood, 
formerly used as an astringent, is the wood of 
Cesalpin'ia Echina'ta. This is the proper 
Brazil wood; but another variety in commerce is 
the Brasiletto, from Cassalpinia Brasiliensis, and 
C. crista, which grow in the AVest Indies. 

The Nicaragua or Peach-wood is analogous to 
this, and is said to be derived from a species of 

The kernel of Cjssalpin'ia Bonbucell'a, the 
seed of which is called in India Kutl-uleja and 
Kutoo Kurunja, is given as a febrifuge tonic. 
Dose, ten grains. 

C^ESA'REAN SECTION, Casa'rean opera- 
tion, Tomotoc'ia, Cmsa'rea sectio, Partus caesa'- 
reus, Opera'tio casa'rea, Metrotom'ia, (F.) Ope- 
ration Cesarienne, from cadere, ' to cut.' An 
incision made through the parietes of the abdo- 
men and uterus to extract the foetus. In this 
manner, Julius Caesar is said to have been ex- 
tracted. — Pliny. It is also called Hysterotom'ia, 
Hysterotomotoe'ia, Gastrometrotom'ia, Gasterhys- 
terot'omy, Gastrometrot'ome, Gastrohysterot'omy, 
(F. ) Operation Cesarienne. An incision has been 
made into the uterus through the vagina, consti- 
tuting the Vaginal Casarean Section, Gastrely- 
trotom'ia, Gastrocolpotom' i a , Laparacolpotom'ia, 
Laparoelytrotom'ia, (F.) Operation cesarienne 
vaginale. The Caesarean section may be re- 
quired when the mother dies before delivery ; — 
when there is some invincible obstacle to delivery 
from the faulty conformation of the pelvis ; or 
when the child has passed into the abdominal 
cavity in consequence of rupture of the uterus. 

C.ESARIES, Capillus. 

CiESIUS, Glaucoma. 

CiE'SONES, Cm'sares. Children brought into 
the world by the Cnesarean operation. 

CiESU'LI^E. They who have gray eyes. 

CiESURA, Cut. 

C.ETCHU, Catechu. 

CAF, Camphor. 

CAFAL, Agrimony. 

CAFAR, Camphor. 

CAFE, Coffea. 




CAFE A LA SULTANE. This name has 
been given co an infusion or decoction of the 
ground coquea or pericarps which surround the 
coffee. A 

CAFE CITRIN. The aqueous infusion of 
unroasted coffee, so called on account of its yel- 
lowish tint. 

CAFE YE R, CofFea Arabica. 

CAFF A, Camphor. 

OAFIER, Coffea Arabica. 

CAFUR, Camphor. 

C A G A S ' T 11 U M. The principal or germ of 
diseases which are communicable. — Paracelsus. 

CAGNEUX, Cagot. See Kyllosis. 

CAGOSANGA, Ipecacuanha. 

CAGOTS, (F.) A name given to deformed and 
miserable beings, met with in the Pyrenees, Bern, 
and Upper Gascony, in France, where they are 
also called Capote. In other districts they are 
called Gezits, Gizitains, Cretins, Gahets, Capons, 
Coliberts, Cncous, Cagneux, &c. See Cretin. The 
word Cagot is supposed to be an abbreviation of 
Canis Gothus, 'Dog of a Goth.' 

CAGUE-SANGUE, Caqtiesangue. 

CAHINC^E RADIX, Caincse radix. 

CAI'EPUT OIL, Caj'eputoil, Kyaput'ty, Ca- 
jupu'ti O'leum. The volatile oil of the leaves of 
Melaleu'ca Cajajm'ti, a native of the Moluccas. 
The oil has a strong, fragrant smell, like cam- 
phor; taste pungent and aromatic. It is stimu- 
lant, and useful where the essential oils in general 
are employed. It has also been called Oil of 
Witneben, from the person who first distilled it. 

OAILLE, Tetrao coturnix. 

CAILLEAU, Lantana. 

CAILLE, Curds. 

CAILLELAIT BLANC, Galium mollugo— c. 
Vraie, Galium verum. 

C AIL LOT, Coagulum. 

CAINANJi; RADIX, Caincse radix. 

CAIN'CjE RADIX, Radix Chiococ'ca, R. 
Caina'ncB seu CaninancB seu Cahinca seu Ka- 
hinca sen Serpenta' rice Brazilien'sis, CaincaRoot. 
The bark of the roots of ChiocodPa anguif'uga, 
Ch. densifo'lia, and, perhaps, Ch. racemo'sa, a 
plant of the Family Rubiaceae. Sex. Syst. Pen- 
tandria Monogynia, of Linnaeus. It is bitter, 
tonic, and diuretic, but has not been long intro- 
duced. Dose of the powder, from ^j to sjss. 

Dr. John H. Griscom, of New York, considers 
there is a remarkable analogy between the Cain- 
ca and the Apocynnm cannabinnm. 

CAINITO, Chrysophyllum Cainito. 

CAIPA SCHORA. A cucurbitaceous Malabar 
plant, the fruit of which has a pyriform shape. 
The juice is drunk in that country for the pur- 
pose of arresting hiccough. The fruit, when 
unripe, is emetic. 

CAISSE, Case — c. du Tambour, Tympanum. 

CAITCHU, Catechu. 

CAJAN, Phaseolus creticus. 

CAJUPUTI, Cajeput. 

CAKES, WORM, STORY'S. These were 
composed of calomel and jacap, mado inio cakes, 
and coloured with cinnabar. 

Crescentia Cujete. 


CALAF, Salix JEgyptiaca. A large-leaved 
Egyptian willow, called, also, Ban. The dis- 
tilled water of the flowers, called Macahalef, 
passes, in that country, for an excellent ant- 
aphrodisiac. It is also used as an antiloimic, 
antiseptic, and cordial. 

CALAGUALA, see Calagualae radix. 
CALAGERI, Vernonia anthelmintica. 
CALAGIRAH, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGUA'LiE RADIX, Calague'lm Radix, 
The root of Po/ypo'dium Calagua'la seu adianti- 
for'me seu coria'ceum seu ammifo'lium seu ar- 
gen'teum seu pol'itiun, Axpid'iinn coria'ceum seu 
ferrugin'eum seu dia'color, Tecta'ria calahuala 
seu ferrugin'ea, Calaguala, CalaJiuala. It haa 
been exhibited in Italy in dropsy, pleurisy, con- 
tusions, abscesses, <tc. Its properties are not, 
however, clear. 

CALAHUALA, see Calagualas radix. 
CALAMANDRINA, Teucrium chamsedrys. 
CALAMBAC, Agallochum. 
CALAMBOUK, Agallochum 
CALAME'DON, from KaXa/xos, 'a reed.' Thia 
word has had various significations. Some have 
used it for an oblique fracture of a bone ; the 
fractured portions having the shape of the nib 
of a pen. Others have used it for a longitudinal 
fracture ; and others, again, for one that is com- 

CALAMI'NA, CaV amine, from calamus, 'a 
reed,' so called from its reed-like appearance, 
Cadmi'a, Oathmir, Cadmi'a lapido'sa a'ero'sa, 
Cadmi'a Fos'si/is, Lapis Aiiro'sus, Calim'ia, La- 
pis Calamina'ris, Calamina'ris, Car'bonas Zinci 
impu'rus, (F.) Pierre calaminaire. Native im- 
pure carbonate of zinc. Calamine is chiefly used 
for pharmaceutical purposes in the form of the 
Calamina prmpara'va, Lapis Calamina'ris pra- 
para'tus, Car'bonas zinci impu'rus prcepara'tut, 
Zinci car'bonas prcepara't us, Prepured Calamine ; 
— Calamine reduced to an impalpable powder by 
roasting and levigation. In this state it i8 
sprinkled or dusted on excoriated parts, or to 
prevent excoriation, &c. 

CALAMINT, Melissa Calamintha— c. Field, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Mountain, Melissa grandiflora 
— c. Spotted, Melissa nepeta. 


CALAMINTHA, Melissa C— c. Anglica, Me- 
lissa nepeta — c. Erecta Virginiana, Cuuila Mari- 
ana — c. Hederacea, Glechoma hederacea — c 
Magno flore, Melissa grandiflora — c. Montana, 
Melissa grandiflora — c. Nepeta, Melissa nepeta — 
c. Parviflora, Melissa nepeta — c. Pulegii odore, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Trichotoma, Melissa nepeta. 

CAL'AMUS, xaXa/Aos, 'the reed.' In the Phar- 
macopoeia of the U. S. the rhizoma of acorus 

Calamus Alexandri'nus. Celsus has thus 
called a medicine, which was long confounded 
with Calamus Aromaticus. It is not a root, 
however, but the stalk of a plant of India and 
Egypt, probably the Andropo'gon Nardus. It 
entered into the theriaca, and has been regarded 
as antihysteric and emmenagogue ; — Calamus 
aromaticus verus. 

Calamus Aromaticus, Acorus calamus — c 
Aromaticus verus, Calamus Alcxandrinus — c. 
Draco, C. rotang — c. Indious, see Saccharum — 
c. Odoratus, Acorus calamus, Juncus odoratus. 

Calamus Rotang, C. Draco. The systematic 
name of a plant, whence Dragon's Blood, San- 
guis Draco'nis, Cinnab' aris Grcpco'rum, Draeon- 
thce'ma, (F.) Sang-Dragon, is procured. It is 
the red, resinous juice, obtained, in India, from 
wounding the bark of the Calamus Rotang. It 
has been used as an astringent in hemorrhages, 
&o. ; but is now rarely employed. 

Calamus Scripto'rius, Anag'lyphe, 'a writing 
pen,' (F.) Fossette angulaire du quatrieme ven- 
triculc. A small, angular cavity, situate at the 
superior extremity of the medulla, in the fourth, 
ventricle of the brain, which has been, by soino 
supposed to resemble a pen. 
Calamus Vulgaris, Acorus calamus. 




CALAPPITE. Rumphius has given this name 
to calculous concretions, found in the interior of 
certain cocoa nuts. The cocoa tree itself the Ma- 
lays call Calappa. These stones are, likewise, 
termed VegetabU Bezoards. The Malays attri- 
bute potent virtues to them, and wear them as 

CALASAYA, Cinchonae cordifoliae cortex. 

CALBALA, Cabal. 

CALBIA'NUM. The name of a plaster in 
Myrepsus, the composition of which we know 

CALCADINUM, Ferri sulphas. 

CALOAIRE, Calcareous. 

CALCA'NEAL, Calcaneus, from calx, 'the 
heel.' Having relation to the calcaneum, as 
' calcaneal arteries.' 

ORTEIL, Abductor minimi digit! pedis — c. Pha- 
langinien cnmmun, Extensor brevis digitorum 
pedis — c. Sous-phalangettien commnn, Flexor 
brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous-Phalanginien 
commun, Flexor brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous- 
phalangien du petit orteil, see Abductor minimi 
digiti pedis — c. Sus-phalangettien commun, Ex- 
tensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

CALCA'NEUM, from calx, 'the heel.' Calca- 
neus, Calcar, Cal'cia, Iclinw, Qs Calcis, Pterna, 
Pter'nium. The largest, of the tarsal bones : that 
which forms the heel. It is situate at the poste- 
rior and inferior part of the foot ; is articulated 
above and a little anteriorly with the astragalus; 
anteriorly, also, with the os cuboides. Its poste- 
rior surface,— called Heel, Talus, Calx, (F.) Ta- 
lon, — gives attachment to the tendo-achillis : the 
lower has, posteriorly, two tuberosities, to which 
the superficial muscles of the sole of the foot are 
attached. The small Apoph'y sis or lateral Apoph- 
ysis of the Calca'neum, (F.) Petit Apophyse ou 
Apophyse laterale du Calcaneum, is a projection 
at the upper surface of this bone, on which is 
formed the posterior portion of the cavity that 
receives the astragalus. The great Apoph'ysis, 
anterior Apoph'ysis of the Calca'neum, is' the 
projection which corresponds, on one side, with 
the cuboides ; and on the other forms the ante- 
rior part of the facette which receives the astra- 

CALCANTHON, Atramentum. 

CALCAR, Calcaneum, Ergot — c. Avis, Hippo- 
campus minor. 

CALCA'REOUS, Calca'reus, Calca'rius; from 
calx, 'lime.' (F.) Calcaire. Containing lime : — 
as calcareous concretions, 0. depositions, &o. 


CALCARIA CHLORATA, Calcis chloridum 
— c. Chlorica, Calcis chloridum — c. Phosphorica, 
see Cornu cervi— c. Pura, Calx— c. Pura liquida, 
Liquor calcis. 

CALCARLE CHLORUM, Calcis chloridum. 

CALCATOR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCATREPPOLA, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCINO'NIA. Words employed by Paracel- 
sus to designate the concretions of tartrate of 
lime which form in the human body. 

CALCENOS, Calcetus. 

CALCEOLA'RIA, from calceolus, 'a small 
Sapper ;' Slipperwort. 

Calceola'ria Primata is used in Peru as a 

Calceola'ria Trif'ida is esteemed to be febri- 

CALCE'TUS, Calceno'nius, Calce'nos. That 
which abounds in tartrate of lime. An adjective 
used by Paracelsus in speaking of the blood; 
Sanguis cake'tus. Hence came the expression 
Calcined blood, Sang calcine". 


CALCHOIDEA, (OS.) Cuneiform bone. 

CALCIA, Calcaneum. 


CALCIG'RADUS, Pternob'ates, from calx, 
■xrepva, 'the heel,' and fiaivw, 'I walk.' One who 
walks on his heels. — Hippocrates. 

CALCII CHLORURETUM, Calcis murias— c. 
Oxychloruretuni, Calcis chloridum — c. Oxydum, 
Calx viva — c. Protochloruretum, Calcis chloridum. 

CALCINA'TION, Calcina'tio, Calci'non, Con- 
crema'tio, from calx, 'lime.' The act of submit- 
ting to a strong heat any infusible mineral sub- 
stance, which we are desirous of depriving either 
of its water, or of any other volatilizable sub- 
stance, that enters into its composition ; or which 
we wish to combine with oxygen. Alum is cal- 
cined to get rid of its water of crystallization ; — 
chalk, to reduce it to the state of pure lime, by 
driving off the carbonic acid ; and certain metal* 
are subjected to this operation to oxidize them. 

gyrum prascipitatum. 


dum — c. Carbonas, Creta — c. Carbonas durus, 
Creta, Marmor — c. Carbonas friabilis, Creta. 

Calcis Car'bonas Prjscipita'tus, Precipi- 
tated Car'bonate of Lime, Precipitated Chalk. 
This preparation, introduced into the last edition 
of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, is pre- 
pared as follows : Liq. Calcii Chlorid. Ovss; Soda 
Carbonat. Ibvj ; Aqua destillat. q. s. Dissolve the 
carbonate of soda in six parts of distilled water; 
heat this and the solution of chloride of calcium, 
separately, to the boiling point, and mix. Wash 
the precipitate repeatedly with distilled water, 
and dry on bibulous paper. It has the same 
properties as creta praaparata, and is preferred to 
it in certain cases, — for example, as an ingredient 
in tooth powders, owing to its freedom from 
gritty particles. 

Calcis Chlo'ridum; Chlo'ride of Lime, Chlo'- 
ruret. of Lime, Hypochlo' rite of Lime, Chlorite of 
Lime, Oxymu 'riate of Lime, Calx chlorina' 'ta , (Ph. 
U.S.) Protoxichlor'uret of Calcium, Calca'riachlo- 
ra'ta, Ch/orum Calca' riot, Chloretum Calca' ria, 
Calcaria Chlo'rica, Oxychlorure 'turn Calcii, Pro- 
tochlorure'tum Calcii, Chlorure'tum Oxidi Calcii, 
Bichlorure'lum Calcis, Oxymu' rias Calcis, Calcis 
Hypochlo' ris, Calx oxymuriat'ica, Bleaching Pow- 
der, Tennant's Powder, (F.) Protoxichlorure de 
Calcium, Chlorure de Chaux, Oxichlorure de 
Chaux, Chlorure d' Oxide de Calcium, Bichlorure 
de Chaux, Oximuriate de Chaux, Muriate surox- 
igene ou Oxigeni de Chaux, Poudre de Blanche- 
ment, P. de 'Pennant. A compound resulting from 
the action of chlorine on hydrate of lime. 
Chloride of lime is a most valuable disinfecting 
agent, (see Disinfection,) when dissolved in the 
proportion of one pound to six gallons of water. 
It has likewise been employed both internally 
and externally in various diseases, as in scrofula, 
foetor oris, foul ulcers, &c. &c. 

Calcis Hepar, Calcis sulphuretum — c. Hy- 
dras, see Calx— c. Hypochloris, Calcis chloridum. 

Calcis Mu'rias; Muriate of Lime, Calxsali'ta, 
Calcii Chlorure'tum Reu Chlo'ridum, Chloride of 
calcium, (F.) Chlorure de calcium, Muriate OU 
Hydrochlorate de Chaux. This salt has been 
given, in solution, as a tonic, stimulant, &c, in 
scrofulous tumours, glandular obstructions, gene- 
ral debility, Ac. A Solu'tio Muria'tis Calcis, 
Liquor Calcis Muria'tis, Solution of Muriate of 
Lime, Liquid Shell, may be formed of Muriate 
of Lime §j, dissolved in distilled water f^iij. 
The Liquor Calcii Chloridi or Solution of Ohio- 




ride of Calcium, of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is prepared as follows : — Marble, 
in fragments, §ix, Muriatic acid, j ; Distilled 
water, a sufficient quantity. Mix the acid with 
a half pint of the water, and gradually add the 
marble. Towards the close of the effervescence 
apply a gentle heat, and, when the action has 
ceased, pour off the clear liquor and evaporate to 
dryness. Dissolve the residuum in its weight and 
a half of distilled water, and filter. Dose, from 
gtt. xxx to f^j, in a cupful of water. 

Calcis Oxymurias, Calcis chloridum. 

Calcis Sulphure'tum ; Hepar Calcis, Sul'- 
phuret of Lime, (F.) Proto-hydrosulfate de Cal- 
cium, Hydroaulfate de chaux. Principally used 
in solution, as a bath, in itch and other cutaneous 

CALCITEA, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCITEOSA, Plumbi ox}'dum semivitreum. 

CALCITHOS, Cupri subacetas. 

CALCITRAPA, Centaurea Calcitrapa, Del- 
phinium consolida — c. Hippophoestum, Centau- 
rea calcitrapa — c. Stellata, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCIUM, CHLORIDE OF, Calcis murias— 
c. Chlorure dc, Calcis murias — c. Chlorure d'oxide 
de, Calcis chloridum — c. P rotahydrosulfate de, 
Calcis suiphuretum — c. Protoxichlorure de, Cal- 
cis chloridum — c. Protoxichloruret of, Calcis 
chloridum — c. Protoxide of, Calx. 

GITI, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Subpha- 
langeus pollicis, Abductor pollicis pedis. 

CALCOCOS, Bell-metal. 

CALCOIDEA, (ossicula,) Cuneiform bones. 

CALCOTAR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCUL, Calculus. 

CALCULEUX, Calculous. 

CALCULI, see Calculus — c. Articular, see 
Calculi Arthritic ; and Concretions, articular. 

Calculi, Alternating, see Calculi, urinary. 

Calculi, Arthrit'ic, Tophi, Tuber'cula ar- 
thrit'ica, Chalk-stones, Nodes, (F.) Pierres cray- 
euses, Calculs arthritiques, Nceuds. Concretions, 
which form in the ligaments, and within the cap- 
sules of the joints, in persons affected with gout. 
They are composed of uric acid, soda, and a little 
animal matter; very rarely, urate of lime and chlo- 
ride of sodium are met with. Similar calculi are 
found in other parts besides the joints. 

Cal'culi, Bil'iary, Oal'culi bilio'si senfell'ei 
Seu bUia'rii, Bil'iary Concretions, Gall-stones, 
CholoV ithus, CholeV ithus, (F.) Calculs biliaires, 
Pierres au fiel. Some of these contain all the 
materials of the bile, and seem to be nothing 
more than that secretion thickened. Several 
contain Picromel ; and the greater part are com- 
posed of from 88 to 94 parts of Cholesterin, and 
of from 6 to 12 of the yellow matter of the bile. 
Biliary calculi are most frequently found in the 
gall-bladder : at other times, in the substance of 
the liver, in the branches of the Ductus hepaticus, 
or in the Ductus Communis Choledochus. The 
first are called Cystic ; the second Hepatic ; and 
the last, sometimes, Hepatocystic. The causes 
which give rise to them are very obscure. Often 
they occasion no uneasiness, and at other times 
the symptoms may be confounded with those of 
hepatitis. At times, they are rejected by the 
mouth, or by the bowels, along with a considera- 
ble quantity of bile, which had accumulated be- 
hind them ; at other times they occasion violent 
abdominal inflammation, abscesses, and biliary 
fistulae, rupture of the gall-bladder, and fatal 
effusion into the peritoneum. The passage of a 
gall-stone is extremely painful ; yet the pulse is 
not at first affected. Antiphlogistics, when there 
la inflammatory action, and stroog doses of opium, 

to allay tne pain and spasm, with the warm batb, 
are the chief remedies. Solvents are not to be 
depended upon. They cannot reach the calculi. 

Calcui,:, Bone Earth, see Calculi, urinary — c. 
Compound, see Calculi, urinary — c. Cystic, see 
Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, of the Ears, (F.) Calculs de I' Oreille. 
Hard, light, and inflammable concretions, which 
occur in the meatus anditorius externus, and are 
merely indurated cerumen. They are a frequent 
cause of deafness. They can be easily seen, and 
may be extracted by appropriate forceps, after 
having been detached by injections of soap and 

Calculi Fellei, Calculi, biliary — c. Fusible, 
see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, Lach'rymal, (F.) Calculs lacry- 
maux. Concretions sometimes, but rarely, form 
in the lachrymal passages, where they occasion 
abscesses and fistulas, which do not heal until 
they are extracted. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Calculi, Lithic, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi of the Mammae, (F.) Calculs des 
Mamelles. Haller gives a case of a concretion, 
of a yellowish-white colour, which had the shape 
of one of the excretory ducts of the mammary 
gland, having been extracted from an abscess 
seated in that organ. 

Calculi, Mulberry, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi of the Pan'creas, (F. Calculs du 
Pancreas. These are but little known. Ana- 
logy has induced a belief that they resemble 
the salivary. Some have supposed that certain 
transparent calculi, rejected by vomiting, or 
passed in the evacuations, have proceeded from 
the pancreas, but there seems to be no reason for 
this belief. 

Cal'culi of the Pineal Gland, (F.) CalcuU 
de la Glande Pineale. These have been fre- 
quently met with. No symptom announces theii 
presence during life. They are composed of phos- 
phate of lime. 

Cal'culi of the Prostate, Prostatic cal'cxdu 
These are not very rare. They have generally 
the same composition as the preceding. They 
usually present the symptoms common to every 
tumefaction of the prostate, and sometimes those 
of calculi in the bladder. 

Cal'culi Pul'monary, (F.) Calculs pulmo- 
naires. These concretions are very frequently 
met with in the dead body, without seeming to 
have produced unpleasant symptoms during life. 
At other times, they are accompanied with all 
the symptoms of phthisis, Phthisie calenJeusc, of 
Bayle. At times they are expectorated without 
the supervention of any unpleasant symptom. 
They are usually formed of carbonate of lime 
and animal matter. 

Cal'culi, Sal'ivary, Cal'culi saliva'les, Sia- 
lol'ithi, (F.) Calcids salivaires. Concretions, 
usually formed of phosphate of lime and animal 
matter, which are developed in the substance of 
the salivary glands or in their excretory ducts. 
In the first case, they may be mistaken for a 
simple swelling of the gland; in the second, they 
may generally be detected b3 T the touch. They 
may he extracted by incision in the interior of 
the mouth. The calculus developed in the sub- 
lingual ducts has been called Cal'culus sublin- 
gua'lis ami Ran'ula lapide'a. 

Cal'cult, Spkrmat'ic, (F.) Calculs sperma- 
tiques. These have been sometimes found in the 
vesicnlse seminales after death. They cannot be 
detected during life. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Cal'culi of the Stomach and Intes'tines, 
Enterol' ithus, E. Cal'culus, Coprol' ithus, Concre- 




tio'nea alvi'nm, (F.) Calcxds de Veatomac, C. in- 
testinaux, Pierres stercorales, Concretions intesti- 
nalea. Calculi of the stomach are rare, and have 
almost always been carried thither by the anti- 
peristaltic action of the intestines. The symp- 
toms occasioned by them are those of chronic 
gastritis. It has been imagined that the conti- 
nued use of absorbent powders, as magnesia, will 
give occasion to them. 

Intestinal concretions, (F.) Calculs inteatinaux, 
are not uncommon in animals (see Bezoard :) 
but they are rare in man. The causes which 
give rise to them are little known : sometimes a 
biliary calculus affords them a nucleus. Their 
composition varies. They are light, hard, very 
fetid, and not inflammable. They are formed, 
ordinarily, between the valvulae of the small in- 
testines, or in the cells of the large, and some- 
times in old herniae. Whilst they do not ob- 
struct the passage of the alimentary mass, they 
produce no unpleasant symptoms. At times, the 
movable tumour which they form may be felt 
through the parietes of the abdomen. They are 
generally evacuated per anum. 

Cal'culi of the Tonsils. Calculous concre- 
tions, which sometimes form in the tonsils. (F.) 
Calculs des Amygdala. They are easily recog- 
nised by the sight and touch : sometimes they 

are discharged by spitting, either alone or with 
the pus of an abscess occasioned by their pre- 
sence. They have not been analyzed. 

Calcvli, Triple, see Calculi, urinary — o. 
Uric, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, U'rinary, Urol'ithi, (F.) Calculi 
urinairea, Pierrea uriimirea. Concretions which 
form from the crystallizable substances in the 
urine, and which are met with not only in the 
whole course of the urinary passages, but in fis- 
tulous openings wherever the urine stagnates 
naturally or accidentally. Their causes are but 
little known. They are more common at the two 
extremities of life than at the middle, and more 
so in some countries and districts than in others. 
At times, a clot of blood, a portion of mucus, &c, 
form the nucleus. The symptoms and treat- 
ment vary according to the seat of the calculus. 
There is no such thing probably as a medical 
solvent, See Urinary Calculi. 

Modern chymists have demonstrated the exist- 
ence of several components of urinary calculi, 
viz., Litlric Acid, Phoaphate of Lime, Ammoniaeo- 
ilagneaian Phoaphate, Oxalate of Lime, Cystic 
Oxide, and Xanthic Oxide, with an animal ce- 
menting ingredient. The varieties of calculi, pro- 
duced by the combination or intermixture of these 
ingredients, are thus represented by Dr. Paris. 






1. lithic or 


Form, a flattened oval. S. G. 
generally exceeds 1,500. Colour, 
brownish or fawn-like. Surface, 
smooth. Texture, laminated. 

It consists principally of Lithic 
Acid. When treated with nitric 
acid, a beautiful pink substance 
results. This calculus is slightly 
soluble in water, abundantly so 
in the pure alkalies. 

It is the prevailing 
species; but the surface 
sometimes occurs fine 
ly tuberculated. It fre- 
quently constitutes the 
nuclei of the other spe- 


Colour, dark brown. Texture, 
harder than that of the other 
species. S. G. from 1.428 to 1.976. 
Surface, studded with tubercles. 

It >s oxalate of lime, and is de- 
composed in the flame of a spirit 
lamp swelling out into a white 
efflorescence, which is quick- 

This species includes 
some varieties, which 
are remarkably smooth 
and pale-coloured, re- 
sembling hetnpseed. 


Colour, pale brown or gray ; 
surface, smooth and polished ; 
structure, regularly laminated; 
the lamina; easily separating 
into concrete crusts. 

Principally phosphate of lime. 
It is soluble in muriatic acid. 


Colour, generally brilliant 
white. Surface, uneven, studded 
with shining crystals, less com- 
pact than the preceding species. 
Between its laminae small cells 
occur, filled with sparkling par- 

It is an ammoniaco-mngnesian 
phosphate, generally mixed with 
phosphate of lime. Pure alka- 
lies decompose it, extracting its 

This species attains a 
larger size than any of 
the others. 


Colour, grayish white. 

A compound of the two fore- 
going species. 

It is very fusible, 
melting into a vitreous 


Very like the triple calculus, 
but it is unstratifled and more 
compact and homogenous. 

It consists of cystic oxide. Un- 
der the blowpipe it yields a pe- 
culiarly fetid odour. It is solu- 
ble in acids, and in alkalies, 
even if they are fully saturated 
with carbonic acid. 

It is a rare species. 


Its section exhibits different 
concentric laminae. 

Compounded of several spe- 
cies, alternating with each other. 


No characteristic form. 

The ingredients are separable 
only by chymiral analysis. 

1. Renal Calculi, (F.) Calcula renaux. These 
Lave almost always a very irregular shape : 
at times, there is no indication of their pre- 
sence : at others, they occasion attacks of pain 
ia the kidneys, sometimes accompanied with 
Moody or turbid urine. Often, they cause in- 
flammation of the kidneys, with all its unplea- 
sant results. They are generally formed of uric 
acid, animal matter, and oxalate of lime, with, 
sometimes, phosphates. The treatment will have 
to vary, according to the absence or presence of 

inflammatory signs, — relieving the irritation by 
opiates. A surgical operation can rarely be ap- 

2. Calculi of the Uretera, (F.) Calcula det 
Ureterea. These come from the kidneys, and do 
not produce unpleasant effects, unless they are 
so large as to obstruct the course of the urine, 
and to occasion distention of the whole of the 
ureters above them ; or unless their surface is so 
rough as to irritate the mucous membrane, and 
occasion pain, hemorrhage, abscesses, &c. The 




pain, during the passage, is sometimes very vio- 
lent, extending to the testicle of the same side 
in the male ; and occasioning a numbness of the 
thigh iu both sexes. The treatment consists in 
general or local blood-letting, warm bath, and 

3. Calculi, Vesical; Stone in the Bladder, 
Lith'ia Vesica'lis, Lithi'asis cys'tica, Lithi'asis 
vesica'lis, Oyato-lithi'asis, Dysu'ria calculo'sa, D. 
irrita'ta, Cal' cuius vesi'ca, (F.) Calculs resicaux. 
These are the most common. Sometimes, they 
proceed from the kidneys : most commonly, they 
are formed in the bladder itself. Sense of weight 
in the perinseum, and sometimes of a body roll- 
ing when the patient changes his position ; pain 
or itching at the extremity of the glans in men ; 
frequent desire to pass the urine ; sudden stop- 
page to its now; and bloody urine — are the chief 
Bigns which induce a suspicion of their existence. 
We cannot, however, be certain of this without 
sounding the patient. Sometimes, when of a 
small size, they are expelled : most commonly, 
they remain in the bladder, the disorganization 
of which they occasion, unless removed by a sur- 
gical operation. 

4. Calculi Ure'thral. They almost always pro- 
ceed from the bladder. The obstruction, which 
they cause to the passage of the urine, the hard 
tumour, and the noise occasioned when struck 
by a sound, indicate their presence. They are 
removed by incision. 

5. Calculi of Fis'tulaus passages. These arise 
when there is some fistulous opening into the 
urethra. They can be readily recognised, and 
may generally be extracted with facility. (F.) 
Calculs places hors des voies urinaires. See Uri- 
nary Calculi. 

Cal'culi op the U'tertjs, (F.) Calculs de 
I'Uterus. These are very rare. The signs, which 
indicate them during life, are those of chronic 
engorgement of the uterus. Their existence, con- 
sequently, cannot be proved till after death. 

CALCULIFRAGUS, Lithontriptic. 

CAL'CULOUS, (F.) Caleuleux, Graveleux. 
That which relates to calculi, especially to those 
of the bladder. 

CALCULS BTLIA1RES, Calculi, biliary — 
e. de I'Estomac, Calculi of the stomach — c. de la 
Glande Pincale, Calculi of the pineal gland — c. 
Intestinaux, Calculi of the stomach and intestines 
— c. Lacrymaux, Calculi, lachrymal — c. des Ma- 
melles, Calculi of the mammae — c. de V Oreille, 
Calculi in the ears — c. du Pancreas, Calculi of 
the Pancreas — c. Places hors des voies urinaires, 
Calculi of fistulous passages — c. Pulmonaires, 
Calculi, pulmonary — c. Renaux, Calculi, renal — 
c. Salivaires, Calculi, salivary — c. Spermatiques, 
Calculi, spermatic — c. Urinaires, Calculi, urinary 
. — c. des Uretlres, Calculi of the ureters — c. de 
V Uterus, Calculi of the uterus — c. Vesicaux, Cal- 
culi, vesical. 

CAL'CULUS, Lapis, Lithos, XiSoj. A dimi- 
nutive of calx, a lime-stone. (F.) Calcul, Pierre. 
Calculi are concretions, which may form in every 
part of the animal body, but are most fre- 
quently found in the organs that act as reservoirs, 
and in the excretory canals. They are met with 
In the tonsils, joints, biliary ducts, digestive pas- 
sages, lachrymal ducts, mamma?, pancreas, pineal 
gland, prostate, lungs, salivary, spermatic and 
urinary passages, and in the uterus. The causes 
Which give rise to them are obscure. 

Those that occur in reservoirs or ducts are 
•upposed to be owing to the deposition of the 
Substances, which compose them, from the fluid 
as it passes along the duct; and those which 
occur in the substance of an organ are regarded 

as the product of some chronic irritation. Their 
general effect is to irritate, as extraneous bodies, 
the parts with which they are in contact; and to 
produce retention of the fluid, whence they have 
been formed. The symptoms differ, according to 
the sensibility of the organ and the importance 
of the particular secretion whose discharge they 
impede. Their solution is generally impracti- 
cable : spontaneous expulsion or extraction is 
the only way of getting rid of them. 

Calculus Bezoar, Bezoard — c. Dentalis, 
Odontolithus — c. Encysted, Calcul chatonne — c. 
Sublingualis, see Calculi, salivary — c. Vesicae, 
Calculus, vesical. 

CALDAS, WATERS OF. Caldas is a small 
town, ten leagues from Lisbon, where are mineral 
springs, containing carbonic and hydrosulphurio 
acid gases, carbonates and muriates of lime and 
magnesia, sulphates of soda and lime, sulphuret 
of iron, silica, and alumina. They are much 
used in atonic gout. They are thermal. Tem- 
perature 93° Fahrenheit. 

CALDE'RLE ITAL'ICJE. Warm baths in 
the neighbourhood of Ferrara, in Italy, much 
employed in dysuria. 

CALEBASSES, Cucurbita lagenaria. 

CALEFA'CIENTS, Calefacien'tia, Therman'- 
tica, from calidus, ' warm,' and facio, ' I make.' 
(F.) Echauffants. Substances whieh excite a de- 
gree of warmth in the part to which they are 
applied, as mustard, pepper, &c. They belong 
to the class of stimulants. 

CALEFACTIO, Echauffement. 

CALENDULA ALPINA, Arnica m on tana, 

Calen'dulA Arven'sis, Caltha Arven'sis sen 
officina'lis, Wild Mar'igold, (F. ) Souci des 
Champs. This is, sometimes, preferred to the 
last. Its juice has been given, in the dose of 
from f^j to f£iv, in jaundice and cachexia. 

Calen'dula Officina'lis, C. Sati'va, Chry- 
san'themum, Sponsa solis, Caltha vitiya'ris ; Ver- 
ruca'ria, Single Mar'igold, Garden Mar'igold, 
(F.) Souci, S. ordinaire. Family, Synanthereae, 
Syngenesia necessaria, Linn. So called from 
flowering every calend. The flowers and leaves 
have been exhibited as aperients, diaphoretics, 
&c, and have been highly extolled in cancer. 


CALENTU'RA, from calere, 'to be warm.' 
The word, in Spanish, signifies fever. A species 
of furious delirium to which sailors are subject 
in the torrid zone: — a kind of phrenitis, the 
attack of which comes on suddenly after a broil- 
ing day, and seems to be characterized by a de- 
sire in the patient to throw himself into the sea. 
It is only a variety of phrenitis. 

Calentura Continua, Synocha. 

CALENTU'RAS; Palo de Calentu'ras. Pomet 
and Lemery say, that these words are sometimes 
applied to cinchona. Camelli says, they mean, 
also, a tree of the Philippine Isles, the wood of 
which is bitter and febrifuge. 


CALICE, Calix. 


CALICO BUSH, Kalmia latifolia. 

CALIDARIUM, see Stove. 

CALIDUM ANIMALE, Animal heat— c. In. 
natum, Animal heat. 

CALIGATIO, Dazzling. 

CALI'GO. 'A mist.' Achlys, (F.) Brouillard. 
An obscurity of vision, dependent upon a speck 
on the cornea: also, the speck itself; Call go cor'- 
netB, Mac'ula cornea, M. scmipcllu'cida, f'hthar- 
ma. caligo, C. i nephel'io, Hehetu'do visits, C. <i 
Lcuec'watt., Nel'ula, Opake cornea, Wsb-eyt, (F.) 




Nottage de la Cornee, Taye, Obscurcissement de 
la vue. 

Caligo Lentis, Cataract — c. Pupillse, Syne- 
»isis — c. Synizesis, Synezisis — c. Tenebrarum, 

CALIHACHA CANELLA, Laurus cassia. 

CALIX, Calyx, Infundib'ulum, from KaXti;, 'a 
cup.' (F.) Calice, Entonnoir. Anatomists have 
given this name to small membranous canals, 
which surround the papilla: of the kidney, and 
open into its pelvis, whither they convey the 
urine: — Cal'ices rena'les, Cylind'ri membrana'cei 
lienum, Fis'tulce ure'terum renum, Ganales mem- 
bra'nei Renum, Tu'buli pelvis renum. Their 
number varies from 6 to 12 in each kidney. 

Calix Vomitoria, Goblet, emetic. 

CALLEUX, Callous. 

CALLIBLEPH'ARUM, from KaWos, 'beauty/ 
and (3\c\papov, ' eyelid.' A remedy for beautify- 
ing the eyelids. 

CALLICANTHUS, Calycanthus. 


CALLICREAS, Pancreas. 


CALLIPiE'DIA, from «caXXo S , 'beauty,' and 
irais, xatSos, 'a child.' The art of begetting beau- 
tiful children. This was the title of a poem by 
Claude Quillet, in 1655 ; "Cal/ipwdia sive de pul- 
chrcB prolis habendas ratione." The author ab- 
surdly supposes, that the beauty of children is 
affected by the sensations which the mother ex- 
periences during her pregnancy. 



CALLIPHYLLUM, Asplenium trichoma- 

CALLIP'YGOS, from KaWog, 'beauty,' and 
xvyn, ' buttocks.' A cognomen of Venus, owing 
to her beautiful nates. 

tree, Nat. Ord. Conifera?, from the branches 
and cones of which a gum exudes, that resem- 
bles Gum Sandarac. This is successfully used 
in the form of fumigations in gout, rheumatism, 
oedematous swellings, &c. 

Callitris Cupresso'ides, a common shrub in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Town, exudes a simi- 
lar substance. 

CALLOSITAS, Induration — c. Palpebrarum, 
Scleriasis — c. Vesica?, Cystauxe. 

CALLOS'ITY, Callos'itas, Scyros, Tyle, Tying, 
Tylo'ma, Tylo'sis, Dermatosclero' sis, Bermatoty- 
lo'ma, Bcrmatotylo'sis, Bermatot'ylus, Porus, Ec- 
phy'ma Callus. Hardness, induration, and thick- 
ness of the skin, which assumes a horny consist- 
ence, in places where it is exposed to constant 
pressure. (F.) Burillon. Also the induration, 
which is observed in old wounds, old ulcers, fis- 
tulous passages, <fec. 

CALLOUS, Callo'sns, Ochtho'des, from callus, 
'hardness.' (F.) Callevx. That which is hard 
or indurated. A Callous Ulcer is one whose edges 
are thick and indurated. 


C ALLUNA ERICA, Erica vulgaris — c. Vul- 
garis, Erica vulgaris. 

CALLUS, Cains, Callum, Osteot'ylus, (F.) Cal. 
Tne bony matter, thrown out between the frac- 
tured extremities of a bone, which acts as a ce- 
ment, and as a new bony formation. The words 
are, likewise, used occasionally in the same sense 
as Callosity. 

Callus, Provisional. When the shaft of a 
long bone has been broken through, and the ex- 
tremities have been brought in exact juxtaposi- 
tion, the new matter, first ossified, is that which 

occupies the central portion of the deposit, and 
thus connects the medullary cavities of the broken 
ends, forming a kind of plug, which enters each. 
This was termed by M. Dupuytren the provi- 
sional Callus. 

CALMANTS, Sedatives. 

CALME, (F.) The interval that separates the 
paroxysms of an acute or chronic disease. When 
the type is intermittent, the word intermission is 

CALOMBA, Calumba. 

CALOMEL, Hydrargyri submurias. 

CALOMEL STOOLS. A term applied to the 
green, spinach-like, evacuations occasioned by 
the internal use of the mild chloride of mercury. 


Calomelanos Titrqueti. A name given by 
Riverius to purgative pills, prepared with calo- 
mel, sulphur, and resin of jalap.— Dictionaries. 

CALOMELAS, Hydrargyri submurias. 

CALO'NIA, KaXuivia. An epithet formerly 
given to myrrh. — Hippocrates. See Myrrha. 

gara octandra. 

CALOR, Heat — c. Animalis, Animal heat — 
c. Nativus, Animal heat. 

CALORICITE,(E.) Caloric" itas. The faculty 
possessed by living bodies of generating a suffi- 
cient quantity of caloric to enable them to resist 
atmospheric cold, and to preserve, at all times 
and in every part, a temperature nearly equal. 
See Animal Heat. 

CALORIFA'CIENT, Calorif'iant, Calorifa'- 
ciens, Calorifi'ans : from color, 'heat,' and facere, 
'to make.' Having the power of producing 
heat. Relating to the power of producing heat. 

CALORIFICA'TION, Color -ifica'tio, from ca- 
lor, 'heat,' and fieri, 'to be made.' The function 
of producing animal heat. 

CALORINESES, from color, 'heat.' The 
name under which M. Baumes proposes to ar- 
range all diseases, characterized by a sensible 
change in the quantity of animal heat. The Ca- 
lorineses form the first class of his Nosology. 

darii, Mudar. 

_ CALOTTE, (F.) Pile'olum. Anatomists some- 
times give the name, Calotte aponevrotique, to 
the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis muscle, 
which covers it externally ; and that of Calottt 
du crane to the scull-cop. 

Calotte is also applied to an adhesive plaster, 
with which the head of a person labouring under 
tinea capitis is sometimes covered, after the hair 
has been shaved off. This plaster is pulled sud- 
denly and violently off, in order to remove the 
bulbs of the hair. It means, also, a sort of coif 
made of boiled leather, worn by those who have 
undergone the operation of trepanning, <fec. 


CALTHA ALPINA, Arnica montana— c. Ar- 
vensis, Calendula arvensis — c. Officinalis, Calen- 
dula arvensis — c. Vulgaris, Calendula officinalis. 

CALTROPS, see Trapa natans. 

CALUM'BA, Colom'bo, Calom'ba, Colom'ba, 
(Ph. U. S. ;) Columbo, Radix Columbce, (F.) Ca- 
lumbe ou Columbe. The root of Menisper' mum 
palma'tum, Coc'culus polma'tus, indigenous in 
India and Africa. Its odour is slightly aromatic; 
taste unpleasantly bitter. It is tonic and anti- 
septic. Dose, gr. 10 to 3j in powder. 

Calcmba, American, Erase'ra Walteri, F. 
Carolinien'sie, F. Officinalis, Swer'tia difform'is, 
Sw. Frase'ra, American or Marietta Columbo, 
Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, Golden Seal, 
Meadow pride, Pyr'amid, is used in the same 
cases as the true Calumba. 




CALUS, Callus. 
CALVA, Cranium. 

Calva, Calva' ria. The cranium ; the upper 
part especially ; the skull-cap ; — the Vault of the 
Cranium, Cam' era. 

CALVARIA, Cranium. 

struments, which have a head or button. 

CALVER'S PHYSIC, Leptandra Virginica. 

CALVIT"IES, CalvWium, Phal'acra, Phala- 
cro'sis, Glabrit" ies, Ophi'asis, Depila'tio Cap'- 
itis,Phalacro' ma, Madaro'sis, Lipsotrieh'ia, Bald- 
ness, <fec, from calvus, 'bald,' (F.) Chaurete. 
Absence of hair, particularly at the top of, and 
behind, the head. Calvit"ies palpebra'rum, — 
loss of the eye-lashes. 

CALX, Lime, Ca'rium Terrce, Protox'ide of 
Cal'cium, Galea' ria pura, (F.) Chaux. The lime, 
employed in pharmacy, should be recently pre- 
pared by calcination. When water is sprinkled 
over caustic lime, we have slaked lime, hydrate 
of lime, — the Calcis Hydras of the London phar- 
. macopoaia. 

Calx, see Calcaneum — c. Chlorinata, Calcis 
chloridum — c. Cum kali puro, Potassa cum calce 
— c. Salita, Calcis murias — c. Bismuthi, Bismuth, 
subnitratc of. 

Calx e Testis ; lime prepared from shells. 
It has probably no medicinal advantages over 
that prepared from marble. 

Calx Oxymuriatica, Calcis chloridum. 

Calx Viva, Ox'idum Cal'cii, Calx recens, Fu- 
tnans nix, Calx usta, Calx et Calx lira, Lime or 
Quicklime, (F. ) Chaux vive. The external ope- 
ration of calx viva is escharotic, but it is rarely 
used. Lime is a good disinfecting agent. It is 
employed internally in the form of Liquor Calcis. 

CALYCAXTH' US, C.F/or'idus, Callica»'thus,(?) 
Caroli'na Allspice, Sweet-scented shrub, Sweet 
shrub. An indigenous plant; Order, Calycan- 
thaceae ; with purplish flowers, of strong, agree- 
able odour, which appear from March to June. 
The root is possessed of emetic properties. 

Myrtus caryophyllata. 

CALYSTEGIA SEPIUM, Convolvulus sepium 
— c. Soldanella, Convulvulus soldanella. 

CALYX, Calix. 

CAMARA, Calva. 

tnarez is a small canton near Sylvanes, in the 
department of Aveyron, France, where there are 
acidulous chalybea^es. 

CAMARO'SIS, Camaro'ma, from xa/japa, 'a 
vault;' Camera' tio, Testudina' tio Cra'nii. A 
species of fracture of the skull, in which the frag- 
ments are placed so as to form a vault, with its 
base resting on the dura mater. — Galen, Paulus 
of jEgina. 

CAMBIXG. A tree of the Molucca Islands, 
from the bark of which a kind of gum-resin ex- 
udes, which has been highly extolled in dysen- 
tery. It appears to have some resemblance to 
the simarouba. — Ruraphius. 

CAMBIUM, ' Exchange.' A name formerly 
given to a fancied nutritive juice, which was 
iupposed to originate in the blood, to repair the 
losses of every organ, and produce their increase. 
— Sennertus. 

lage in the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
France, where there are two mineral springs ; 
the one an acidulous chalybeate, the other sul- 
phureous. Temperature, 62° to 69° Fahrenheit. 

CAMBODIA, Cambogia. 

CAMBO'GIA, from Cambodia, in the East In- 
dies, where it is obtained. Hence, likewise, its 
names Cambo'dia, Cambo'gium, Gambo'gia, Gam- 

bo'gium, Gambu'gium. It is called, also, Gutta, 
Gutta gamba, Gum mi Gutta, Catagau'na, Catta- 
gau'ma, Ch.ryso.pvts, Laxati'vus Ind'icus, Gummi 
Ilo'gia. 67. gaman'drce, 67. de Goa, G. de Jcmu, 
Chitta jemoco, Gutta Gaman'dra?, Gummi ad Pod'- 
agram, Gamboge or Gamboge, &c, (F.) Gomnie 
Gutte. Ord. Guttiferae. A yellow juice obtained 
from Hebradcndron Cambogioi'des, and other 
plants of the natural family Guttiferaj, but it is 
not known from which of them the officinal cam- 
boge is obtained. It is inodorous, of an orange 
yellow colour ; opake and brittle ; fracture, 
glassy; is a drastic cathartic, emetic and anthel- 
mintic ; and is used in visceral obstructions and 
dropsy, and wherever powerful hydragogue ca- 
thartics are required. Dose from gr. ij to vi, in 
powder, united with calomel, squill, &c. 

Cambogia Gutta, Garcinia cambogia. 

CAMBU'CA, Cambuc'ea viembra'ta. Buboes 
and venereal ulcers, seated in the groin or near 
the genital organs. — Paracelsus. See Bubo. 

CAMELEE, Cneorum tricoccum. 

CAMERA, Chamber, Fornix, Vault— c. Cordis, 
Pericardium — c. Oculi, Chamber of the eye. 

CAMERATIO, Camarosis. 

CAMFOROSMA, Camphorosma. 

CAMIXGA, Canella alba. 


CAMISOLE. Waistcoat, strait. 


OAMOMILLE FETWE, Anthemis ootula — 
c. Puante, Anthemis cotula — c. Romuine, Anthe- 
mis nobilis — c. des Teinturiers, Anthemis tincto- 
ria — e. Vulqaire, Matricaria chamomilla. 

a canton, two leagues from Marseilles, where are 
two springs containing carbonate of lime, sul- 
phur, chloride of sodium, &c. They are purga- 
tive, and used in skin complaints. 

CAMOTES, Convolvulus batatas. 

Campagne is in the department of Aude, France. 
The waters contain sulphate and chlorohydrate 
of magnesia. Temperature, 80° Fahrenheit. 

CAMPAX'ULA. Diminutive of Camjjana. A 

Campanula Tracbe'lium, Canterbury Bell or 
Throaticort, was formerly used, in decoction, in 
relaxation of the fauces. It is, also, called 6'er- 

CAMPE, Flexion. 

CAMPHIRE, Camphor. 

CAMPHOR, from Arab. Ca'phurwc Kam'phvr, 
Cam'phora, Caphura, Cuffa, Caf, Cafur, Capho- 
ra, Altmfor, Camphire, Camphor, (F.) Camphre. 
A concrete substance, prepared, by distillation, 
from Isourus Camphora, Per'sea Cam'fora, an 
indigenous tree of the East Indies. Order, 
Laurineas. Its odour is strong and fragrant : it 
is volatile, not easily pulverizable; texture crys- 
talline. Soluble in alcohol, ether, oils, vinegar, 
and slightly so in water. Its properties are nar- 
cotic, diaphoretic, and sedative. Dose, gr. v. to 
5.j. Dissolved in oil or alcohol, it is applied 
externally in rheumatic pains, bruises, sprains, <fcc. 

Camphor Water, Mistura Camphorse. 

CAMPHORA'CEOUS, Camphora'ceus. Rela- 
ting to or containing camphor;— as a ' camphor - 
aceovs smell or remedy.' 

LIEXSIUM, Camphorosma Monspeliaca,. 

CAMPH'ORATED, CamphoraHns, (F.) Cam- 
phre. Relating to camphor; containing cam- 
phor ; as a camphorated smell, a camphorated 

ren'iiis, from Camphor, and cMrpq, i odour.' Sela'go, 
Camphora'ta hirsu'ta seuJUoiispel-ieti'sium, Haitf 




Camplioros'ma, (F.) Camphree de MnntpcUirr. 
Family, Atriplicene. Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Mo- 
nogynia. This plant, as its name imports, has 
an odour of camphor. It is regarded as diuretic, 
diaphoretic, cephalic, antispasmodic, <fcc. It is 
also called Chamapeu'ce and Stinking Ground 

Camphorosma Perennis, C. Monspeliaca. 

CAMPHRE, Camphor. 

CAMPHRE, Camphorated. 

phorosma Monspeliaca. 

tree, twenty to thirty feet high, which grows in 
Peru, and whose fruit — palillo, of a bright yellow 
colour, and as large as a moderate-sized apple — 
has an exceedingly agreeable scent, and is one 
of the ingredients in making the perfumed water 
called mistura. — Tschudi. 

CAMPSIS, Flex'io, Curva'tio, Inflex'io. Bone 
or cartilage, forcibly bent from its proper shape, 
without breaking. — Good. 

Campsis Depressio, Depression. 

CAMPYLOR'RHACHIS; from Kaurv\os, 
'crooked,' and pa%is, 'spine.' A monster whose 
spine is crooked. — Gurlt. 

'crooked,' and ptv, 'nose.' A monster whose 
nose is crooked. — Gurlt. 

CAMPYLOTIS, Cataclasis. 

CAMPYLUM, Cataclasis. 

CAMUS, (F.) Simus, Resi'mus, Simo, Silo, Si- 
tus. One who has a short, stumpy nose. The 
French speak of Nez camus, 'short nose.' 

CANADA BURNET, Sanguisovba canadensis. 

CANAL, Cana'lis, Ductus, Mea'tus, Poros, 
Och'etos, (F.) Conduit. A channel for affording 
passage to liquids, or solids, or to certain organs. 

Canal, Alimen'tary, C. Digestive, Cana'lis 
ciba'rius vel digesti'vus, Ductus ciba'rius, Tubus 
alimenta'ris seu intestino' rum, Diges'tive Tube, 
Aliment' ary Duct or Tube. The canal extending 
from the mouth to the anus. 

Canal, Arach'noid, Cana'lis Bichat'ii, Canal 
of Bichat. A canal formed by the extension of 
the arachnoid over the transverse and longitudi- 
nal fissures of the brain, which surrounds the vena 
magna Galeni. The orifice of the canal has 
been termed the Foramen of Bichat. 

CANAL ARTERIEL, Arterial duct — c. de 
Bartholin, Ductus Bartholinus — c. of Bichat, 
Canal, arachnoid — c. Bullular, of Petit, Godronne 
canal — c. Carotidien, Carotid canal — c. Chole- 
doque, Choledoch duct — c. Ciliary, Ciliary canal 
— c. of Cotunnius, Aquaeductus vestibuli — c. of 
Fontana, Ciliary canal — c. Goudronne, Godronne 
canal— c. Hepatique, Hepatic duct. 

Canal, Hy'aloid. A cylindrical passage, de- 
scribed by M. J. Cloquet as formed by the reflec- 
tion of the hyaloid membrane into the interior 
of the vitreous body around the nutritious artery 
of the lens. M. Cruveilhier has never been able 
to see it. 

Canal, Inci'sive, see Palatine canals — c. Infra- 
orbital Suborbitar canal — c. Inflexe de I'os tem- 
poral, Carotid canal — c. Intermidiare des ventri- 
cules, Aquaeductus Sylvii. 
_ Canal Intes'tinal. Cana'lis seu Ductus intes- 
tina'lis. The portion of the digestive canal formed 
by the intestines. 

Canal op Jacobson, Canal, tympanic. 
Canal, Med'ullary. The cylindrical cavity 
in the body or shaft of a long bone, which con- 
tains the marrow. 

Canal, Nasal, Lachrymal canal. 
Canal of Ntjck. A cylindrical sheath formed 
around the round ligaments of the uterus by a 
• prolongation of the peritoneum into the inguinal 

CANAL DE PETIT, Godronne canal — e. 
Pidmo-aortique, Arterial duct — c. llachidian, 
Vertebral canal. 

Canal op Schlemm. A minute circular canal, 
discovered by Professor Schlemm, of Berlin. It 
is situate at the point of union of the cornea and 

Canal, Spinal, Vertebral canal — c. Spiroidh 
de I'os temporal, Aquaeductus Fallopii — c. de Ste- 
non, Ductus salivalis superior — c. Thoracique, 
'Jhoracic duct — c. Veineux, Canal, venous — c. 
Vulvo-uterine, Vagina — c. de Warthon, Ductus 
salivalis inferior. 

Canal, Tym'panic, Cana'lis tympan'icus, Canal 
of Ja'cobson. A canal which opens on the lower 
surface of the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, between the carotid canal and the groove 
for the internal jugular vein. It contains Jacob- 
son's nerve. 

Canal, Venous, Cana'lis seu Ductus veno'svs, 
(F.) Canal veineux. A canal, which exists only 
in the foetus. It extends from the bifurcation of 
the umbilical vein to the vena cava inferior, into> 
which it opens below the diaphragm. At times, 
it ends in one of the infra-hepatic veins. It pours 
into the cava a part of the blood, which passes 
from the placenta by the umbilical vein. After 
birth, it becomes a fibro-cellular cord. 

Canal of Wirsung, see Pancreas. 

CANA'LES BRESCHETI. Canals in the 
diploe for the passage of veins ; so called after 
M. Breschet. 

Canales Circttlares, Semicircular canals — c. 
Cochleae, Scalae of the cochlea — c. Lachrymales, 
Lachrymal ducts — c. Membranei renum, see Calix 
— c. Tubaeformes, Semicircular canals. 


CANALICULATUS, Cannele, Grooved. 


tritive — c. Lachrymales, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Limacum, Lachrymal ducts — c. Semicirculares, 
Semicircular canals — c. Vasculosi, Canals, nutri- 
tive — c. of Bone, see Lacunae of Bone. 

CANALICULUS, diminutive of canalis, 'a 
channel.' A small channel. See Lacunas of Bone. 

CANALIS, Meatus — e. Arteriosus, Arterial 
duct — c. Bichatii, Canal, arachnoid — c. Canalicu- 
lars, Gorget — c. Caroticus, Carotid canal — c. De- 
ferens, Deferens, vas — c. Eminentiae quadrige- 
minae, Aquaeductus Sylvii — c. Intestinorum, In- 
testinal tube — c. Lachrymalis, Lachrymal or nasal 
duct — c. Medius, Aquaeductus Sylvii — c. Medullas 
Spinalis, see Vertebral column — c. Nerveus fistu- 
losus renum, Ureter — c. Orbitse nasalis, Lachry- 
mal or nasal duct — c. Scalarum communis, In- 
fundibulum of the cochlea — c. Semicircularis ho- 
rizontalis, see Semicircular Canals — c. Semicir- 
cularis verticalis posterior, see Semicircular Ca- 
nals — c. Semicircularis verticalis superior, see 
Semicircular canals — c. Tympanicus, Canal, tym- 
panic — c. Urinarius, Urethra, — c. Vidianus, Pte- 
rygoid canal. 

CANALS OF HAVERS, Canals, nutritive of 
bones — c. Haversian, Canals, nutritive, of bones. 

Canals, Nutritive, Canals for the nutrition 
of bones, Ductus nntrit"ii, Canalic'uli vasculo'si 
seu Haversia'ni, Haver' sian Canals, Canals of 
Havers, (F.) Canaux nourriciers ou du Nutrition 
des os, Conduits nourriciers ou nutriciers. The 
canals through which the vessels pass to the 
bones. They are lined by a very fine lamina of 
compact texture, or are formed in the texture 
itself. There is, generally, one large nutritious 
canal in a long bone, situate towards its middle. 

CANAPACIA, Artemisia vulgaris. 

of the Canaries greatly resembles that of Ma- 
deira. That of the latter, however, is more 




equable, and the accommodation for invalids 
much superior. 

CANARIUM COMMUNE, see Amyris elemi- 

CANARY-SEED, Phalaris Canariensis. 

CANAUX AQUEUX, see Aqueous— c. Demi- 
circulaircs, Semicircular canals — c. Ejaculateurs, 
Ejaculatory ducts — c. Nourriciers, Canals, nutri- 
tive — c. dc Nutrition des os, Canals, nutritive. 

ing to Bichat, the bony canals intended to give 
passage to vessels and nerves going to parts more 
or less distant; as the Gana'lis Carot'icus, &c. 

CANAUX VEINEUX, Venous Canals. The 
canals situate in the diploe, which convey venous 

CAN'CAMUM. A mixture of several gums 
and resins, exported from Africa, where it is used 
to deterge wounds. Dioscorides calls, by the 
name Ku.yKa.iiov, the tears from an Arabian tree, 
which are similar to myrrh, and of a disagreea- 
ble taste. He advises it in numerous diseases. 
This name is given, also, to the Anime. 

CANCAMY, Anime. 
. CANCELLATED, Cancella'tus, (F.) CancelU; 
from CancelU, 'lattice-work.' Formed of can- 
celli, as the ' cancellated structure of bone.' 

CANCEL'LI, 'Lattice-work.' The Cellular 
or Spongy Texture of Bones, (F.) Tissu celluleu.r; 
consisting of numerous cells, communicating with 
each other. They contain a fatty matter, analo- 
gous to marrow. This texture is met with, prin- 
cipally, at the extremities of long bones ; and 
Borne of the short bones consist almost wholly of 

it. It allows of the expansion of the extremities 
of bones, without adding to their weight; and 
deadens concussions. 

CANCEL'LUS, from cancer, 'a crab.' A spe- 
cies of crayfish, called the Wrong Heir, and Ber- 
nard the Hermit: which is said to cure rheuma- 
tism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER, 'a crab.' Car'cinos, Lupus cancro'- 
sus. A disease, so called either on account of the 
hideous appearance which the ulcerated cancer 
presents, or on account of the great veins which 
surround it, and which the ancients compared to 
the claws of the crab : called also Carcino'ma. 
It consists of a scirrhous, livid tumour, inter- 
sected by firm, whitish, divergent bands ; and 
occurs chiefly in the secernent glands. The 
pains are acute and lancinating, and often extend 
to other parts. The tumour, ultimately, termi- 
nates in a fetid and ichorous ulcer, — Ulcus 
caKcro'sum. It is distinguished, according to its 
stages, into occult and open; the former being 
the scirrhous, the latter the ulcerated condition. 
At times, there is a simple destruction or erosion 
of the organs, at others, an encephaloid or cere- 
briform, and, at others, again, a colloid degene- 

For its production, it requires a peculiar dia- 
thesis, or cachexia. The following table, from 
Dr. Walshe, exhibits the characters of the three 
species of carcinoma: 

The use of irritants in cancerous affections is 
strongly to be deprecated. When the disease is 
so situate that excision can be practised, the 
sooner it is removed the better. 


Resembles Iobulated cerebral 

Is commonly opake from its ear- 
liest formation. 

Is of a dead white colour. 

Contains a multitude of minute 

Is less hard and dense than scir- 

Is frequently found in the veins 
issuing from the diseased mass. 

The predominant microscopical 
elements are globular, not always 
distinctly cellular, and caudate cor- 

Occasionally attains an enor- 
mous bulk. 

Has been observed in almost 
every tissue of the body. 

Very commonly co-exists in se- 
veral parts or organs of the same 

Is remarkable for its occasional 
vast rapidity of growth. 

Is frequently the seat of insterti- 
tial hemorrhage and deposition of 
black or bistre-coloured matter. 

When softened into a pulp, ap- 
pears as a dead white or pink opake 
matter of creamy consistence. 

Subcutaneous tumours are slow 
to contract adhesion with the skin. 

Ulcerated encephaloid is fre- 
quently the seat of hemorrhage, 
followed by rapid fungous develop- 

The progress of the disease after 
ulceration is commonly very rapid. 

It is the most common form un- 
der which secondary cancer exhi- 
bits itself. 

Is the species of cancer most fre- 
quently observed in young subjects. 


Resembles rind of bacon tra- 
versed by cellulo-fibrous septa. 

Has a semi-transparent glossi- 

Has a clear whitish or bluish 
yellow tint. 

Is comparatively ill-supplied with 

Is exceedingly firm and dense. 

Has not been distinctly detected 
in this situation. 

The main microscopical consti- 
tuents are juxtaposed nuclear cells ; 
caudate corpuscular do not exist 
in it. 

Rarely acquires larger dimen- 
sions than an orange. 

Its seat, as ascertained by obser- 
vation, is somewhat more limited. 

Is not unusually solitary. 

Ordinarily grows slowly. 

Is comparatively rarely the seat 
of these changes. 

Resembles, when softened, a yel- 
lowish brown semitransparent ge- 
latinous matter. 

Scirrhus thus situate usually be- 
comes adherent. 

Scirrhous ulcers much less fre- 
quently give rise to hemorrhage ; 
and fungous growths (provided 
they retain the scirrhous charac- 
ter) are now more slowly and less 
abundantly developed. 

There is not such a remarkable 
change in the rate of progress of the 
disease after ulceration has set in. 

Is much less common before pu- 


Has the appearance of particles of 
jelly inlaid in a regularalveolar bed. 

The contained matter is strik- 
ingly transparent. 

Greenish yellow is its predomi- 
nant hue. 

Its vessels have not been suffi- 
ciently examined as yet. 

The jelly-like matter is exceed- 
ingly soft ; a colloid mass is, how- 
ever, firm and resisting. 

The pultaceous variety has been 
detected in the veins. 

Is composed of shells in a state 
of emboilement. 

Observes a mean in this respect. 

Has so far been seen in a limited 
number of parts only. 

Has rarely been met with in more 
than one organ. 

Grows with a medium degree af I 

Undergoes no visible change of 
the kind. 

Has so far been observed in adulia i 




Cancer Alveolaris, Colloid. 

Cancer Aquat'icus, Qam'gremova stomati'tis, 
Cancrum Oris, Gangranop'sis, Canker of the 
mouth, Gangrenous sore month, Sloughing Phage- 
da'na, of the mouth, Water Canker : called, also, 
Aphtha serpen'tes, Gangra'na Oris, Noma, Nome, 
Nonius, Pseudocareino'ma la'bii, Stomac'ace gan- 
grano'sa, Cheiloc' ace, Uloc'ace, Uli'tis sep'tica, 
Cheilomala' cia, Scorbu'tus Oris, Stomatomala'cia 
pu'trida, Stomatosep'sis, Stomatonecrosis, Car- 
bun'culus labio'rum et gena'rum, (F.) Cancer 
aquatique, Stomatite gangreneuse, S. Charbon- 
neuse, Gangrene de la Bouche, Sphacele de la 
Bouche, Fegarite, Aphthe gangreneux. Certain 
sloughing or gangrenous ulcers of the mouth, — 
so called, perhaps, because they are often accom- 
panied with an afflux of saliva. The disease is 
not uncommon in children's asylums, and de- 
mands the same treatment as hospital gangrene; 
— the employment of caustics, and internal and 
external antiseptics. 

CANCER AQUATIQUE, Cancer aquaticus, 
Stomacace — c. Areolaire, Colloid — c. Astacus, see 
Cancrorum chelae — c. Black, Melanosis — c. Ca- 
minarioruin, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Cel- 
lular, Encephaloid — c. Cerebriforme, see Ence- 

Cancer, Chimney-sweepers', Sootwart, Can- 
cer mundito'rum, Cancer purgato'ris infumic'uli, 
Cancer scu carcino'ma scroti, Cancer caminario'- 
rum, Osc.heocarcino'ma, Oschocarcino'ma, (F.) 
Cancer des Ramoneurs. This affection begins 
with a superficial, painful, irregular ulcer with 
hard and elevated edges occupying the lower 
part of the scrotum. Extirpation of the diseased 
part is the only means of effecting a cure. 

Cancer, Davidson's Remedy for, see Coni- 
uin maculatum — c. du Foie, Hepatosarcomie — c. 
Fibrous, Seirrhus. 

Cancer Gale'ni, (F.) Cancer de Galien. A 
bandage for the head, to which Galen gave the 
name cancer, from its eight heads resembling, 
rudely, the claws of the crab. It is now sup- 
plied by the bandage with six chefs or heads, 
which is called the Bandage of Galen or B. of 
the Poor. 

CANCER DE GALIEN, Cancer Galeni— c. 
Gelatiniform, Colloid — c. Gelatinous, Colloid — c. 
Hard, Seirrhus — c. Intestinorum, Enteropathia 
cancerosa — c. des Intestins, Enteropathia cance- 
rosa — c. of the Lung, Phthisis, cancerous — c. 
Lupus, Lupus — c. Medullaris, Encephaloid — c. 
Melameus, Melanosis — c. Melane, Melanosis — c. 
Melanodes, Cancer, melanotic. 

Cancer, Melanotic, Cancer melano'des, Car- 
cino'ma melano'des. A combination of cancer 
and melanosis. 

Cancer Mollis, see Encephaloid — e. 3Iou, 
Encephaloid — c. Munditorum, Cancer, chimney- 
sweepers' — c. Oculi, Scirrhophthalmus — c. Oris, 
Stomacace — c. Ossis, Spina ventosa — c. Pharyn- 
gis et oesophagi, Laemoscirrhus — c. Purgatoris 
infuiniculi, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Scir- 
rhosus, Scirrhus — c. Scroti, Cancer, chimney- 
sweepers' — c. Soft, Haematodes fungus — c. of the 
Stomach, Gastrostenosis cardiaca et pylorica — c. 
Uteri, Metro-carcinoma. 

OANCEREUX, Cancerous. 

CANCER ROOT, Orobanche Virginiana, Phy- 
tolacca decandra. 

CANCEROMA, Carcinoma. 

CAN'CEROUS, Cancro'sus, Carcino'sus, (F.) 
Cancereux. Relating to cancer ; as Cancerous 
ulcer, Cancerous diathesis, &c. 

CANCHALAGUA, Chironia Chilensis. 

CANCRENA, Gangrene. 

CAN'CROID, Cancro'des, CancroV des, Card- | 

no'des, Carcinoides, Cancro'i'dexis, from cancer 
and ci&os, 'form.' That which assumes a can- 
cerous appearance. Cancroid is a name given 
to certain cutaneous cancers by Alibert : called 
also Cheloid or Keloid {^t.\vi, ' a tortoise,' and 
siSos, 'likeness,') from their presenting a flatfish 
raised patch of integument, resembling the shell 
of a tortoise. 

CANCROMA, Carcinoma. 

CANCRO'RUM CHELiE, Oc'uli vol Lap'idea 
Cancro'rum, Lapil'li cancro'rum, Concremen'ta 
As'taci Jluviat'ilis, Crab's stones or eyes, (F.) 
Yeux d'ecrevise. Concretions found, particu- 
larly, in the Cancer As' tacus or Cray-fish. They 
consist of carbonate and phosphate of lime, and 
possess antacid virtues, but not more than chalk. 

CANCROSUS, Cancerous, Chancreuse. 

CANCRUM ORIS, Cancer Aquaticus, Sto- 

CANDELA, Bougie — c. Fumalis, Pastil — e. 
Medicata, Bougie — c. Regia, Verbascum ni- 

CANDELARIA, Verbascum nigrum. 

CANDI, Candum, Canthum, Can' Hon : 'white, 
bloached, purified.' Purified and crystallized 
sugar. See Saccharum. 

CANDIDUM OVI, Albumen ovi. 

CANDYTUFT, BITTER, Iberis amara. 

CANEFLOWER, PURPLE, Echinacea pur- 

CANE, SUGAR, see Saccharum — c. Sweet, 
Acorus calamus. 

CANELE, Grooved. 

CANELLA, see Canella alba. 

Canel'la Alba, diminutive of Camna, 'a reed,' 
so called because its bark is rolled up like a reed. 
Cortex Wintera'nus spu'rius, Canella Cuba'na, C. 
Wintera'nia, Cinnamo'mum album, Cortex Anti- 
scorbu'ticus, C. Aromat'icus, Costus cortico'sus, 
Cnmin'ga, Canella of Linnaeus, and of Ph. U. S., 
Canella Bark, Canella, (F.) Canelle ou Candle 
blanche, Fausse Ecorce de Winter, JEcorce Cario- 
costine. Fam. Magnoliaceae. Sex. Syst. Dode- s> 
candria Monogynia. This bark is a pungent 
aromatic. Its virtues are partly extracted by 
water; entirely by alcohol. It is a stimulant, 
and is added to bitters and cathartics. 

Canella Caryophyllata, Myrtus caryophyl- 
lata — c. Cubana, C. alba, Laurus cassia — c. Mala- 
barica et Javensis, Laurus cassia. 


CANEPIN, (F.) A fine lamb's skin or goat's 
skin, used for trying the quality of lancets. 

CANICACEOUS, Furfuraceous. 

CAN'IC^E. Meal, in which there is much 
bran. Also, coarse bread; or bread in which, 
there is much bran — Panis Canica'ceus. 

CANICIDA, Aconitum. 

CANIC'ULA; the Dogstar, from cam's, 'a dog;' 
2t<pios, Sirius, (F.) Canicule. This star, which 
gives its name to the Dogdays, Dies canicula'res, 
because they commence when the sun rises with 
it, was formerly believed to exert a powerful in- 
fluence on the animal economy. The Dog-days 
occur at a period of the year when there is gene- 
rally great and oppressive heat, and therefore— 
it has been conceived — a greater liability to dis- 

CANIF, Knife. 

CANIN, Canine. 

CANINANjE RADIX, Cainca) radix. 

CANINE, Oani'nus, Cyn'icus, kvviko;, from 
canis, 'a dog.' (F.) Canin. That which has a 
resemblance to the structure, Ac., of a dog. 

Cavine FOSSA, Fossa Cani'na, Infra-orbitar or 
Suborbitar fossa, (F.) Fosse Canine. A small 




depression on the superior maxillary bone, above 
the dens caninus, which gives attachment to the 
camiiia or levator anguli oris muscle. 

Canine Laugh, Sardon'ic laugh, Risus CanV- 
wis seu Sardon'icua seu iSardo'nlus, R. de Sardo'- 
nia, R. involunta' rius, R. spaa'ticus, Tortu'ra 
Oris, Distor'eio Oris, Gelas'mus, Sardi'asis, Sar- 
doni'asis, Trismus Sardon'icus seu cyn'icus, Spas- 
mus musculorum faciei seu cyn'icus, Prosopospns'- 
mna, (F.) Ris canin, R. Sardonique, R. Sardonien, 
M. moqucur. A sort of laugh, the facial expres- 
sion of which is produced particularly by the 
spasmodic contraction of the Caninus muscle. 
Probably, this expression, as well as Cynic Spasm, 
Spasmus caninus seu cyn'icus, Convul'sio cani'na, 
Trismus cyn'icus, may have originated in the re- 
semblance of the affection to certain movements 
in the upper lip of the dog. The Risus Sardon'- 
icua is said to have been so called from similar 
symptoms having been induced by a kind of Ra- 
nunculus that grows in Sardinia. 

Canine Teeth, Dentes Cani'ni, Cynodon'tea, D. 
Lania'rii, D. angula'res, cuspida'ti, columella' res, 
ocula'res, morden'tes, Eye Teeth, (F. ) Dents ca- 
nines, laniaires, angulaires, oculaires, ceilleres ou 
conoides. The teeth between the lateral incisors 
and small molares, of each jaw ; — so named be- 
cause they resemble the teeth of the dog. 

CANINUS, Levator anguli oris — c. Sentis, 
Rosa canina — c. Spasmus, see Canine Laugh. 

CANIRAM, Strvchnos nux vomica. 


CANIRUBUS, Rosa canina. 

CANIS INTERFECTOR, Veratrum sababilla 
— c. Ponticus, Castor fiber. 

CANIT"IES, from canus, 'white.' Whiteness 
or grayness of the hair, and especially of that of 
the head. (F.) Canitie. When occurring in con- 
sequence of old age, it is not a disease. Some- 
times, it happens suddenly, and apparently in 
consequence of severe mental emotion. The 
causes, however, are not clear. See Poliosis. 

CANKER, Stomacace — c. of the Mouth, Can- 
cer aquaticus — c. Water, Cancer aquaticus. 

CANNA, see Tous-les-Mois, Cassia fistula, 
Trachea— c. Brachii, Ulna — c. Domestica cruris, 
Tibia, — c. Fistula, Cassia fistula — c. Indica, Sa- 
gittarium alexipharmacum — c. Major, Tibia — 
c. Minor, Fibula, Radius — c. Solutiva, Cassia 

CANNABIN, Bangue. 

CANNAB'INA, from xavva^n, 'hemp.' Reme- 
dies composed of Cannabis Indica. — Pereira. 

Cannabina AQUATicA,Eupatorium cannabinum. 

CANNABIS INDICA, Bangue. See, also, 
Churrus, and Gunjah. 

Can'nabis Sati'va, (F.) Chanvre, Chambrie. 
The seed of this — Hempseed, Sem'ina Can'nabis, 
(F.) Chenevis, is oily and mucilaginous. The 
decoction is sometimes used in gonorrhoea. 

ma longa. 

CANNAMELLE, see Saccharum. 

CANNE AROMATIQUE, Acorus calamus— 
c. Congo, Costus — c. de Riviere, Costus — c. d 
Sucre, see Saccharum. 

CANNEBERGE, Vaccinium oxycoccos — c. 
Ponctuee, Vaccinium vitis idaea. 

GANNELE ou CANELE, (F.) from canalia, 
'a canal:' Sulca'tus, Stria' tits, Canalicula'tus. 
Having a canal or groove — as Muscle cannele 
(Lieutaud,) the Gemini; Corps canneles ou stries, 
the Corpora striata ; Sonde cannelee, a grooved 
sound, &c. See Grooved. 

CANNELLE, Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Blanche, Canella alba — c. de la Chine, Laurus 
cassia — c. de Coromandel, Laurus cassia — c. 
Fausae, Laurus cassia — c. Giro/lie, Myrtus cary- 

ophyllata — c. dcs hides, Laurus cassia — c. deJava, 
Laurus cassia — c. de 3Ialab<ir, Laurus cassia — o. 
Matte, Laurus cassia — c. Officinale, Laurus cin- 
namomum — e. l'oirree, see Wintera aroniatica. 

CANNULA, Canula. 


CANOPUM, see Sambucus. 


CANTABRICA, Convolvulus Cantabrica. 


CANTARELLUS, Meloe prosearabaeus. 


tuarien'sea. The waters of Canterbury in Kent, 
England, are impregnated with iron, sulphur, and 
carbonic acid. 

CANTERIUM, Cantherius. ; 


CANTHARIDINE, see Cantharis. 

CAN'THARIS, from KavSapos, ' a scarabaua ;' 
Musca Hispan'ica, Mel'oe vesicato'rius, Cantharis 
vesicato'ria, Lytta vesicato' via, Blistering Fly, 
Blisterjly, Bliaterbeetle, Spanish Fly, Fly, (F.) 
Cantharidea, Mouches, M. d'Espagne. This fly 
is much employed in medicine. It is the most 
common vesicatory. Given internally, and even 
when absorbed from the skin, it affects the uri- 
nary organs, exciting strangury. This may be 
prevented, in eases of blisters, by interposing be- 
tween the blistering plaster and skin a piece of 
tissue paper. Diluents relieve the strangury. 
Dose, half a grain to one grain. If kept dry, the 
flies will retain their activity for many years. 
Their active principle, Can' tharidin, Cantharidi'- 
na, has been separated from them. 

Caxthahis Vittata, Lytta vittata. 

CANTHE'RIUS, Cante'rium. The cross-pieco 
of wood in the apparatus used by Hippocrates for 
reducing luxations of the humerus. 

CANTHI'TIS. Inflammation of the canthug 
of the eve. 

CANTHOPLAS'TICE, from *av$os, 'the angle 
of the eye,' and irXaariKos, 'formative.' The 
formation, by plastic operation, of the angle of 
the eye. 

CANTHUM, Candi. 

CANTHUS, Epican'thia, An'gulua ocula'ria, 
Fons lachrijma'rwn. The corner or angle of the 
eye. The greater canthua is the inner angle, 
Hircua, Hir'quus, Rhanter ; the lesser canthua, 
the outer anqle, Paro'pia, Pega. 

CANTIA'NUS PULVIS. A cordial powder, 
known under the name ' Countess of Kent's pow- 
der,' composed of coral, amber, crab's eyes, pre- 
pared pearls, <fcc. It was given in cancer. 

CANTION, Candi. 

CAN'ULA, Can'nula, Au'liscus, Anloa. Di- 
minutive of Canna, 'a reed;' Tu'bulua, (F.) 
Canute ou Cannule. A small tubo of gold, silver, 
platinum, iron, lead, wood, elastic gum, or gutta 
percha, used for various purposes in surgery. 

CA'OUTCHOUC. The Indian name for In- 
dian Rubber, Elas'tic Gum, Gum Elastic, Gnnimi 
elas'ticum, Caucliuc, Resi'na elas'tica seu Cayen- 
neii'sis, Cayenne Resin, Cautchnc. A substance 
formed from the milky juice of Ha'vea seu Hevea 
Gtiiinifii'sis, Jat'ropha elas'tica seu Siplio'nia 
Cahuchu, S. elas'tica, Ficus Indica, and Artocar'- 
pus intcgrifo'lia: — South American trees. It is 
insoluble in water and alcohol; but boiling water 
softens and swells it. It is soluble in the es- 
sential oils and in oth^r, when it may be blown 
into bladders. It is used in the fabrication of 
catheters, bougies, pessaries, Ac. 

CAP, PITCH, see Depilatory. 

CAPA-ISIAKKA: ^romelia ananas. 

CAPBERN, WATERS OF. Capbern 18 in 




the department Hautes-Pyr6n6es, France. The 
waters contain sulphates and carbonates of lime 
aud magnesia, and chloride of magnesium. Tem- 
perature, 75° Fahrenheit. They are purgative. 

CAPELET, Myrtus caryophvllata. 

CAPELI'NA, Capelli'na, (F.) Capeline ; A 
Woman's Hat, in French ; Gap is'trum, from caput, 
'head.' A sort of bandage, which, in shape, re- 
sembles a riding-hood. There are several kinds 
of Capelines. 1. That of the head, C. de la tete, 
Fas'cia capita'lis. See Bonnet d'Hippocrate. C. 
of the clavicle, employed in fractures of the acro- 
mion, clavicle and spine of the scapula. C. of an 
amputated limb — the bandage applied round the 

CAPELLINA, Capelina. 

CAPER BUSH, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPER PLANT, Euphorbia lathyris. 

CAPERS, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPETUS, Imperforation. 

CAPHORA, Camphor. 

CAPHURA, Camphor. 

GAPILLAIBE, Capillary, see Adiantum 
capillus veneris — c. du Canada, Adiantum pe- 
datum — c. de Montpellier, Adiantum capillus 

CAPILLAMEN'TUM, from Capillus, 'a hair,' 
Capillit"ium, Tricho'ma, Trichoma' Hon. Any 
villous or hairy covering. Also, a small fibre or 

CAP'ILLARY, Capilla'ri8, Capilla'cens, from 
capillus, 'a hair.' (F.) Capillaire. Hair-like; 

Cap'illary Vessels, Vasa capilla'ria, (F.) 
Vaisseaux capillaires, are the extreme radicles 
of the arteries aud veins, which together consti- 
tute the capillary, intermediate, or peripheral 
vascular system, — the meth<e'mata or meikmmat- 
ous blood channels of Dr. Marshall Hall. They 
possess an action distinct from that of the heart. 

CAPILLATIO, Trichismus. 


CAPILLITIUM, Capillamentum, Entropion, 


CAPIL'LUS, quasi Ca p itisPilus, Coma, Chcete, 
Crinis, Pilus, Thrix, C&sa'ries, (F.) Cheveu. 
This term is generally applied to the hair of the 
head, Pili seu Honor cap'itis, the characters of 
which vary, according to races, individuals, <fec. 
Hairs arise in the areolar membrane, where the 
bulb is placed, and are composed of two parts — 
one, external, tubular, and transparent, of an 
epidermoid character; the other, internal and 
sui generis, which communicates to them their 
colour. The hair is insensible, and grows from 
the root. 

Capillus Veneris, Adiantum capillus veneris 
— c. V. Canadensis, Adiantum pedatum. 

CAPIPLE'NIUM, Capitiple'nium, from caput, 
'the head,' and. plenum, 'full.' A word, employed 
with different significations. A variety of catarrh. 
— Schneider. A heaviness or disorder in the 
head common at Rome, like the Kaprifiapca, Care- 
baria, of the Greeks. — Baglivi. 


CAPISTRUM, Capeline, Chevestre, Trismus— 
C. Auri, Borax. 

Capis'trum, Phimos, Cemos, Knfiog, 'a halter.' 
This name has been given to several bandages 
for the head. — See Capeline, Chevestre. 

CAPITALIA REMEDIA, Cephalic remedies. 

CAPITALIS, Cephalic. 

CAPITELLUM, Alembic, see Caput. 


CAPITTLU'VIUM, from caput, 'the head,' 
and lavarej ' to wash.' A bath for the head. 

CAPITIPLENIUM, Capiplenium. 

CAPITIPURGIA, Caput purgia. 

CAPITITRAHA, from caput, ' the head,' and 
trahere, ' to draw.' Instruments which, like the 
forceps, draw down the head of the foetus when 
impacted in the pelvis. 

CAPITO'NES, from caput, 'the head.' Ma- 
croceph'ali, Proccph'ali. Foetuses whose heads 
are so large as to render labour difficult. 

CAPITULUM, Alembic, Condyle, see Caput— 
c. Costa?, see Costa — c. Laryngis, Corniculum 
laryngis — c. Martis, Eryngium campestre — c 
Santorini, Corniculum laryngis. 

CAPITULUVIUM, Bath, (head.) 

CAPNISMOS, Fumigation. 


CAPNOIDES CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNORCHIS, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNOS, Fumaria. 

CAPON, Cagot. 

CAPON SPRINGS. A pleasant summer re. 
treat, situated in a gorge of the North Mountain, 
in Hampshire co., Va., 23 miles AV. of Winchester 
The waters in the vicinity are sulphurous and 
chalybeate; — those at the springs alkaline and 

CAPOT, Cagot. 

CAP'PARIS SPINO'SA, Cap'paris, Cappar, 
Ca'pria, Prickly Caper Bush, (F.) Cdprier. Fa- 
mily, Capparidea3. Sex. Syst. Polyandria Mono- 
gynia. The bark of the root, and the buds, 
have been esteemed astringent and diuretic. 
The buds are a well known pickle. — Capers, (F.) 

Capparis Badtjc'ca, Baduh'ka. A species of 
caper, cultivated in India on account of the 
beauty of its flowers. The Orientals make a 
liniment with its juice, with which they rub 
pained parts. The flowers are purgative. 

CAPPONE, WATERS OF. At Cappone, in 
the isle of Ischia, are waters containing carbonate 
of soda, chloride of sodium and carbonate of lime. 
Temp. 100° Fah. 

CAPREOLA'RIS, from capreolus, 'a tendril.' 
Gisso'ides, Elico'ides, (F.) Capreolaire. Twisted. 

Capreola'ria Vasa. Some have called thus 
the spermatic arteries and veins, on account of 
their numerous contortions. 


CAPBES, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIA, Capparis spinosa. 


CAPBIEB, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIFOLIA, Lonicera periclymenum. 

periclymenum — c. Periclymenum, Lonicera peri- 
clymenum — c. Sylvaticum, Lonicera pericly- 


CAPRIZANS PULSUS, see Pulse, caprizant 

CAPSA, Boite, Capsule, Case — c. Cordis, Peri- 

CAPSARIUM, Boxtier. 


CAPSICUM, see Capsicum annuum. 

Cap'sicum An'nuum, from kutttw, 'I bite.' The 
systematic name of the plant whence Cayenne 
Pepper is obtained, — Piper In'dicum seu His- 
pan'icum, Sola'num urens, Siliquas'trnm P/in'ii, 
Piper Brazilia'num, Piper Guineen'se, Piper Ca- 
lecu'ticum, Piper Tur'cicum, C. ffiepan'icum, Pi- 
per Lusitan'icum, Cayenne Peppier, Guin'ca Pep- 
per, (F.)Piment, Poivre d'Inde, Poivre de Guinie, 
Corail des Jardins. The pungent, aromatic pro- 
perties of BacccR Capsici, Capsicum Berries. Cap- 
sicum (Ph. U. S.), are yielded to ether, alcohol, 
and water. They are highly stimulant and rube- 




facient, and are used as a condiment. Their ac- 
tive principle is called Capsicin. 

Capsicum Hispanicum, Capsicum annuum. 

GAPSIQUM, Capsicum annuum. 

CAPSITIS, see Phacitis. 

CAPSULA, Boitier — c. Articularis, Capsular 
ligament — c. Cordis, Pericardium — c. Dentis. 
Dental follicle — c. Lentis, see Crystalline — c. 
Nervorum, Neurilemma. 

CAPSULiE SEMINALES, Vesicuke S. — c. 
Synoviales, Bursas mucosas. 

CAI'SULAIRE, Capsular. 

CAP'SULAR, Capsula'ris, (F.) Capsulaire. 
Relating to a capsula or capsule. 

Capsular Arteries, Suprare'nal Arteries and 
Veins. Vessels belonging to the suprarenal cap- 
sules. They are divided into superior, middle, 
and inferior. The first proceed from the inferior 
phrenic, the second from the aorta, and the third 
from the renal artery. The corresponding veins 
enter the phrenic, vena cava, and renal. 

Capsular Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum capsula' re, 
Cap'sula articula'ris, Artic'ular capsule, Fibrous 
capsule, (F.) Ligament capsulaire, Capsule arti- 
culaire, Capsule fibreux, &c. Membranous, 
fibrous, and elastic bags or capsules, of a whitish 
consistence, thick, and resisting, which surround 

CAPSULE, Cap'sula, Capsa, a box, or case, 
(F.) Capsule. This name has been given, by 
anatomists, to parts bearing no analogy to each 

Capsule, Cellular, of the Eye, see Eye. 

Capsule, Fibrous, Capsular ligament. 

Capsule, Gelat'inous, Cap'sula gelat'inm, 
Capsule of gelatin. A modern invention by 
which copaiba and other disagreeable oils can 
be enveloped in gelatin so as to conceal their 

Capsule of Glisson, Cap'sula Glisso'nii, C. 
commu'nis Glisso'nii, Vagi'na Porta, V. Glis- 
so'nii. A sort of membrane, described by Glis- 
son, which is nothing more than dense areolar 
membrane surrounding the vena porta and its 
ramifications in the liver. 

Capsule of the Heart, Cap'sula cordis. The 

Capsule, Ocular, see Eye. 

Capsule, Renal, Suprare'nal or Atrabil'- 
iary C, Renal Gland, Glan'dula suprarena'lis, 
Cap'sula rena'lis, suprarena'lis vel atrabilia'ris, 
Ren succenturia'tus, Nephrid'ium, (F.) Capsule 
surrenale ou atrabiliaire. A flat, triangular body, 
which covers the upper part of the kidney, as 
with a helmet. A hollow cavity in the interior 
contains a brown, reddish or yellowish fluid. The 
renal capsules were long supposed to be the secre- 
tory organs of the fancied atrabilis. They are 
much larger in the foetus than in the adult. 
They are probably concerned in lymphosis. 

Capsule, Sem'inal, Cap'sula semina'lis. Bar- 
THOLINE thus designates the extremity of the vas 
deferens, which is sensibly dilated in the vicinity 
of the vesiculae seminales. Some anatomists ap- 
ply this name to the vesiculae themselves. 

Capsule, Syno'vial, Capsula Synovia'lis. A 
membranous bag, surrounding the movable arti- 
culations and canals, which gives passage to ten- 
dons. Synovial capsules exhale, from their arti- 
cular surface, a fluid, whose function is to favour 
the motions of parts upon each other. See Bursa 
mucosa, and Synovia. . 

J5ILIARE, Capsule, renal. 

CAPSULITIS, see Phacitis. 

CAPUCHON, Trapezius. 

CAPUCINE, Tropaeolum majus. 

CAPULIES, Prunus capulin. 

CAPULUS, Scrotum. 

CAPUT, 'the head.' Also, the top of a bono 
or other part, (F.) Tete. The head of small 
bones is sometimes termed capit'ulum, capitell'um, 
cephalid'ium, ceph'alis, cephal'ium. Also, the 
glans penis. 

Caput Asper>e Arterl/e, Larynx — c. Coli, 
Ceecum — c. Gallinaceum, see Gallinaginis caput 
— c. Gallinaginis, see Gallinaginis caput — c. Ge- 
nitale, Glans — c. Lubricum, Penis — c. Monachi, 
Leontodon Taraxacum — c. Obstipum, Torticollis 
— c. Penis, Glans. 

Caput Pur'gia, Capitipur' gia. Remedies, 
which the ancients regarded as proper for purg- 
ing the head : — errhines, sternutatories, apophleg- 
matisantia, &c. Prosper Alpinus makes the caput 
purgia to be the same as errhines ; and the apo- 
phlegmatismi the same as the masticatories of 
the moderns. 

Caput Scapula, Acromion. 

Caput Succeda'neum. A term sometimes used 
for the tumefied scalp, which first presents in cer- 
tain cases of labour. 

Caput Testis, Epididymis. 

CAQUE- SANG UE, Cague-sangue. Old 
French words which signify Bloody evacuations, 
(F.) Dejections sanguinolentes. They come from 
cacare, ' to go to stool,' and sanguis, ' blood.' Un- 
der this term was comprehended every affection, 
in which blood is discharged from the bowels. 

CARA SCHULLI, Frutex In'dicus spino'svs, 
Barle'ria btixifo'lia. A Malabar plant, which, 
when applied externally, is maturative and resol- 
vent. The decoction of its root is used, in the 
country, in ischuria. 

CARABAC'CIUM. An aromatic wood of In- 
dia, of a yellowish colour, and a smell like that 
of the clove. Its decoction and infusion are 
given as stomachics and antiscorbutics. 

CAR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous insects. 
Two species, the chrysoceph'alus and ferrv gin' 'eus, 
have been recommended for the toothach. They 
must be pressed between the fingers, and then 
rubbed on the gum and tooth affected. 

CARACTERE, Character, Symbol. 

CARAGNA, Caranna. 

CARAMATA, Arumari. A tree in the inland 
parts of Pomeroon. It furnishes a febrifuge bark, 
which Dr. Hancock says may be used in typhoid 
and remittent fevers where cinchona is either 
useless or pernicious. 

CARAMBOLO, Averrhoa carambola. 

CARAN'NA, Caragna, Tacamahaca, Caragna, 
Caran'ncB Gummi, G. Brel'isis, Gum Caran'na, 
(F.) Caragne, Gomme Caragne ou Carane. A 
gum-resinous substance, which flows from a large 
tree in New Spain, and is obtained from South 
America in impure masses. It preserves its soft- 
ness for a long time, has an aromatic smell, and 
a slightly acrid and bitter taste. It was formerly 
used as a vulnerary and in plasters. 

CARAWAY, Carum. 

CARBASA, Linteum. 

CARBASUS, Linteum. 

CARBO, Carbo JAgni, Charcoal, (F.) Ckarbon. 
Fresh Charcoal is antiseptic. It is used to im- 
prove the digestive organs in cases of worms, 
dyspepsia, <tc. ; as a cataplasm to gangrenous 
and fetid ulcers, tinea, &c, and forms a good 
tooth-powder. Dose, gr. x to gj- Also, Anthrax. 

Carbo Anima'lis, Carbo carnis, Animal char- 
coal, (F.) Charhnn animal. In the Pharmaco- 
poeia of the United States, it is directed to be 
prepared from bones. It is given in the same 
cases as Carbo Lir/ni, and has been extolled in 
cancer. Dose, gr. ss. to gr. iij. 

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States son 




tains a formula for the preparation of Carbo 
Anima'ms Purifica'tus, Purified animal char- 
coal (Carbon, animal, lb j ; Acid muriat., Aquar, 
aa f3xij.) Pour the muriatic acid, previously 
mixed with the water, gradually upon the char- 
coal, and digest with a gentle heat for two days, 
occasionally stirring the mixture. Having al- 
lowed the undissolved portion to subside, pour 
off the supernatant liquor, wash the charcoal fre- 
quently with water until it is entirely free from 
acid, and lastly dry it. 

Carbo Fos'silis, Lithanthrax, Stone coal. 

Carbo Huma'num. The human excrement. — 

Carro Ligni, Carbo — c. Mineralis, Graphites 
■ — c. Palpebrarum, Anthracosis — c. Spongiae, 
Sponeia usta. 

sesqui-iodidum — c. Bisulphuret of, Carbonis sul- 
phuretuin — c. Sulphuret of, Carbonis sulphuretum 
C. Terchloride of, Chloroform. 

CAR'BONAS or CARBO'NAS. A carbonate. 
(F.) Carbonate. A salt, formed by the combina- 
tion of carbonic acid with a salifiable base. 

Carbonas Natricdm, Sodae carbonas. 

nias carbonas. 

CAR'BONATED, Carbona'tus, Aera'tus, (F.) 
Carbone, Acre. That which is impregnated with 
carbonic acid. 

CARBONE, Carbonated. 


CARBON'IC ACID, Ac"idum Carbon' icnm, 
Solid Air of Hales, Factitious Air, Fixed Air, 
Carbona'ceous Acid, Calca'reous Acid, Aerial 
Acid, Mephit'ic Acid, Spir'itus letha'lis, (F.) 
Acide Carbonique. This gas, which neither sup- 
ports respiration nor combustion, is not often 
used in medicine. It is the main agent in effer- 
vescent draughts, fermenting poultices, &c. It 
is often found occnpying the lower parts of mines 
— when it is called the choke damp — caverns, 
tombs, wells, brewers' vats, &c, and not unfre- 
quently has been the cause of death. Lime 
thrown into such places soon absorbs the acid. 

Iodure' turn, Sesqui-I'odide or Sesqui-Iod'uret of 
Carbon. This is made by mixing concentrated 
alcoholic solutions of iodine and potassa, until 
the former loses its colour ; a solution is obtained 
from which water throws down a yellow precipi- 
tate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon. It has been 
used in enlarged glands and in some cutaneous 
affections, applied externally, (gss to 3 V J of 

Carbo'nis Sulphure'tum, Sulphure'tum Car- 
bo'nii, Sul'fidum Carbo'nii, Carbo'nium Sulphu- 
ra'tum, Al'cohol Sul'phuris, Bisulphure'tum Car- 
bo'nii, Sulphuret of Carbon, Bisulphuret of Car- 
bon, Carburet of Sulphur, (F.) Snlfure de Carbon. 
This transparent, colourless fluid, which has a 
very penetrating, disagreeable odour, and a taste 
which is cooling at first, but afterwards acrid and 
somewhat aromatic, is a diffusible excitant. It 
is diaphoretic, diuretic, and has been said to have 
proved emmenagogue. It is also used in nervous 
diseases as an antispasmodic. Dose, one drop to 
four, repeated frequently. 

It is used externally, where a cooling influence 
has to be rapidly exerted, and has been inhaled 
as an anaesthetic. 


CARBUNCLE, Anthrax — c. Fungous, Ter- 
uiinthus — c. of the Tongue, Glossanthrax — c. 
Berry, Terminthus. 

CARBUNCLED FACE. Gutta rosea. 



CARBUNCULUS, Anthrax — c. Anginosus, 
Cynanche maligna — c. Contagiosus, see Anthrax 
— c. Gallicus, see Anthrax — c. Hungaricus, see 
Anthrax — c. Labiorum et genarum, Cancer aqua- 
ticus — c. Polonicus, see Anthrax — o. Pulmonum, 
Necropneumonia— c. Septentrionalis, see Anthrax. 

Carbun'culus Rubi'nus. A red, shining, and 
transparent stone, from the Isle of Ceylon ; for- 
merly employed in medicine as a preservative 
against several poisons, the plague, &c. 

Carbunculus Ulcusculosus, Cynanche ma- 

CAR'CAROS, from Kapxatpu), ' I resound/ ' I 
tremble.' A fever, in which the patient has a 
general tremor, accompanied with an unceasing 
noise in the ears. 

CARCINODES, Cancroid, Chancreuse. 


CARCINO'MA, Cancero'ma, Cancro'ma, from 
KapKivos, 'a crab.' Some authors have thus called 
indolent tumours different from cancer; others, 
incipient cancer ; and others, again, the species 
of cancer in which the affected structure assumes 
the appearance of cerebral substance ; but the 
majority of authors use Carcinoma in the same 
sense as Cancer. 

Carcinoma Alveolare, Colloid — c. Fibrosum, 
Scirrhus — c. Hsematodes, Hsematodes fungus — c. 
Intestinorum, Enteropathia cancerosa — c. Lin- 
guae, Glossocarcinoma — c. of the Liver, Hepato- 
scirrhus — c. Medullare, Encephaloid — c. Mela- 
nodes, Cancer, melanotic — c. Melanoticum, Me- 
lanosis — c. Simplex, Scirrhus — c. Spongiosum, 
Encephaloid, Haematodes fungus — c. Scroti, Can- 
cer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Uteri, Metrocarcino- 
ma, Metroscirrhus — c. Ventriculi, Gastroscirrhusj 
see Gastrostenosis cardiaca et pylorica. 

CARCINOMATOUS. Relating to Cancer. 

cephaloid — c. Sanglant, Encephaloid, Haema- 
matodes fungus. 

CARCINOS, Cancer. 

CARCINO'SES, (G.) Karsinosen, from Ka p- 
Kivos, ' a crab.' A family of diseases, according 
to the classification of Fuchs ; which embraces 
the different forms of Cancer. 

CARCINOSUS, Cancerous. 


CARDAMANTICA, Cardamine pratensis, Le- 
pidium Iberis. 


CARDAMINE FONTANA, Sisymbrium nas- 
turtium — c. Nasturtium, Sisymbrium nasturtium. 

Cardami'ne Praten'sis, Cardami'ne, Carda- 
man'tica, Nastur'tinm Aqnat'icnm, Car'damon, 
Culi flos, Ibe'ris soph'ia, Nastur'tium praten'se, 
Ladies-smock, Cuckoo-flower, Common Bitter 
Cress, (F. ) Cresson elegant, Cresson des pres, Paa- 
serage sauvage. Ord. Cruciferae. The flowers 
have been considered useful as antispasmodics, 
in the dose of 3J to ^ij. They are probably 

CARDAMOM, LESSER, Amomum cardamo- 

CARDAlfOJfE, Amomum cardamomum — c. 
de la Cote de Malabar, Amomum cardamomum. 

paradisi — c. Minus, Amomum cardamomum — 
c. Piperatum, Amomum grana paradisi — c. Wild, 
FagarastrWHi Capense. 

CARDAMON, Cardamine pratensis. 

CARDAMUM MAJUS, Tropseolum majus. 

CARDERE, Dipsacus sylvestris — c. Cultivi, 
Dipsacus fullonum. 

CARDIA, Kagbia, 'the heart.' Stom'achut, 




OriJlc"ium sinis'trum seu Ingres'sus supe'rior 
ventrie'uli. The superior or oesophageal orifice 
of the stomach, — OriJic"ium ventrie'uli sinis'- 
trum. Also, the Heart. 

CAR'DIAC, Cardi'acus, from /capita, 'the 
heart;' or the upper orifice of the stomach. (F.) 
Cardiaque. Relating to the heart or to the upper 
orifice of the stomach. A cordial. 

Cardiac Ar'teries, Cor'onary arteries, (F.) 
Artrrcs cardiaques ou coronaires, are two in 
number. They arise from the aorta, a little above 
the free edge of the sigmoid valves, and are dis- 
tributed on both surfaces of the heart. 

Car'diac Gan'glion, Gan'glion cardi'acum, 
situated beneath the arch of the aorta to the 
right side of the ligament of the ductus arteriosus. 
It receives the superior cardiac nerves of opposite 
sides of the neck, and a branch from the pneu- 
mogastric, and gives off numerous branches to 
the cardiac plexuses. 

Cardiac Nerves, (F.) Nerfs cardiaques. These 
are commonly three on each side ; a superior, 
middle and inferior, which are furnished by cor- 
responding cervical ganglia. Commonly, there 
ars but two on the left side ; the upper and mid- 
dle, which draw their origin from the last two 
cervical ganglia. Scarpa calls the superior — 
Cardi'acus superficia'lis ; the middle — C. profun- 
dus seu C. mag mis ; and the inferior — 0. parvus 
seu minor. There are, besides, Cardiac fil'aments, 
(F.) Filets cardiaques, furnished by the par va- 
gum or pneumo-gastric nerve, which become 
confounded with the above. 

Cardiac Plexus, Plexus cardi'acus. There 
are three cardiac plexuses. 1. The great cardiac 
plexus is situated upon the bifurcation of the tra- 
chea. It is formed by the convergence of the middle 
and inferior cardiac nerves ; and by branches 
from the pneumogastric, descendens noni, and 
first thoracic ganglion. 2. The anterior cardiac 
plexus is situated in front of the ascending aorta 
near its origin. It is formed by filaments from 
the superior cardiac nerves ; from the cardiac 
ganglion ; and from the great cardiac plexus. 
Filaments from this plexus accompany the left 
coronary artery, and form the anterior coronary 
plexus. 3. The posterior cardiac plexus is seated 
upon the posterior part of the ascending aorta 
near its origin. It is formed by numerous branches 
from the great cardiac plexus. It divides into 
two sets of branches, which together constitute 
the posterior coronary plexus. 

Cardiac Veins, Coronary veins, (F.) Veines 
Cardiaques, are commonly four in number ; two 
anterior and two posterior. They open into the 
right auricle by one orifice, which is furnished 
with a valve, and is called, by Portal, Sinus coro- 
naire du Cozur. 

CARDIAC A CRISPA, Leonurus cardiaca — 
c. Passio, Cardialgia — c. Trilobata, Leonurus 
cardiaca — c. Vulgaris, Leonurus cardiaca. 

CARDIACUS, Cordial, Stomachal. 

CARDIAGMUS, Cardialgia. 

CARDI'AGRA, Affec'tio arthrit'iea cordis ; 
from Kapha, 'the heart,' and ay pa, 'seizure.' 
Gout of the heart. 

CARDIAG'RAPHY, Cardiagra'phia, from 
Kapha, 'the heart,' and ypa(pn, 'a description.' 
An anatomical description of the heart. 

CARDIAL'GIA, Cardi'aca Passio, Col'ica 
Ventrie'uli, Spasmus Ventrie'uli, Perodyn'ia, 
Cordo' Hum, Cardilcz 'a, Dyspepsodyn'ia, Dyspep- 
eiodyn'ia, Dyspeptodyn'ia, Peratodyn'ia, Car- 
diod'yne, Gastral' gia, Gasteral' gia, Gastrocol'ia, 
Gastrod'yne, Pas'sio Cardi'aca, Stomachal' gia, 
Stomacal' gia, Gastrodyn'ia, Cardi'acus Morbus, 
Cardiog'mus, Cardialgy ; from Kapha, 'the car- 
diac orifice of the stomach,' and a\yo{, 'pain.' 

Pain of the stomach, (F.) Douleur de V Estomaa, 
D. nevralgique de I'Estomac. Also, Heartburn, 
(F.) Cardialgie, Ardeur d' Estomuc, A. du Cceur. 
Impaired appetite, with gnawing or burning pain 
in the stomach or epigastrium, — Morsus vel ardor 
ventrie'idi, Morsus stom'aehi, Soda, Limo'sis car- 
dial'gia mordens, Rosio Stom'aehi seu Ventrie'- 
uli : — a symptom of dyspepsia. 

Cardialgia Inflammatory, Gastritis — c 
Sputatoria, Pyrosis. 

CARDIALOG"IA, from Kapha, 'the heart,' 
and ioyo;, 'a discourse.' A treatise on the heart. 

CARDIANASTROPHE, Ectopia cordis. 

CARDIARCTIE, Heart, concentric hypertro- 
phy of the. 

CARDIA'RIUS ; same etymology. A name 
given to a worm, said to have been found in the 
heart or pericardium. 

CARDIATOM'IA, from Kapha, 'the heart, 
and refivuv, 'to cut.' Dissection of the heart. 

CARDIATROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 

CARDIAUXE, Heart, hypertrophy of the. 

CARDIECTASIS, see Aneurism of the heart 
— c. Partialis, Aneurism of the heart. 

CARDIELCOSIS; from Kapha, 'the heart/ 
and 'c^kos, 'an ulcer.' Ulceration of the heart. 

CARDIETHMOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIEURYSMA, Aneurism of the heart. 

CARDIL.EA, Cardialgia. 

CARDIM'ELECH, from Kapha, 'the heart,' 
and "170, Melek, (Hebr.,) 'a governor.' A sup- 
positious active principle seated in the heart, and 
governing the vital functions. — Dolseus. 

CARDINAL FLOWER, Lobelia cardinalis — 
c. Blue, Lobelia syphilitica. 

CARDINAL PLANT, Lobelia cardinalis. 

CARDINAMENTUM, Ginglymus, Gomphosis. 

CARDIOBOTANUM, Centaurea benedicta. 

CARDIOCE'LE, from Kapha, 'the heart,' and 
KrfXrj, 'rupture.' Hernia of the heart, especially 
into the abdominal cavity. 

CARDIOCLASJE, Cardiorrhexis. 

CARDIOD'YNE, Cardiodyn'ia ; from Kapha, 
'the heart, the stomach,' and ohivn, 'pain.' Pain 
in the heart. Also, Cardialgia. 

Cardiodyne Spasmodica Intermittens, An- 
gina pectoris. 

CARDIOG'MUS. Hippocrates employed thi3 
word synonymously with cardialgia. In the time 
of Galen it was used, by some writers, for certain 
pulsations of the heart, analogous to palpitations. 
Sauvages understood by Cardiogmus an aneurism 
of the heart or great vessels, when still obscure. 
Also, Angina pectoris. 

CARDiOGJfrrs Cordis Sinirtrt, Angina pectoris. 

CARDIOMALA'CIA, Malaco'sis seu Mala'cia 
seu Malax'is seu Mollit"ies Cordis, (F.) Ramol- 
lissement du Coeur, from Kapha, 'the heart,' and 
paXaKia, ' softness.' Softening of the heart, caused 
by inflammation of the organ, or a consequence 
of some lesion of the function of nutrition. 

CARDIOMYOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIONCHI, see Aneurism. 

CARDIONEURALGIA, Angina pectoris. 

CARDIOPALMUS. Cardiotromus. 

CARDIOPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

CARDIORRHEU'MA, Rhenmalis'mus cordis; 
from Kapha, 'the heart,' and pevpa, ' defluxion, 
rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the heart. 

CARDIORRHEX'IS, Cardioclasie, (Piorry,) 
Ruptu'ra cordis, (F.) Rupture du Coeur, from 
Kapha, 'the heart,' and pr^ts, 'laceration.' Lace- 
ration of the heart. 

CARDI0SCLER0S1E, (Piorry) from Kapha, 
'the heart,' and crK'Svpoc, 'hard.' (F.) Endureisse- 
rnent du Induration of the heart. 

CARDIOSTENO'SIS, Stenocar'dia, from «w 




lia, ' the heart,' and otcvuhtis, ' contraction.' Con- 
traction of the openings of the heart. 

CARDIOTRAU'MA, from K apiia, 'the heart,' 
and Tpavfia, 'a wound.' A wound of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROMUS, Palpita'tio Cordis trep'- 
idans, Cardiopal'mus, Trepida'tio Cordis, from 
KapSia, 'the heart,' and rpo/zoj, 'tremor.' Rapid 
and feeble palpitation, or fluttering of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROTUS, from Kapha, 'the heart,' 
and TirpotTKhi, ' I wound.' One affected with a 
wound of the heart. — Galen. 

CARDIPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

CARDITE, Carditis. 

CARDI'TIS, from Kapha, 'the heart, and the 
termination itis. Inflammation of the fleshy 
substance of the heart. Empres'ma Cardi'tis, 
Injiamma'tio Cordis, Injiamma'tio Cardi'tis, Cau- 
ma Cardi'tis, Myocardi'tis, Cardi'tis Muscula'ris, 
(F.) Inflammation du Coeur, Cardite. The symp- 
toms of this affection are by no means clear. 
They are often confounded with those of pericar- 
ditis, or inflammation of the membrane investing 
the heart. Carditis, indeed, with many, includes 
both the inflammation of the investing membrane 
and that of the heart itself. See Pericarditis, and 

Carditis Externa, Pericarditis — c. Interna, 
Endocarditis — c. Muscularis, Carditis — c. Mem- 
branosa, Pericarditis — c. Polyposa, Polypi of the 
heart — c. Serosa, Pericarditis. 

CARDO, Ginglymus. 

CARDOPATIUM, Carlina acaulis. 

CARDUUS ALTILIS, Cynara scolymus — c. 
Benedictus, Centaurea benedicta — c. Brazilianus, 
Bromelia ananas — c. Domesticus capite majori, 
Cynara scolymus — c. Heniorrhoidalis, Cirsium 

Car'duus Maria'nus, Car'duus Ma'rice, Sil'y- 
bum, S. Maria'num seu macula'tum, Carthamus 
macula'tus, Cir'sium macula'tum, Car'duus lac'- 
teus, Spina alba, Common Milk Thistle, or Ladies' 
Thistle, (F.) Chardon-Marie. The herb is a bitter 
tonic. The seeds are oleaginous. It is not used. 

Carduus Pineus, Atractylis gummifera — e. 
Sativus, Carthamus tinctorius — c. Sativus non- 
spinosus, Cynara scolymus — c. Solstitialis, Cen- 
taurea calcitrapa — c. Stellatus, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — c. Tomentosus, Onopordium acanthium — 
c. Veneris, Dipsacus fullonum. 

CAREBARESIS, Carebaria. 

ei8, from Kapn, ' the head,' and (Japos, ' weight.' 
Seordine' ma, Cereba'ria, Scordinis' mus, Cardine'- 
ma. Heaviness of the head. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

CARE'NA, Kare'na. The twenty-fourth part 
of a drop. — Ruland and Johnson. 

CAREUM, Carum. 

CAREX ARENARIA, Sarsaparilla Germanica. 

CARIACOU. A beverage, used in Cayenne, 
and formed of a mixture of cassava, potato, and 
BUgar fermented. 

CARICA, Ficus carica. 

Car'ica Papa'ya, Papaw tree, (F.) Papayer. 
Ord. Artocarpeae. A native of America, India, 
and Africa. The fruit has somewhat of the fla- 
vour of the pumpkin, and is eaten like it. The 
milky juice of the plant and the seed and root 
have been regarded as anthelmintic. 

CAR'ICUM. Said to have been named after 
its inventor Caricus. Car'ycum. A detergent 
application to ulcers ; composed of black helle- 
bore, sandaraeh, copper, lead, sulphur, orpiment, 
cantharides, and oft of cedar. — Hippocrates. 

CARIE, Caries — c. des Bents, Dental gangrene. 

CAMS'. Carious. 

CA'RIES, Nigrit"ies Os'sium. An ulceration 
of bone, — Necrosis being death of a bone. It 
r«nwmble3 the gangrene of soft parts. Hence it 

has been termed Caries gangrceno'sa, Gangrce'na 
Ca'ries, C. Os'sium, Tere' do, Arro'sio, Euros, (F.) 
Carie. It is recognised by the swelling of the 
bone which precedes and accompanies it ; by the 
abscesses it occasions; the fistulas which form; 
the sanious character, peculiar odour and quan- 
tity of the suppuration, and by the evidence 
afforded by probing. The most common causes 
of caries are blows; — the action of some virus, 
and morbid diathesis. When dependent on any 
virus in the system, this must be combated by 
appropriate remedies. When entirely local, it 
must be converted, where practicable, into a state 
of necrosis or death of the affected part. For 
this end stimulants, the actual cautery, &c, are 

Caries, Dentium, Dental gangrene — c. Puden- 
dorum, see Chancre — c. of the Vertebrae, Verte- 
bral disease — c. Vertebrarum, Vertebral disease. 

CARIE UX, Carious. 

CARIM CURINI, Justitia ecbolium. 

CARI'NA, ' a ship's keel.' The vertebral co- 
lumn, especially of the foetus. Also, the breast- 
bone bent inwards. Hence, Pectus carina' turn : 
— the chest affected with such deformity. 

CA'RIOUS, Cario'sus, Euro'des, (F.) Carti, 
Oarieux. Affected with caries. 


CARIVE, Myrtus pimenta, 

CARIVILLANDI, Smilax sarsaparilla. 

CARLINA, ' Carline Thistle.' 

Carli'na Acaul'is, C. chamce'leon, Chama'- 
lean album, Cardopa'tium, (F.) Carline sans tige, 
which grows in the Pyrenees, and on the moun- 
tains of Switzerland, Italy, &c, has been recom- 
mended as a tonic, emmenagogue, and sudorific. 

Carlina Chameleon, C. acaulis. 

CARLINE SANS TIGE, Carlina acaulis. 

Root' : found in Mechoachan, in America. The 
bark is aromatic, bitter and acrid. It is consi- 
dered to be sudorific, and to strengthen the gums 
and stomach. 

Carlsbad is a town in Bohemia, 24 miles from 
Egra, celebrated for its hot baths. The water 
contains about 47 parts in the 100 of purging 
salts. It is a thermal saline ; temperature 121° 
to 167° Fahrenheit. The constituents are — car- 
bonic acid, sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, 
and chloride of sodium. 

CARMANTINE, Justitia pectoralis— c. Pecto- 
rale, Justitia pectoralis. 

CARMEN, ' a verse.' An amulet. A charm, 
which, of old, often consisted of a verse. See 

CARMINANTIA, Carminatives. 

CARMINATIVA, Carminatives. 

CARMIN'ATIVES, Carminan'tia seu Carmi- 
nati'va, from carmen, ' a verse,' or ' charm,' An- 
tiphys'ica, Physago'ga, Xan'tica, (F.) Carmina- 
tifs. Remedies which allay pain, ' like a charm,' (?) 
by causing the expulsion of flatus from the ali- 
mentary canal. They are generally of the class 
of aromatics. 

The Four Greater Carminative Hot Seeds, 
Quat'uor sem'ina cal'ida majo'ra carminati'va, 
were, of old, anise, carui, cummin, and fennel. 

The Four Lesser Carminative Hot Seeds, 
Quat'tior sem'ina cal'ida mino'ra, were bishop's 
weed, stone parsley, smallago, and wild carrot. 

CARMOT. A name given, by the alchymists, 
to the matter which they believed to constitute 
the Philosopher's stone. 

CARNABADIA, Carum, (seed.) 

CARNABADIUM, Cuminum cyminum. 

CARNATIO, Syssarcosis. 

CARNATION, Dianthus caryophyllus. 




CARNELIAN, Cornelian. 

CARXEOLUS, Cornelian. 

CAR'NEOUS, Car'neous, Carno'sns, Sarco'des, 
Incarna'tus, from caro, 'flesh.' (F.) Gharnu. 
Consisting of flesh, or resembling flesh. 

Carneous Columns, Fleshy Columns, Golum'- 
nce Cameos, of the heart, (F.) Colonnes charnues, 
are muscular projections, situate in the cavities 
of the heart. They are called, also, Mus'culi Pa- 

Carneous Fibres, Fleshy Fibres, Mus'cular 
Fibres, (F.) Fibres charnues ou musculaires, are 
fibres belonging to a muscle. 

CARNEUM MARSUPIUM, Ischio-trochan- 

CARNIC'ULA. Diminutive of caro, 'flesh.' 
The gum.— Gingiva. — Fallopius. 

CARNLFICA'TIO, Carnification — c. Pulmo- 
num, Hepatisation of the lungs. 

CARNIFICA'TION, Oarnifica'tio, from caro, 
'flesh,' and fieri, ' to become.' Transformation 
into flesh. A morbid state of certain organs, in 
which the tissue acquires a consistence like that 
of fleshy or muscular parts. It is sometimes ob- 
served in hard parts, the texture becoming sof- 
tened, as in Osteosarcoma. When it occurs in 
the lungs, they present a texture like that of 
liver. Such is the condition of the foetal King. 

which ordinarily occurs in the neighbourhood of 
the articulations, and whose orifice is hard, the 
sides thick and callous. — M. A. Severinus. 

CARNIVOROUS, Camiv'orus, Sarcopha- 
gus, Creatoph'agus, Oreoph' agus, (F.) Carnivore, 
from caro, 'flesh,' and voro, 'I eat.' That which 
eats flesh. Any substance which destroys excres- 
cences in wounds, ulcers, &c. 

CARNOSA CUTIS, Panniculus carnosus. 

CARNOS'ITAS, (F.) Carnosite, from caro, 
'flesh.' A fleshy excrescence. 

uncles in the Ure'thra, (F.) Carnosites ou Oaron- 
culea de Vuretre. Small fleshy excrescences or 
fungous growths, which were, at one time, pre- 
sumed to exist in the male urethra, whenever re- 
tention of urine followed gonorrhoea. 

M. Cullerier uses the term Carnosite venerienne 
for a cutaneous, cellular, and membranous tu- 
mour, dependent upon the syphilitic virus. See, 
also, Polysarcia. 

CARNOSUS, Carneous. 

CARO, Flesh — c. Accessoria, see Flexor longus 
digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (accesso- 
rius) — c. Excrescens, Excrescence — c. Fungosa, 
Fungosity — c. Glandulosa, Epiglottic gland — c. 
Luxurians, Fungosity — c. Orbicularis, Placenta — 
C. Parenchymatica, Parenchyma — c. Quadrata, 
Palmaris brevis — c. Quadratus Sylvii, see Flexor 
longus digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (ac- 
cessorius) — c. Viscerum, Parenchyma. 

CAROB TREE, Ceratonia siliqua. 

CAROBA ALNABATI, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CARODES, Carotic. 

CAROLI, see Chancre. 

OF. In the counties of Warren, Montgomery, 
Rockingham, Lincoln, Buncomb, and Rowan, 
there are mineral springs. They belong gene- 
rally to the sulphureous or acidulous saline. 

OF. They are numerous. Pacolet Springs, on 
the west bank of Pacolet River, contain sulphur 
and iron. Many, with similar properties, but not 
held in estimation, are scattered about the State. 

GAEONCULE, Caruncle — c. Lachrymale, Ca- 


culae myrtiformes — c. de V Uretre, Carnosities ol 
the urethra. 

CAROPI, Amomum cardamomum. 

CAROSIS, Somnolency. 

CAROTA, see Daucus carota. 

CAROT'IC, Carot'icus, Carot'id, Carot'iduB, 
Caro'des, Com'atose, from xapos, 'stupor.' (F.) 
Carotique. Relating to stupor or earns — as a 
carotic state, — or to the carotids. 

Carotic Arteries, Carotids — c. Ganglion, 
see Carotid Nerve — c. Nerve, Carotid nerve — c. 
Plexus, see Carotid Nerve. 

CAROTICA, Narcotics. 

CAROTICUS, Carotic. [f 

CAROTID, Carotic. 

CAROT'IDS, Carot'ides, Carot'icas, Carotidem, 
Capita'les, Juyula'res, Sopora'les, Sopora'rice, So- 
pori/'ercB, Somnif'erce, Apoplec'ticce, Lethar' gicos 
(Arte'rice), the Carot'id Ar'teries, Cephal'ic Arte- 
ries, (F.) Arteres Carotides ; from Kapos, 'stupor.' 
The great arteries of the neck, which carry blood 
to the head. They are divided into, 1. Primitive 
.or common; the left of which arises from the 
aorta, and the right from a trunk, common to it 
and the subclavian. 2. External or pericephal' ic, 
branch of the primitive, which extends from the 
last to the neck of the condyle of the lower jaw; 
and, 3. Internal, Arte'ria cerebra'lis vel ence- 
phal'ica, another branch of the primitive, which, 
arising at the same place as the external, enters 
the cranium, and terminates on a level with the 
fissure of Sylvius, dividing into several branches. 

Carotid or Carotic Canal, Cana'lis Carot'icus, 
Canal inflexe de I'os temporal — (Ch.), Canal caro- 
tidien, is a canal in the temporal bone, through 
which the carotid artery and several nervous 
filaments pass. 

Carotid or Carotic Foramina, Foram'ina Ca- 
rot'ica, (F.) Trous carotidiens, are distinguished 
into internal and external. They are the foram- 
ina at each extremity of the Canalis Caroticus. 

Carotid Ganglion, see Carotid nerve. 

Carotid Nerve, Carotic nerve, Nervus carot'- 
icus. A branch from the superior cervical gan- 
glion of the great sympathetic, which ascends by 
the side of the internal carotid. It divides into 
two portions, which enter the carotid canal, and, 
by their communication with each other and the 
petrosal branch of the vidian, form the carotid 
plexus. They also frequently form a small gan- 
gliform swelling on the under part of the artery 
— the carotic or carotid or cavernous ganglion, 
ganglion of Laumonier. 

Carotid Plexus, see Carotid nerve. 

CAROTTE, Daucus carota. 

CAROUA, Carum, (seed.) 

CAROUBIER, Ceratonium siliqua. 

GAROUGE, see Ceratonium siliqua. 

CARPASA, Carbasa. 

CARPA'SIUM, Car'pasum, and Carpe'sium. 
Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, <fec, have given these 
names, and that of Carpasos, to a plant, which 
cannot now be determined, and whose juice, called 
Opocar'pason, onoKapiraoov, passed for a violent, 
narcotic poison, and was confounded with myrrh. 

CARPATHICUM, see Pinus cembra. 

CARPE, Carpus. 

CARPENTARIA, Achillea millefolium. 

CARPESIUM, Carpasium. 

CARPHO'DES, Carphoides, from mapQos, 'floc- 
culus,' and ti&os, 'resemblance.' Flocculent, 
stringy ; — as mucus carphodes, flocculent or 
stringy mucus. 

CARPHOLOG"IA, Tilmus, Carpolog"ia, Cro- 
cidis'mus, Crocydis'mus, Flocco'rum vena'tio, Floe- 
cile'ginm, Tricholog"ia, Crocidix'is, Floccila'tivn, 
Floccita'tion, from Kap<j>o$, 'floc'cttliu,' and \cyio, 
'I collect,' or 'pluck.' (F.) Carphologie. Actbn 




of gathering flocculi. A delirious picking of the 
bed-clothes, as if to seek some substance, or to 
pull the flocculi from them. It denotes great 
cerebral irritability and debility, and is an un- 
favourable sign in fevers, <fcc. 

CARPHOS, Trigonella foenum. 

CARPIA, Linteum. 

CARPIiEUS, Palmaris brevis. 

CAR'PIAL, Car' plan, Carpia'nus, Carpia'lu, 
(F.) Oarpien. Belonging to the Carpus. 

Car'pial Lig'aments, (F.) Ligaments Carpiens, 
are, 1. The fibrous fasciae, which unite the bones 
of the carpus ; and, 2. The annular ligaments, 
anterior and posterior. 

CARPIAN, Carpial. 

CARP IE N, Carpial. 


C A R P B A L S A M U M, see Amyris opobal- 

CARPOLOGIA, Carphologia — c. Spasmodica, 
Subsultus tendinum. 

TI, Adductor metacarpi minimi digiti — c. Meta- 
carpien du petit doigt, Opponens minimi digiti — 
c. Metacarpien du pouce, Opponens pollicis — c. 
Phalangeus minimi digiti, Abductor minimi digiti 
■ — c. Phalangien du petit doigt, Abductor minimi 
digiti — c. Phalangien du petit doigt, Flexor par- 
vus minimi digiti — c. Phalangien du pouce, Flexor 
brevis pollicis manus — c. Sus-phalangien du pouce, 
Abductor pollicis brevis. 

CARPO-PEDAL, from carpus, 'the wrist,' and 
pes, pedis, ' the foot.' Relating to the wrist and 

CARPO-PEDAL Spasm, Cer'ebral spasmod'ic 
croup. A spasmodic affection of the chest and 
larynx in young children, accompanied by gene- 
ral or partial convulsions. The disease commonly 
occurs between the third and ninth month, and 
Is characterized by excessive dyspnoea, accompa- 
nied by a loud croupy noise on inspiration ; the 
thumbs being locked, and the hands and feet 
rigidly bent for a longer or shorter period. The 
seat of the disease is evidently in the cerebro- 
spinal axis, primarily or secondarily : generally, 
perhaps, it is owing to erethism seated elsewhere, 
but communicated to the cerebro-spinal centre, 
and reflected to the respiratory and other muscles 
concerned. It seems to be connected with dental 
irritation, and consequently, in the treatment, 
where such is the case, the gums should be freely 
divided ; after which, cathartics and revulsives, 
with the use of narcotics and appropriate diet, 
will generally remove the affection ; for although 
extremely alarming, it is often not attended with 
great danger. See Asthma thymicum. 

CARPOS, Fruit. 

CARPOT'ICA, from mz/wos, 'fruit.' Diseases 
affecting impregnation. Irregularity, difficulty 
or danger produced by parturition : — the 3d or- 
der, class Genetica, of Good. 

CARPUS, Carpis'mus, Brachia'le, Rascc'ta, 
Raste'ta, Rascha, Rase'ta, Raset'ta, the wrist. 
(F.) Carpe, Poignet. The part between the fore- 
arm and hand. Eight bones compose it, (in two 
rows.) In the superior row there are, from with- 
out to within — the Scapho'ides or navicula're, 
Luna' re or semiluna're, Cuneifor'me, and Orbicu- 
la'ri or pisif or' me. In the lower row — Trape'- 
tium, Trapezo'ides, Magnum, and Unci for' mi. 

CARRAGEEN MOSS, Fucus crispus. 

CARRE BE LA CUISSE, Quadratus femoris 
• -c. des Lombes, Quadratus lumborum — c. du 
Menton, Depressor lubii inferioris — c. du Pied, 
Kxtensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

SAkREA U, Tabes mesenterica. 

CARREE, see Flexor longus digitorum pedii 
profundus perforans, (accessorius.) 

CARRELET, (F.) Acus triangularis. A 
straight needle, two or three inches long, the 
point of which is triangular ; and which tho 
ancients used in different operations. Also, a 
wooden, triangular frame for fixing a cloth 
through which different pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions are passed. 

CARROT, CANDY, Athamanta cretensis— c. 
Deadly, Thapsia — c. Plant, Daucus carota. 


Car'thamuS Tincto'ritjs, Am'yron, Cnicus, 
Crocus German'icus, Crocus Saracen'icus, Car'- 
thamum officina'rum, Car'duus sati'vus, Safra'- 
num, Saffron-Jlower, Safftower, Bastard Saffron, 
Byer's Saffron, (F.) Carthame, Safran butard, 
Carthame des Teinturiers. Family, Cynaroce- 
phaleae. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Polygamia sequa- 
lis. The seeds are aromatic, cathartic, and diu- 
retic ; yet to the parroquet they are an article of 
food ; hence their name, Graines de Parroquet. 
The flowers, Car'thamus, (Ph. U. S.) are employed 
as a cosmetic, and are a reputed diaphoretic. [? ] 

CARTHEGON, see Buxus. 

CAR'TILAGE, Chondros, Car'tilago, (F.) Car- 
tilage. A solid part of the animal body, of a 
medium consistence between bone and ligament, 
which in the foetus is a substitute for bone, but 
in the adult exists only in the joints, at the 
extremities of the ribs, <fec. Cartilages are of a 
whitish colour, flexible, compressible, and very 
elastic, and some of them apparently inorganic 
They are composed, according to J. Davy, of .44 
albumen, .55 water, and .01 phosphate of lime. 

CARTILAGE ANONYME, Cricoid, (carti- 
lage) — c. Epiglottic, Epiglottis — c. Mucrone, Xi- 
phoid Cartilage — c. Supra-arytenoid, Corniculum 
laryngis — c. Tarsal, see Tarsus. 

Cartilages, Articular, Obdu'cent Oar'tilages, 
invest bony surfaces, which are in contact; hence 
they are called investing or incrusting cartilages, 
(F.) Cartilages de revetement ou d' encroutement. 

Cartilages, Interartictjlar, are such as are 
situate within the joints, as in the knee joint. 

Cartilages op Ossifica'tion are such as, in 
the progress of ossification, have to form an in- 
tegrant part of bones ; as those of the long bones 
in the new-born infant. They are termed tem- 
porary ; the others being permanent. All the 
cartilages, with the exception of the articular, 
are surrounded by a membrane analogous to the 
periosteum, called Perichondrium. 

Cartilages of the Ribs are, in some respects, 
only prolongations of the ribs. Those of the nose, 
of the meatus auditorius, and Eustachian tube, 
present a similar arrangement. Other cartilages 
resemble a union of fibrous and cartilaginous tex- 
tures ; hence their name Fibro-cartilages. 

Cartilages, Semilunar, see Semilunar — c 
Sigmoid, Semilunar cartilages. 

noid cartilages — c. Semilunares, Semilunar carti- 
lages — c. Sigmoideaa, Semilunar cartilages. 

Cartilaginis Arytenoid^EjE Capitdlum, Cor- 
niculum laryngis. 

CARTILAG"INOUS, Cartilagin'eus, Cartila- 
gino'sus, Chondro'des, Chondral' des, (F.) Carti- 
lagincitx. Belonging to, or resembling cartilage. 

Cartilaginous, Tissue, see Tissue. 

CARTILAGO, Cartilage — c. Clypealis, Thy- 
roid cartilage — c. Ensiformis, Xiphoid cartilage 

— c. Guttalis, Arytenoid cartilage — c. Innomi- 

nata, Cricoid — c. Mucronata, Xiphoid cartilage 

c. Peltalis, Thyroid cartilage, Xiphoid cartilage 

— c. Scutiformis, Thyroid cartilage — c. Uvifcr, 
Uvula — c. Xiphoides, Xiphoid cartilage. 




CARUM, from Caria, a province of Asia. 
A'ptum carvi, Bu'ninm carvi, Ligus'ticum carvi, 
Ses'eli carvi seu carum, Sium carvi, Ca'reum, 
Carum car'vi, Carvi, Cumi'num praten'se, Garus, 
Car'uon, the Car'away, (F.) Carvi, Cumin des 
prcs. Family, Umbelliferaa. Sex. Syst. Pentan- 
dria Digynia. The seeds, Carnaba'dia, Car'oua, 
are carminative. Dose, gr. x to giji swallowed 
whole or bruised. The oil, Oleum Car'vi, (P.) 
Hitile de carvi, has the properties of the seeds. 
Dose, gtt. ij to vj. 

Carum Bulbocastanum, Bunium bulbocasta- 

CAR'UNCLE, Carun'cula, diminutive of caro, 
'flesh.' A small portion of flesh, Sar'cium, Sar- 
cid'ium. A fleshy excrescence, — Ecphy'ma car- 
un'cula, (P.) Caroncule. 
Caruncle, Carnositas. 
Caruncles in the Urethra, Carnosities. 
Carun'cula Lachryma'lis, (F.) Caroncule 
lacrymale. A small, reddish, follicular body, 
6ituate at the inner angle of the eye. It secretes 
a gummy substance. 

Caruncul.« Mamilla'res. The extremities 
«>f the lactiferous tubes in the nipples. The 
olfactory nerves have been so called by some. 

Carunculje Myrtifor'mes, G. Vagina'les, 
Glan'dulae myrtifor'mes, (F.) Garoncules myrti- 
formes. Small, reddish tubercles, more or less 
firm, of variable form, and uncertain number, 
situate near the orifice of the vagina, and formed 
by the mucous membrane. They are regarded 
as the remains of the hymen. 

Carunculje Papillares, Papilla3 of the kid- 

CARUN'CULOUS, Carun'cular. Relating to 
caruncles or carnosities. 
CARUON, Carum. 

CARUS, teapot, Sopor caro' 'ticus, Profound sleep. 
The last degree of coma, with complete insensi- 
bility, which no stimulus can remove, even for a 
few instants. Sopor, Coma, Lethargia, and Ca- 
ms, are four degrees of the same condition. 

Carus Apoplexia, Apoplexy — c. Asphyxia, 
Asphyxia — c. Catalepsia, Catalepsy — c. Ecstasis, 
Ecstasis — c. Hydrocephalus, Hydrocephalus in- 
ternus — c. ab Insolatione, Coup de soleil — c. Le- 
thargus, Lethargy — c. Lethargus cataphora, Som- 
nolency — c. Lethargus vigil, Coma vigil — c. 
Paralysis, Paralysis — c. Paralysis paraplegia, 
Paraplegia — c. Veternus, Lethargy. 
CARVI, Carum. 

CARYA, Juglans regia — c. Basilica, Juglans 

CARYEDON CATAGMA, see Fracture. 
CARYOCOST'INUS, Caryocostinum. An elec- 
tuary prepared of the costus and other aromatic 
substances, <fcc. It was cathartic. See Confectio 

CARYON PONTICON, Corylus avellana 

CARYOPHYLLA, Geum urbanum. 
vale — c. Nutans, Geum rivale — c. Urbana, Geum 
nrbanum — c. Vulgaris, Geum urbanum. 


tus pimenta — c. Aromaticus, Eugenia caryophyl- 
lata — c. Hortensis, Dianthus caryophyllus — c. 
Pimenta, Myrtus Pimenta — c. Vulgaris, Geum 

CARYO'TI. The best kind of dates.— Galen. 

CAS RARES (F.), Rare cases. This term is 

used, by the French, for pathological facts, which 

Tary from what is usual. See a celebrated article 

under this head in the Dictionnaire dee Science* 
Medicales, Vol. IV. 

CASAMUM, Cyclamen. 
CASAMUNAR, Cassumuniar. 
CAS'CARA, CASCARIL'LA. Spanish worda, 
which signify bark and little bark, under which 
appellations the bark (Cinchona) is known in 
Peru. They are now applied to the bark of Cro- 
ton cascarilla. The bark-gatherers are called 
CASCARILLA, Croton cascarilla. 
CASCARILLEROS, see Cascara. 
CASCHEU, Catechu. 

CASE, Capsa, Theca, (F.) Caisse. This name 
is given to boxes for the preservation of instru- 
ments, or of medicines necessary in hospital or 
other service. We say, e. g. — A case of ampu- 
tating, or of trepanning instruments. 

Case, Casus, from cadere, casnm, ' to fall.' 
The condition of a patient; — as a case of fever, 
<fce. (F.) Observation. Also, the history of a disease. 

CA'SEIN, Caseine, Ca'seum, Galactine, Ca- 
seous matter ; from caseus, 'cheese.' The only 
nitrogenized constituent of milk. It is identical 
in composition with the chief constituents of 
blood, — fibrin and albumen, all being compounds 
of protein. A similar principle exists in the vege- 
table, Vegetable Casein or Legu'min, Veg"etable 
Gluten. It is chiefly found in leguminous seeds 
— peas, beans, lentils. Like vegetable albumen, 
Casein is soluble in water ; and the solution is 
not coagulable by heat. 
Casein, Blood, Globulin. 
CASEOSUS, Cheesy. 
CASEUM, Casein. 

CASEUS, Cheese — c. Equinus, Hippace. 
CASEUX, Cheesy. 
CASHEW, Anacardium occidentale. 
CASHOO. An aromatic drug of Ilindoostan, 
said to possess pectoral virtues. 
CASHOW, Catechu. 
CASIA, Laurus cassia. 
CASMINA, Cassumuniar. 
CASMONAR, Cassumuniar. 
CASSA, Thorax. 

CASSADA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 
CASSAVA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 
CASSE AROMATIQUE, Laurus cassia — e. 
en Batons, Cassia fistula — e. en Bois, Laurus cas- 
sia — c. des Boutiques, Cassia fistula — c. Sin£, 
Cassia senna. 

CASSE-LUNETTES, Cyanus segetum, Eu- 
phrasia officinalis. 

CASSEENA, Ilex vomitoria. 
CASSENOLES, see Quercus infectoria. 
CASSIA, Laurus cassia — c. Absus, Absus — e. 
Acutifolia, C. senna — c. ^Egyptian, C. senna— 
c. Alexandrina, C. fistula — c. Bonplandiana, C. 

CASSIA Cham^CRIS'ta, Prairie senna, Par- 
tridge Pea, Wild Senna. An indigenous plant, 
Fam. Leguminosae, which flowers in August. It 
resembles Cassia Marilandica in properties. 

Cassia Cinnamomea, Laurus cassia — c. Ca- 
ryophyllata, Myrtus caryophyllata — c. Canella, 
Laurus cassia — c. Egyptian, Cassia senna — c. 
Excelsa, C. fistula. 

Cas'sia Fis'tula, Cas'sia nigra, Cassia fistic 
la'ris, C. Alexandri'na seu excel'sa seu Bonplan- 
dirr'na, Carina, Canna soluti'va, Canna fistula, 
Cathartocar'pns, BactyrUo'bium fis'tula, Purging 
Cassia, (F.) Casse Caneficier, Casse en Batons, 
Casse des Boutiques. The pulp of Cassia Fis' 
tula or Cathartocar'pua Fistida ; Fam. Legumi- 
nosa3 ; Sex. Syst. Decandria Monogynia, Pulp* 
Cas'sice, Ca*iice Aramen' 'lunt, Gastice Fistula 




Pnlpa, (Ph. U. S.), which is obtained in long 
pods, is black, bright, and shining; sweet, slightly 
acid, and inodorous. It is laxativo in the dose 
of 3iv to gj. 

Cassia Lanceolata, C. senna — c. Lignea, 
Laurus cassia — c. Lignea Malabarica, Laurus 

Cassia Marilan'dica, Senna America' na, 
American Senna, Wild Senna, Locust plant, (P,) 
Sene d'Amerique. The leaves of this plant are 
similar, in virtue, to those of cassia senna. They 
are, however, much inferior in strength. 

Cassia Nigra, C. fistula — c. Officinalis, C. 
senna — c. Orientalis, C. senna — c. Purging, Cas- 
sia fistula. 

Cassia Senna, C. lanccola'ta seu acutifo'lia 
seu orienta'lis seu officinalis. The name of the 
plant which affords senna. It is yielded, how- 
ever, by several species of the genus cassia. The 
leaves of senna, Senna Folia, Senna Alexandri' - 
na, Senna Ital'ica, Sena, Senna or ^Egyptian 
Cassia, (F.) Sene, Casse Sene, have a faint smell, 
and bitterish taste. The active part, by some 
called Cathartin, is extracted by alcohol and 
water. Their activity is injured by boiling water. 
They are a hydragogue cathartic, and apt to 
gripe. Dose of the powder, 3j to gj- Infusion 
is the best form. 

The varieties of senna, in commerce, are Tin- 
nivelly Senna, Bombay or Common India Senna, 
Alexandrian Senna, Tripoli Senna, and Aleppo 

CASSIA ARAMENTUM, see Cassia fistula— 
c. Fistulas pulpa, see Cassia fistula — c. Plores, 
see Laurus cinnamomum. 

CASSIALA, Hyssopus. 


CAS SIDE BLEUE, Scutellaria galericulata. 

CASSINA, Ilex vomitoria. 
. CASSINE CAROLINIANA, Ilex paraguensis 
— c. Evergreen, Ilex vomitoria/ — c. Peragua, Ilex 

CASSIS, Ribes nigrum. 


CASSUMU'NIAR, Oasamu'nar, Casmonar, 
Zerumbet, Casmina, Ri'sagon, Ben'gale Indo'rum, 
Bengal Root, (F.) Racine de Bengale. A root, 
obtained from the East Indies, in irregular slices 
of various forms ; some cut transversely, others 
longitudinally. It is an aromatic bitter, and is 
consequently tonic and stimulant. It was once 
considered a panacea, and has been referred to 
Zingiber Cassumuniar, Z. Clifford'ia seu purpu- 
reum, Amo'mum monta'nnm, and to Zingiber Ze- 
rumbet, Z. spurium, Amo'mum Zerumbet seu syl- 


plant, Nat. Ord. Laurineas, which is employed 
by the Cape colonists as a wash in scald head, 
and as an antiparasitic. 

CAST, Caste. 

CAST ALIA SPECIOSA, Nymphsea alba. 

CASTANEA, Fagus castanea, see also Fagus 
castanea pumila — c. Equina, iEsculus Hippocas- 
tanum — c. Pumila, Fagus castanea pumila. 

CASTE, Cast, from (P.) Casta, 'race or lineage.' 
A name given, by the Portuguese in India, to 
classes of society, divided according to occupa- 
tions, which have remained distinct from the 
earliest times. Hence a separate and fixed order 
or class. See Half-caste. 

OF. Castellamare di Stabia is a town in Naples, 
in the Principato Citra, 15 miles S. S. E. of Na- 

ples. There are two springs, the one sulphu- 
reous, the other chalybeate. 

These waters, situate near Acqui, in Italy, are 

tera-Vivent is a small village in the department 
of Gers, near which is a cold acidulous chaly- 
beate, and another which is sulphureous and 
thermal. Temp. 84° Fahrenheit. 

CASTIGANS, Corrigcnt. 

CASTIGLIO'NIA LOBA'TA, Piftoncillo tree. 
A tree, which is cultivated in some parts of Peru, 
and grows wild in abundance. Its beautiful fruit, 
when roasted, has an agreeable flavour. When 
an incision is made into the stem, a clear bright 
liquid flows out, which, after some time, becomes 
black and horny-like. It is a very powerful 

CASTJOE, Catechu. 

reous spring in Ross-shire, Scotland, celebrated 
for the cure of cutaneous and other diseases. 

CASTOR BAY, Magnolia glauca. 

Castor Fiber, Fiber, Canis Pon'ticus, the 
Beaver. (F.) Castor. It furnishes the Castor. 
Rondelet recommends slippers made of its skin 
in gout. Its blood, urine, bile, and fat, were for- 
merly used in medicine. 

Castor Oil Plant, Ricinus communis. 

CASTO'REUM, Casto'rium, Castor, Uastoreum 
Ros f 8icum et Canaden'se, from xaarwp, ' the bea- 
ver,' quasi yaarwp, from yaarnp, ' the belly,' be- 
cause of the size of its belly. (?) A peculiar 
matter found in bags, near the rectum of the 
beaver, Castor fiber. Its odour is strong, unplea- 
sant, and peculiar; taste bitter, subacrid ; and 
colour orange brown. It is antispasmodic, and 
often employed. Dose, gr. x to Qj. 

CASTORINA, from Castoreum, ' castor.' Me- 
dicines containing castor. 

CASTRANGULA, Scrophularia aquatica. 

CASTRAT, Castratus. 

CASTRA'TION, Castra'tio, Ec'tome, Ectom'ia, 
Evira'tio, Excastra'tio, Etesticula'tio, Extirpa'tio 
testiculo'rum, Dctesta'tio, Exsec'tio viril'ium, Eu- 
nuchis'mus, Orchotom'ia, Orcheot'omy, Orchidot'- 
omy, (F.) Chdtrure. The operation of removing 
the testicles. Sometimes the term is employed 
for the operation when performed on one testicle; 
hence the division into complete and incomplete 
castration. Castration renders the individual in- 
capable of reproduction. 

CASTRATO, Castratus. 

CASTRA'TUS, (I.) Castra'to, Ectom'iut, 
Emascula'tus, Evira'tus, Exsec'tus, Desec'tus, Ex- 
testicula'tus, Ex maribus, Intestab'ilis, Intcsta'tns, 
Spado, Apoc'opus, Bago'as, from castrare, ' to 
castrate.' (F.) Castrat, Chdtre. One deprived 
of testicles. This privation has a great influ- 
ence on the development of puberty. It is 
adopted to procure a clearer and sharper voice ; 
and in the East, the guardians of the Harem, for 
the sake of security, are converted into Castra'ti 
or Eu'nuch,8, evvov^ot. Eunuchs have generally 
both testes and penis removed. 

CASUS, Prolapsus, Symptom — c. Palpebrae 
superioris, Blepharoptosi's— c. Uvula?, Staphyle- 

CAT TAIL, Typha latifolia. 

CATA, Kara, 'downwards,' 'after,' applied to 
time: at times, it gives additional force to the 
radical word. A common prefix, as in — 

CATAB'ASIS, from Kara&aivu, 'I descend.' 
An expulsion of humours downwards. Also, a 
descent, Descensus, Descen'sio, — as of the tes- 
ticles, Bescen'sus testiculo'rum. 

CATABLE'MA, KnTafi\ Vh a, (Kara and Pa\\u>,) 




' any thing let fall, as a curtain,' Epible'ma, Pe- 
rible'ma. The outermost bandage which secures 
the rest. 

6ianoi, 'submersion,' and u.avia, 'mania.' Insa- 
nity, with a propensity to suicide bv drowning. 

CATACASMUS, Cupping, Scarification. 


CATACAUSIS, Combustion, human— c. Ebri- 
osa, Combustion, human. 

CATACERAS'TICUS, from Karaxtpavvvm, 'I 
temper,' 'I correct.' The same as Epicerasticus. 
A medicine capable of blunting the acrimony of 

CATACHASMOS, Scarification. 

CATACHRISIS, Inunction. 


CATACH'YSIS, Effu'sio, Perfu'sio, from K ara- 
\tti>, ' I pour upon.' Affusion with cold water. — 
Hippocrates. Decantation. 

CATAC'LASIS, from /cara<cXa£u>, 'I break to 
pieces.' Cam'pylum, Campylo'tis. Distortion, or 
spasmodic fixation of the eyes; spasmodic occlu- 
sion of the eyelids ; also, fracture of a bone. — 
Hippocrates, Vogel. 

CATACLEIS' ; from Kara, 'beneath,' and *cXa?, 
' the clavicle ;' ' a lock or fastening,' KaraxXcia, 
(xara and (cXciw), I lock up. This term has been 
applied to many parts, as to the first rib, the 
acromion, the joining of the sternum with the 
ribs, &c. 

CATACLEI'SIS, same etymon. A locking up. 
The act of locking up. Morbid union of the eye- 

CATACLYS'MUS, Cataclys'ma, Cata'clysis, 
from KaraK^v^uv, ' to submerge, inundate.' A 
Clyster. Hippocr. Others mean, by the term, a 
shower-bath, or copious affusion of water; Catce- 
one'sis. Ablution, Douche. 

CATJEONESIS, Catantlema, Cataclysmus. 

CATAGAUNA, Cambogia. 

CATAGMA, Fracture — c. Fissura, Fissure, see 
Contrafissura — c. Fractura, Fracture. 

CATAGMAT'ICS, Catagmat'ica reined' ia, from 
Karayna, ' fracture.' Remedies supposed to be 
capable of occasioning the formation of callus. 

CATAGOGLOS'SUM, from Karayuv, 'to draw 
down,' and y\wcoa, 'the tongue.' An instrument 
for pressing down the tongue, See Glossoca- 

C A T A G R APHOLOGIA, Pharmacocatagra- 

CATALEN'TIA. Epilepsy, or some disease 
resembling it. — Paracelsus. 


CAT'ALEPSY, Catalep'sia, Catalep'sis, Cat'- 
oche, Cat'ochus, Cat'ocha Gale'ni, Morbus atton'- 
itus Celsi, Hyste'ria catalep'tica, Congela'tio, De- 
ten'tio, Encatalcp'sis, Aphonia — (Hipper.,) Anau'- 
dia — (Antigenes,) Apprehen'sio, Contempla'tio, 
Stupor vig"ilans, Prehen'sio, Car us Catalep'sia, 
Oppres'sio, Comprehen'sio — (Cael. Aurelian,) Com- 
'I seize hold of.' Trance (?) (F.) Catalepsie. A 
disease in which there is sudden suspension of 
the action of the senses and of volition ; the 
limbs and trunk preserving the different posi- 
tions given to them. It is a rare affection, but is 
seen, at times, as a form of hysteria. Some of 
the Greek writers have used the word in its true 
acceptation of a seizure, surprise, &c. 

CATALEPTIC, Catalep'ticns, same etymon. 
Relating to catalepsy. Affected with catalepsy. 

Catalep'tic Method, Meth'odus Catalep'tica. 
The administration of external agents when in- 
ternal agents are inapplicable. 

CATALOT'IC, Catalot'icus, from icaraXoaw, 'to 

break or grind down.' A remedy which removes 
unseemly cicatrices. 

CATAL'PA, C. Arbo'rea, Bigno'nia Catal'pa, 
Catal'pa Cordifo'lia, C. Arborcs' cens seu Bigno- 
nio'i'des seu Syringafolia, Cataw'ba tree, Indian 
Bean. A decoction of the pods of the Catalpa, 
an American tree, of the Nat. Earn. Bignoniaceae, 
Didynamia Angiospermia, has been recommended 
in chronic nervous asthma. 

Catalpa Arborea, Catalpa; — c. Bignonioides, 
Catalpa — c. Cordifolia, Catalpa — c. Syringajfolia, 

CATALYSIS, Paralysis, from Kara, and Xuu, 
' I dissolve or decompose.' The action of pre- 
sence in producing decomposition ; as when a 
body which possesses what has been termed cata- 
lytic force resolves other bodies into new com- 
pounds by mere contact or presence, without 
itself experiencing any modification. 

CATALYTIC FORCE, see Catalysis. 

CATAMENIA, Menses — c. Alba, Leucorrhoea. 

CATAME'NIAL, Catamenia'lis, 3fen'strual, 
Men' strums, 3Ien'struous, (F.) Menstruel, from 
Kara, and ht)v, ' a mouth.' Appertaining or relat- 
ing to the catamenia. 


CATANANCE, Cichorium intybus. 


CATANTLE'MA, Oatantle'sis, from Kara, 
'upon,' and avrXaui, 'I pour.' Cateone'sis and 
OatcBone' sis. Ablution with warm water. A fo- 
mentation. — Moschion, Marcellus Empiricus. 

CATAPAS'MA, from Karairaaaw, 'I sprinkle.' 
Catapas'tum, Consper'sio, Epipas'ton, Bosnia, 
Sympas'ma, Empas' ma, Diapas'ma, Xcr'ion, As- 
per'sio, Epispas'tum, Pulvis asperso'rius. A com- 
pound medicine, in the form of powder, employed 
by the ancients to sprinkle on ulcers, absorb per- 
spiration, &c. — Paulus of .ZEgina. 

CATAPH'ORA, 'a fall,' from Karafcpu), 'I 
throw down.' A state resembling sleep, with 
privation of feeling and voice. Somnolency. 
According to others, Cataphora is simply a pro- 
found sleep, which it is difficult to rouse from — 
in this sense being synonymous with Sopor. 

Cataphora Coma, see Apoplexy — c. Hydro- 
cephalica, see Apoplexy — c. Cymini, Theriaea 
Londinensis — c. Magnetica, Somnambulism, mag- 

CATAPHRAC'TA, Cataphrac'tes, a Cuirass, 
from KaTa<ppaaa<j), ' I fortify.' A name given by 
Galen to a bandage applied round the thorax and 
shoulders. It was also called Quadri'ga. 

CATAPIESIS, Depression. 

CATAPINOSIS, Absorption. 

CATAP'LASIS, from KaTanXaaau), ' to besmear.' 
The act of besmearing or overlaying with plaster, 

CAT'APLASM, Cataplaa'ma, Epiplaa'ma. 
Bceos, Poultice, Pultice, from KaravXaaciiv, {Kara 
and rr\aaauv, 'to form or mould,') 'to besmear,' 
(F.) Cataplasme. A medicine applied exter- 
nally, under the form of a thick pap. (Cata- 
plasms are formed of various ingredients, and fur 
different objects. They may bo anodyne, emol- 
lient, tonic, antiseptic, irritating, &c. A simple 
poultice acts only by virtue of its warmth and 
moisture. Mealy, fatty substances, leaves of 
plants, certain fruits, crumb of bread, &c, aru 
the most common bases. The chief poultices 
which have been officinal are the following: — 
Anodyne — c. Cicutse, c. Digitalis. Antiseptic — 
c. Carbonis, c. Dauci, c. Fenncnti, c. Acetosm, o. 
Cumini. Emollient — c. Lini, C. Pants, c. Mali 
maturi. Irritating — c. Sinapis, c. Sodii chloridi, 
c. Quereus Marini. Tonia and Astringent — c. 
Alum, c. Goulard, c. of Roses. 

The Parisian Codex has some other .fiijinal 




Cataplasms. 1. Cataplas'ma anod'ynum, made of 
poppy and hyoscyamus. 2. Cataplas'ma emollient, 
made of meal and pulps. 3. Cataplas'ma ad 
tuppuratio' nem promoven'dam, of pulps and ba- 
Filieon. 4. Cataplas'ma rubefa'cicns vel anti- 
pleuril' icum, formed of pepper and vinegar. 

The only cataplasms, the preparation of which it 
is important to describe, are some of the following: 

Cataplasm, Alum, Coagulum Aluminosum. — 
c. of Beer grounds, see Cataplasma Fermenti. — 
c. Carrot, Cataplasma Dauci. — c. Charcoal, Cata- 
plasma carbonis ligni. 

CATAPLASMA BYNES, see C. Fermenti. 

Cataplas'ma Carbo'nis Ligni, Charcoal Cat- 
aplasm or poultice. Made by adding powdered 
charcoal to a common cataplasm. Used as an 
antiseptic to foul ulcers, <fec. 

Cataplas'ma Dauci, Carrot Cataplasm or 
poultice. Made by boiling the root of the Carrot 
until it is soft enough to form a poultice. Used 
in fetid ulcers. 

Cataplas'ma FjECUl^e Cerevisl*:, see C. 

Cataplas'ma Ferment'i, C. ejferves'cens, Yeast 
Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Cataplasme de Levure. 
(Take of meal Ibj, yeast, tbss. Expose to a gentle 
heat.) It is antiseptic, and a good application 
to bruises. A Cataplasm of Beer Grounds, Cata- 
plasma Fce'culce Cercvis'icB, C. Byncs, is used in 
the same cases. 

Cataplas'ma Sina'pis, C. Sina'peos, Sin'a- 
pism. Mustard Cataplasm or Poultice, (F.) Cata- 
plasme de Moutard ou Sinapisme. (Mustard and 
Linseed meal or meal aa equal parts. Warm 
vinegar or water, q. s.) A rubefacient and sti- 
mulant applied to the soles of the feet in coma, 
low typhus, <fec, as well as to the pained part in 
rheumatism, Ac. 

CATAPLEX'IS, Stupor, from Kara, and -k^tiocm, 
' I strike.' The act of striking with amazement. 
Appearance of astonishment as exhibited by the 
eyes in particular. See Haemodia. 

CATAPOSIS, Deglutition. 


CATAPSYX'IS, from KaTaipvx<», 'I refrige- 
rate'; Peripsyx'is. Considerable coldness of the 
body, without rigor and horripilatio. — Galen, 
Perfric'tio. Coldness in the extreme parts of the 
limbs. — Hippocrates. 

CATAPTO'SIS, Beciden'tia, ufall. This word, 
at times, expresses the fall of a patient, attacked 
with epilepsy, or apoplexy ; at others, the sudden 
resolution of a paralytic limb. 


CATAPUTIA MINOR, Euphorbia lathyris, 
Ricinus communis. 

CAT'ARACT, Catarac'ta, Catarrhac'ta, Suffu'- 
tio Oc'uli, S. Lentis cry stall' ince, Phtharma cata- 
rac'ta, Cali'go lentis, Gutta opa'ca, Hypoc'hyma, 
Hopoc'hysis, Hopoph'ysis, Phacoscoto'ma, Parop'- 
eis catarac'ta, G/auco'ma Woulhou'si, from xara- 
paootiv (Kara and paootiv), 'to tumble down.' A 
deprivation of sight, which comes on, as if a veil 
fell before the eyes. Cataract coexists in opacity 
of the crystalline lens or its capsule, which pre- 
vents the passage of the r^ys of light, and pre- 
cludes vision. The causes are obscure. Diag- 
nosis. — The patient is blind, the pupil seems 
closed by an opake body, of variable colour, but 
commonly whitish : — the pupil contracting and 
dilating. Cataracts have been divided, by some, 
into spurious and genuine. The former, where 
the obstacle to vision is between the capsule of 
the lens and the uvea: the latter, where it is in 
the lens or capsule. A lenticular cataract is 
where the affection is seated in the lens ; — a cap- 
illar or membranous, in the capsule. The cap- 
illar is divided again, by Beer, into the anterior, 

posterior, and complete capsular cataract. When 
the capsule is rendered opake, in consequence 
of an injury, which cuts or ruptures any part of 
it, it thickens, becomes leathery, and has been 
called Catarac'ta arida siliijuo'sa. Catarac'ta 
Morgagnia'na lactea vel purifor'mis, is the milky 
variety, in which the crystalline is transformed 
into a liquid similar to milk, (F.) Cataraete lai- 
teuse ; or, as generally defined, in which thero is 
opacity of the fluid situate between the lens and 
its capsule. The cap'sulo-lentic'ular affects both 
lens and capsule, and Beer conceives the liquor 
Morgagni, in an altered state, may contribute to 
it. Cataracts are also called hard, soft, (Phaco- 
mala'cia,) stony, (F. pierreuse,) milky or cheesy, 
(laitense ou caseuse, Galactocatarac'ta, Catarac'ta 
lactic'olor,) according to their density : — white, 
pearly, yellow, brown, gray, green, black, (F.) 
blanche, perlee, jaune, brune, grise, verte, noire, 
according to their colour : — fixed or vacillatiny, 
— catarac'ta capsulo-lenticnla'ris fixa vel trem'- 
ula, (F.)fixe ou branlante, according as they are 
fixed or movable behind the pupil. They are 
likewise called Catarac'ta marmora'ciee, fenes- 
trates, stella'tae, puncta'tce, dimidia'tce, &c, ac- 
cording to the appearances they present. 

They may also be simple, or complicated with 
adhesion, amaurosis, specks, <fcc. ; and primary 
or primitive, when opake before the operation; — 
secondary, when the opacity is the result of the 

The following classification of cataracts is by 
M. Desmarres: 

Class I. True Cataracts. 




Stony or chalky. 

barred, dehis- 
cent, with three 
branches, <tc. 
■| Disseminated, or 




Morgagnian, or 

Cystic, purulent, 

Shaking, or float- 


Pyramidal or ve- 

Arid siliquose. 
All the varieties of lenticular 
and capsular cataracts. 

( Lenticular. 

■1 Capsular. 

( Capsulo-lenticular. 

or. Lenticular 

I. Capsular 
c. Capsulo- 

d. Secondary 




Other varie- 
ties, soft,hard, 
or liquid. 


Class II. False Cataracts. 

Cataract is commonly a disease of elderly in- 
dividuals, although, notunfrequently, congen'ital. 
It forms slowly ; objects are at first seen aa 
through a mist; light bodies appear to fly before 
the eyes, and it is not until after months or years 
that the sight is wholly lost. No means will ob- 
viate the evil except an operation, which consists 
in removing the obstacle to the passage of the 




light to the retina. Four chief methods are em- 
ployed for this purpose. 1. Couching or Depres- 
sion, Hyalonix'is, Hyalonyx'is, (F.) Abaissement, 
Deplaeement de la Gataracte. This consists in 
passing a cataract needle through the sclerotica 
and subjacent membranes, a little above the 
transverse diameter of the eye ; and at about two 
lines' distance from the circumference of the 
transparent cornea, until the point arrives in the 
posterior chamber of the eye. With this the 
crystalline is depressed to the outer and lower 
part of the globe of the eye, where it is left. 

2. By absorption, — by the French termed broie- 
ment, or bruising. This is performed in the same 
manner as the former ; except that, instead of 
turning the crystalline from the axis of the visual 
rays, it is divided by the cutting edge of the 
needle, and its fragments are scattered in the 
humours of the eye, where they are absorbed. 

3. By extraction, which consists in opening, with 
a particular kind of knife, the transparent cornea 
and the anterior portion of the capsule of the 
crystalline ; and causing the lens to issue through 
the aperture. Each of the processes has its ad- 
vantages and disadvantages, and all are used by 
surgeons. 4. Some, again, pass a cataract needle 
through the transparent cornea and pupil to the 
crystalline, and depress or cause its absorption. 
This is called Keratonyxsis, which see. 

Cataract, Black, Amaurosis — c. Capsular, 
see Cataract — c. Capsulo-lenticular, see Cataract 
•• — c. Central, Centradiaphanes — c. Cheesy, see 
Cataract — c. Congenital, see Cataract — c. Com- 
plicated, see Cataract — c. Fixed, see Cataract — 
c. Genuine, see Cataract — c. Hard, see Cataract 

— c. Lenticular, see Cataract — c. Membranous, 
see Cataract — c. Milky, see Cataract — c. Opake, 
see Cataract — c. Primary, see Cataract — c. Primi- 
tive, see Cataract — c. Secondary, see Cataract — 
c. Simple, see Cataract — c. Soft, see Cataract — 
c. Spurious, see Cataract — c. Stony, see Cataract 
— c. Vacillating, see Cataract. 

CATARACTA, Cataract — c. Arida siliquosa, 
see Cataract — c. Capsulo-lenticularis, see Cata- 
ract — c. Centralis, Centradiaphanes — c. Dimidi- 
ata, see Cataract — c. Fenestrata, see Cataract — 
c. Glauca, Glaucoma — c. Lacticolor, see Cata- 
ract — c. Liquida, Hygrocataracta — c. Marmo- 
racea, see Cataract — c. Morgagniana, see Cata- 
ract — c. Nigra, Amaurosis — c. Punctata, see 
Cataract — c. Stellata, see Cataract. 

Cataract — c. Blanche, see Cataract — c. Branlante, 
see Cataract — c. Brunc, see Cataract — c. Caseuse, 
see Cataract — c. Deplacement de la, see Cataract 
— e. Fixe, see Cataract — c. Grise, see Cataract — 
c. Jaune, see Cataract — c. Laiteuse, see Cataract 

— c. Noire, Amaurosis, see Cataract— c. Perlee, 
see Cataract — c. Pierreuse, see Cataract — c. Verte, 
see Cataract. . 

GATARACTE, (F.) Catarac'tus, Catarac'td 
vitia'tus. One affected with cataract. The French 
use this term, both for the eye affected with cata- 
ract and the patient himself. 

CATARIA, see Nepeta— c. Vulgaris, Nepeta. 

CATARRH', Catar'rhus, Catar' 'rhopus, Catar- 
rheu'ma, Bheuma, Deflnx'io, Catastag'ma, Phleg- 
matorrhag" 'ia,Phlegmatorrhoe' a .from Kara, ' down- 
wards,' and piu>, 'I flow.' A discharge of fluid 
from a mucous membrane. The ancients consi- 
dered catarrh as a simple flux, and not as an in- 
flammation. Generally it partakes of this cha- 
racter, however. Catarrh is, with us, usually 
restricted to inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the air-passages : the French extend it 
to that of all mucous membranes; (F.) Flux 
niugueux, Fluxion catarrliale. 

Catarrh, in the English sense, Broncho-catar'- 

rhvs, Pul'monary Catarrh, Lung fever, (vul- 
garly,) Bheuma Pec'toris, Destilla'tio l'cc'toris, 
Catar'rhus Pec'toris, 0. Pulmo'num, C. Pulmo- 
na'lis, C. Bronchia' lis, Blenitopi'tysis, Tus'sis ca- 
tarrha'lis, simpler, Grave'do (of many), Febrit 
Catarrlta'lis, Jlhnnotho'rax, Bronchi'tis, Catar'- 
rhus a, Fri'gore, (F.) Catarrlie pulmonaire, Fievre 
Catarrhale, Rhume de Poitrine, a Cold, is a su- 
perficial inflammation of the mucous follicles of 
the trachea and bronchi. It is commonly an af- 
fection of but little consequence, but apt to re- 
lapse and become chronic. It is characterized 
by cough, thirst, lassitude, fever, watery eyes, 
with increased secretion of mucus from the air- 
passages. The antiphlogistic regimen and time 
usually remove it. — Sometimes, the inflammation 
of the bronchial tubes is so great as to prove 

Catarrh, Acute, of the Uterus, see Metri- 
tis — c. Chronic, Bronchitis, (chronic) — c. Dry, 
see Bronchitis- — c. Pulmonary, Bronchitis, Ca- 
tarrh — c. Rose, Fever, hay — c. Suffocating ner- 
vous, Asthma, Thymicum — c. Summer, Fever, 

Catarrh', Epidem'ic, Catar'rhus epidem'icus, 
C. d conta'gio, Rheuma epidem'icum. Catarrh 
prevailing owing to some particular Constitutio 
aeris, and affecting a whole country, — Influenza. 


CATAR'RHAL. Oatarrha'lis, Catarrho' icus, 
Catarrho'it'icus, Catarrhoet'icus. Relating to 
catarrh, — as Catarrhal Fever. f 

Metritis — c. Buccal, Aphtha, — c. Convulsive, 
Bronchitis — c. Gastrique, Gastritis — c. Guttural, 
Cynanche tonsillaris — c. Intestinal, Diarrhoea — 
c. Laryngien, Laryngitis — c. Nasal, Coryza — 
c. Oculaire, Ophthalmia — c. de I' Oreille, Otir- 
rhcea — c. Pharyngien, Cynanche parotidea — c. 
Pituiteux, Bronehorrhoea — c. Pulmonaire, Ca- 
tarrh — c. Sec ; see Bronchitis- — c. Stomacal, Gas- 
trorrhoea — c. Uterin, Leucorrhoea — e. Ve'sical, 

CATARRHEC'TICA, from Karappnyvvui, 'I 
break down.' Remedies considered proper for 
evacuating; — as diuretics, cathartics, <ic. Hip- 


CATARRHE UX {¥.) Catarrho 1 'sus. One sub- 
ject to catarrh : affected with catarrh. 

CATARRHEX'IA, Catarrhex' is ; same ety- 
mon as Catarrhectica. The action of Catarrhec- 
tica. Also, effusion ; evacuation of the bowels. 

CATARRHEXIS, Catarrhexia, Excrement — 
c. Vera, Hasmatochezia. 

CATARRHCEA, Rheumatism. 

CATARRHOET'ICUS, from Karappm, 'I flow 
from.' An epithet for disease produced by a 
discharge of phlegm ; catarrhal. 

C ATAR'RHOPA PH Y'MATA,from Karapponos, 
Karappo-nris, ' sloping downwards.' Tubercles tend- 
ing downwards, or with their apices downwards. 

CATARRIIOPHE, Absorption. 


CATARRHO'PIA, Catar'rhysis, from Kara 
'downwards,' and poirn, 'inclination.' An afflux 
of fluids towards the inferior parts, and espe- 
cially towards the viscera of the abdomen. The 
Greek word avappoma expresses an opposite phe- 
nomenon, or a tendency towards the upper parts. 


CATARRHOS'CHESIS, from wrappo*;, 'ca- 
tarrh,' and <r^£<ris, ' suppression.' The suppres- 
sion of a mucous discharge. 

CATARRHUS, Defluxion, Tussis— c. ^stivus, 
fever, hay — c. Bellinsulanus, Cynanche paroti- 
daea — c. Bronchialis, Catarrh — c. Bronchiorum, 
Bronchitis — c. a Contagio, Influenza — c. Epi- 




deraicus, Influenza, Catarrh, epidemic — c. Geni- 
talium, Leueorrhoea — c. Gonorrhoea, Gonorrhoea 
— c. Intestinalis, Diarrhoea — c. Laryngeus, La- 
ryngo-catarrhus — c. ad Nares, Coryza — c. Nasa- 
lis, Coryza — c. Pulrnonalis, Catarrh — c. Pulrno- 
nurn, Bronchitis, Catarrh — c. Senilis, Bronchitis, 
^chronic) — c. Suffocativus Barbadensis, C. trache- 
alis — c. Trachealis, Laryngo-catarrhus — c. Ure- 
thras, Gonnorrhoea pura — c. Urethralis, Gonor- 
rhoea — c. Vesicae, Cystorrhcea. 

CATARRHYSIS, Catarrhopia, Defluxion. 
CATARTISIS, Catartismus. 
CATARTIS'MUS, Catar'tisia, from Karapr^etv, 
' to repair, replace.' The coaptation of a luxated 
or fractured bone, or hernia. 
CATASARCA, Anasarca. 
CATASCEUE, Structure. 
CATASCHASMUS, Bloodletting, Scarification. 
CATASTAGMUS, Catarrh, Coryza. 
CATASTALAGMUS, Coryza, Distillation. 
CATASTALTICA, Htematostatica, Sedatives. 
CATAS'TASIS, from Ka $teTr,ni, ' I establish.' 
The constitution, state, condition, &c, of any 
thing. — Hippocrates. Also the reduction of a 
bone. See Constitution, and Habit of Body. 

CATAT'ASIS, from KaTaruvu, 'I extend'. Ex- 
tension. The extension and reduction of a frac- 
tured limb. — Hippocrates. 

CATATHLIPSIS, Oppression. 
CATAXIS, Fracture. 

CATCH FLY, Apocynum androsaemifolium, 
Silene Virginica. 

CATCHUP, Ketchup. 

CAT'ECHU. The extract of various parts of 
the Aca'cia Cat'echu, Mimo'sa Cat'echu, Cacet'- 
chu, an oriental tree. The drug is also called 
Terra Japon'ica, Extrac'tum Catechu, Jaj)an 
Earth, Cascheu, Cadtchu, Cashoic, Caitchu, Cast- 
joe, Cacau, Cate, Kaath, Cuti, Cutch, Co'ira, Suc- 
cus Japon'icua, (F.) Cachou. It is a powerful 
astringent, and is used in diarrhoea, intestinal he- 
morrhage, &c. Dose, gr. xv to ^ss, in powder. 
Catechu, Square, see Nauclea gambir. 
CATEIAD'ION, from Kara, and eta, 'a blade 
of grass.' A long instrument thrust into the 
nostrils to excite hemorrhage in headach. — 

CATENA MUSCULUS, Tibialis anticus. 
CATEONESIS, Catantlema. 
CATGUT, Galega Virginiana. 
CATHiE'RESIS, KaQaiptais, 'subtraction, di- 
minution.' Extenuation or exhaustion, owing to 
forced exercise. — Hippocrates. The action of 

CATH.ERETICUS, Catheretic. 
CATHARISMOS, Depuration. 
CATHAR'MA, Purgament'um. The matter 
evacuated by a purgative, or by spontaneous 
purging : also, a cathartic. 

CATHAR'MUS, Same etymon ; a purgation. 
— Hippocrates. Also, the cure of a disease by 
magic, &c. 

CATHAR'SIS, from xaSaipuv, (koi6' and aipuv, 
'to take away,') 'to purge.' Purga'tio, Apoca- 
thar'sis, Copropho'ria, Coprophore' sis. A natu- 
ral or artificial purgation of any passage; — mouth, 
anus, vagina, Ac. 

CATHAR'TIC, Cathar'ticus, Cathare'ticus, 
Cathar'ma, Coprocrit' icum, Coprago'gum, Lustra- 
mm'tum, Purgana medicament' urn, Tr'ichilV 'urn, De- 
jecto'rium Eemed'ium, Eccathar'ticus, Hypacti- 
cus, Hopochoret'icus, Alvum, evac'uans, Hypel'atos, 
Lapac'ticua, Apocathar'ticua. Same etymon. (F.) 
Cathartique. A medicine which, when taken in- 
ternally, increases the number of alvine evacua- 
tions. Some substances act upon the upper part 

of the intestinal canal, as calomel and colocynth • 
others, on the lower part, as aloes ; and some on 
the whole extent, as saline purgatives. Hence a 
choice may be necessary. Cathartics are divided 
into purgatives and laxatives. The following is 
a list of the chief cathartics : 

Aloe, Cassia Marilandica, Colocynthis, Elate- 
rium, Gambogia, Hydrargyri Chloridum mite, 
Hydrargyri Oxydum nigrum, Hydrarg. cum 
Magnesia, Jalapa, Juglans, Magnesia. Magnesias 
Carbonas, Magnesias Sulphas, Manna, Mannita, 
Oleum Euphorbias Lathyridis, Oleum Ricini, 
Oleum Tiglii, Podophyllum, Potassae Acetas, Po- 
tassas Bisulphas, Potassae Sulphas, Potassae Bi- 
tartras, Potassae Tartras, Rheum, Scammonium, 
Senna, Sinapis, Sodas et Potassae Tartras, Sodas 
Phosphas, Sodas Sulphas, Sodi Chloridum, Sul- 
phur, Veratria, Aquas Minerales Sulphureas et 
Salinas, Enemata, Suppositoria. 

CATHARTLN, see Cassia Senna, and Con- 
volvulus jalapa. 

CATHARTIQUE, Cathartic. 
CATHARTOCARPUS, Cassia fistula. 
CATHEMERUS, Quotidian. 
CATHERET'IC, Cathceret'icus, Ectylot'icus, 
Sarcoph'agu8, from xaSaiptiv, ' to eat,' ' destroy.' 
Substances applied to warts, exuberant granula- 
tions, &c, to eat them down. Mild cauatica. 

CATH'ETER, from K a3ir„xt {icaff, and « wt , 'to 
send,') ' I explore.' JEne'a, Al'galie, Cathete'rie, 
Demissor, Immis'aor. A hollow tube, introduced 
by surgeons into the urinary bladder, for the 
purpose of drawing off the urine. Catheters are 
made of silver or elastic gum. See Bougie. The 
French generally use the word catheter for the 
solid sound or ataff; and algalie and sonde for 
the hollow instrument. 

Catheter, Nasal. An instrument, invented 
by M. Gensoul, of Lyons, for catheterizing the 
ductus ad nasum. It is hook-shaped ; the extre- 
mity, bent at a right angle, is about an inch in 
length, suited to the distance of the lower orifice 
of the duct from the nostril, and likewise to the 
length and form of the duct, with a slight spiral 

CATHETERIS, Catheter. 
CATHETERISIS, Catheterismus. 
CATHETERIS'MUS, Cathete 'risis, Catheteri- 
sa'tio, Oath'eterism, Catheterization, Immis'sio 
Cathete'ria, same etymon. The introduction of a 
catheter or sound into the bladder or Eustachian 
tube. Also probing a wound. Melosis. 
CATHETERIZATION, Catheterismus. 
CATH'ETERIZE. To perform the operation 
of catheterism; — in other words, to introduce the 
catheter, to probe or sound a cavity. 

CATHID'RYSIS, from KaStSpvut, 'I place to- 
gether.' Reduction of a part to its natural situ- 

CATHMIA, Plumbi oxydum semi-vitreum. 
CATHMIR, Calamina. 

CATHOD'IC, Cathod'icus; from Ka 9', 'down- 
wards,' and bhos, ' a way.' An epithet applied by 
Dr. Marshall Hall to a downward course of ner- 
vous action. 

CATH'OLIC HUMOURS, (F.) Eumeura Ca- 
tholiques, are the fluids spread over the whole 

Cathol'icon Duplex. An ancient purging 
electuary, chiefly composed of cassia, tamarinds, 
rhubarb, senna, &c. 

CATIL'LIA. A weight of nine ounces. 




CATLING, Knife, double-edged. 

CATO, Kara, 'below,' 'beneath.' This word, 
in the writings of Hippocrates, is often used for 
the abdomen, especially the intestines. When he 
advises a remedy ko.tu>, he means a purgative ; 
when avu>, 'above or upwards,' an emetic. As a 
prefix, Cato means 'beneath,' as in 

CATOCATHARTIC, Catocathar'ticua, from 
kcltos, ' downwards,' and Ka$aiptu>, ' I purge.' A 
medicine which purges downwards. One that 
produces alvine evacuations. The antithesis to 


CAT'OCHE, Cat'ocheia, Cat'ochus, from Kare^ui, 
' I retain,' ' I hold fast.' This word has, by some, 
been used synonymously with Catalepsy ; by 
others, with Coma vigil; by others, with Tetanus. 

CATOCHUS, Catoche, Eestasis— c. Cervinus, 
Tetanus — c. Holotonicus, Tetanus — c. Infantum, 
Induration of the cellular tissue. 

CATOMIS'MOS, from <ca™, 'beneath,' and 
ofios, 'shoulder;' Subhumera'tio. A mode with 
the ancients of reducing luxation of the humerus 
by raising the body by the arm. — Paulus of iEgina. 

CATOPTER, Speculum. 

EYE. When a lighted candle is held before the 
eye, the pupil of which has been dilated by bella- 
donna, three images of it are seen — two erect, and 
one inverted: — the former owing to reflection 
from the cornea and anterior surface of the crys- 
talline ; the latter owing to reflection from the 
posterior layer of the crystalline. This mode of 
examining the eye has been proposed as a means 
of diagnosis between cataract and amaurosis. In 
the latter, all the images are seen. 

CATOPTROMANCY, from KaroTtrpov, (Kara, 
and o-arofxai,) 'a mirror,' and jiavrua, 'divination.' 
A kind of divination by means of a mirror. 

CATOPTRON, Speculum. 

CATORCHI'TES. A kind of sour wine, pre- 
pared with the orchis and black grape, or dried 
figs. It was formerly employed as a.diuretic and 
emmenagogue. — Dioscorides. Called, also, Syci'- 
tes. — Galen. 

CATORETICUS, Purgative. 

CATOTERICUS, Purgative. 

CATO'TICA, from Kara), 'beneath.' Diseases 
infecting internal surfaces. Pravity of the fluids 
or emunctories, that open on the internal surfaces 
of organs. The second order in the class Eccri- 
tica of Good. 

CATOX'YS, Peracu'tus, from Kara, 'an inten- 
sive,' and o£W, 'acute.' Highly acute; as Morbus 
Catoxys, M. Peracu'tus, a verv acute disease. 

CAT'S EYE, AMAUROTIC, see Amaurotic. 

CAT'SFOOT, Antennaria dioica. 

CATTAGAUMA, Cambogia. 


CATULOTICA, Cieatrisantia. 

CATU-TRIPALI, Piper longum. 

CAUCALIS CAROTA, Daucus carota— c. Sa- 
nicula, Sanicula. 


CAUCASIAN, see Homo. 

CAUOHEMAR, Incubus. 


CAUCHUC, Caoutchouc. 

CAUDA, Coccyx, Penis. 

Cauda Equi'na. The spinal marrow, at its 
termination, about the second lumbar vertebra, 
gives off a considerable number of nerves, which, 
when unravelled, resemble a horse's tail, — hence 
the name; (F.) Queue de Oheval, Q. de la Mo'elle 
jEpinie're. See Medulla Spinalis. 

Cauda Salax, Penis. 

CAUDAL, Caudate, Oauda'lis, Canda'tus; from 
Cauda, ' a tail.' Relating or appertaining to a 
tail Having a tail or tail-like appendage : — 

as 'caudal or caudate corpuscles' — corpuscles 
having a tail-like appendage, as in canceroua 

CAUDATE, Caudal. 

CAUDATIO, Clitorism. 

CAUDATUS, Bicaudatus. 

diez is a small town, nine leagues from Perpig- 
nan, in France, where there is a thermal spring, 
containing a little sulphate of soda and iron. 

CAUDLE: (F.) Chaxideau, chaud, 'warm or 
hot.' A nourishing gruel given to women during 
the childbed state. The following is a form for 
it : Into a pint of fine gruel, not thick, put, whilst 
it is boiling hot, the yolk of an egg beaten with 
sugar, and mixed with a large spoonful of cold 
water, a glass of wine, and nutmeg. Mix the 
whole well together. Brandy is sometimes sub- 
stituted for the wine, and lemon peel or capillaire 
added. It is also sometimes made of gruel and 
beer, with sugar and nutmeg. 

CAUL, from (L.) caula, ' a fold,' Pilus, Pile'- 
olus, Ga'lea, Vitta, (F.) Coeffe, Goiffe — (Etre ne 
coeffe — 'to be born with a caul.') The English 
name for the omentum. When a child is born 
with the membranes over tho face, it is said to 
have been 'born with a caul.' In the catalogue 
of superstitions, this is one of the favourable 
omens. The caul itself is supposed to confer 
privileges upon the possessor; hence the mem- 
branes are dried, and sometimes sold for a high 
price. See Epiploon. 

CAULE'DON, Cicye'don, from /cauXoj, 'a stalk.' 
A transverse fracture. 

CAU'LIFLOWER, (G.) Kohl, 'cabbage,' and 
flower [ ? ], Brassica Florida. 

Cauliflower Excres'cence, Excreacen'tia 
Syphilitica, (F.) Ghoufleur. A syphilitic ex- 
crescence, which appears about the origin of the 
mucous membranes, chiefly about the anus and 
vulva, and which resembles, in appearance, the 
head of the cauliflower. 

CAULIS, Penis — c. Florida, Brassica Florida. 

Leon'tice thalictro'i'dea, Blueberry Cohosh, Cohosh, 
Cohush, Blueberry, Papoose Boot, Squaw Boot, 
Blue Ginseng, Yellow Ginseng, a plant of the Fa- 
mily Berberideae ; Sex. Syst. Hexandria Mono- 
gynia, which grows all over the United States, 
flowering in May and June. The infusion of the 
root is much used by the Indians in various dis- 
eases. To it are ascribed emmenagogue and dia- 
phoretic virtues. 

CAULOPLE'GIA, from <cauAoy, ' the male or- 
gan,' and nXrjyr), ' a wound,' or ' stroke.' An in- 
jury or paralysis of the male organ. 

CAULORRHAGIA, Stimatosis— c. Ejaculato- 
ria, Spermato-cystidorrhagia — c. Stillatitia, Ure- 


CAULUS, Penis. 

CAUMA, Kav/ia, 'a burnt part,' from naiio, 'I 
burn.' Great heat of the body or atmosphere. 
Synocha, Empresma. 

Cauma Bronchitis, Cynanche trachealis — c. 
Carditis, Carditis — c. Enteritis, Enteritis — c 
Gastritis, Gastritis — c. Hsemorrhagicum, Hajraor- 
rhagia activa — c. Hepatitis, Hepatitis — c. Oph- 
thalmitis, Ophthalmia — e. Peritonitis, Peritonitis 
— c. Phrenitis, Phrenitis — c. Pleuritis, Pleuritis 
— c. Podagricum, Gout — c. Rheumatismus, Rheu- 
matism, acute. 

CAUMATO'DES, Caumate'rwi, from «au«a, 
'fire-heat.' Burning hot. Febris caumato'dea, 
F. eauso'des. Inflammatory fever. Synocha. 

CAUNGA, Areca. 

CAUSA CONJUNCTA, Cause, ^oximate— c 
Continens, Cause, proximate. 




CAUSJ3 ABDIT^E, Causes, predisponent or 
remote — c. Actuales, Causes, occasional— c. Prce- 
incipientes, Causes, procatarctic — c. Procgunie- 
nse, Causes, predisponent. 

CAUSE, Cau'sa, Ai'tia, Ai'tion. An act which 
precedes another, and seems to be a necessary 
condition for the occurrence of the latter. The 
causes of disease are generally extremely ob- 
scure ; although they, sometimes, are evident 
enough. The predisponent and occasional causes 
are the only two, on which any stress can be 
laid; but as, authors have divided them differ- 
ently, a short explanation is necessary. 

Cause, Ac'cessory, (F.) Cause Accessoire. 
One which has only a secondary influence in the 
production of disease. 

Causes, Accident'al, Common Causes, (F.) 
Causes Accidentelle8, are those which act only 
in certain given conditions ; and which do not 
always produce the same disease. Cold, e. g., 
may be the accidental cause of pneumonia, rheu- 
matism, &c. 

CAUSES CACHE ES, C. occult— c. Common, 
C. accidental — c. Exciting, C. Occasional — c. Es- 
sential, C. Specific — c. Determinantes, C. Specific 
— c. Eloignees, C. Predisponent. 

Causes, Extern'al, (F.) Causes externes, are 
Buch as act externally to the individual ; as air, 
cold, <fec. 

CAUSES FORMELLES, (F.) are such as 
determine the form or kind of disease. .They 
differ from the Causes materielles, which are 
common to a set of diseases ; as, to the neuroses, 
phlegmasiae, <fcc. 

Causes, Hidden, C. Occult. 

Causes, Intern'al, (F.) Causes Internes, are 
those which arise within the body; — as mental 
emotions, &c. 

Causes, Mechan'ical, (F.) Causes mecaniques, 
are those which act mechanically, as pressure 
upon the windpipe in inducing suffocation. 

Causes, Neg'ative, (F.) Causes negatives, com- 
prise all those things, the privation of which 
may derange the functions; — as abstinence too 
long continued. They are opposed to positive 
causes, which, of themselves, directly induce dis- 
ease ; — as the use of indigestible food, spirituous 
drinks, &c. 

Causes, Obscure, C. Occult. 

Causes, Occa'sional, Exci'ting Causes, Causa 
actua'les, (F.) Causes occasionelles, are those 
which immediately produce disease. The occa- 
sional causes have been divided into the cogniz- 
able and non-cognizable. — C. J. B. Williams. 



I. Cognizable Agents. 

1. Mechanical. 

2. Chemical. 

3. Ingesta. 

4. Bodily exertion. 

5. Mental emotion. 

6. Excessive evacuation. 

7. Suppressed or defective evacua- 


8. Defective cleanliness, ventilation 

and draining. 

9. Temperature and changes. 

II. Non- Cognizable Agents. 
1. Endemic. 

2. Epidemic. 

3. Infectious. 


CAUSES, Occult', Hidden causes, Obscure causes, 
fF.) Causes occultes ou cachees ou obscures. Any 
aauses with which we are unacquainted; also, 

certain inappreciable characters of the atmo- 
sphere, which give rise to epidemics. 

Causes, Phys'ical, (F.) Causes Physiques, — 
those which act by virtue of their physical pro- 
perties ; as form, hardness, <fec. All vulnerating 
bodies belong to this class. 

Causes, Physiolog"ical, (F.) Causes Physio* 
logiques, those which act only on living matter; 
— narcotics, for example. 

Causes, Predispo'nent, Remote causes, Causa 
proegu'mena, Causa ab'dita, Causa, remo'ta ; 
(F. ) Causes predisponantes, Causes eloignees, — 
those which render the body liable to disease. 
They may be general, affecting a number of peo- 
ple, or particular, affecting only one person. 

Causes, Prin'cipal, (F.) Causes principals 
— those which exert the chief influence on the 
production of disease, as distinguished from the 
accessory causes. 

Causes, Procatarc'tic, Causa procatarc'tica, 
Causa praincipien'tes, from xpoKarapKTtKos, 'the 
origin or beginning of a thing,' (Karapxu, 'I be- 
gin,' and irpo, ' before.') These words have been 
used with different significations. Some have 
employed them synonymously with predisponent 
or remote causes ; others with occasional or excit- 
ing causes. 

CAUSE PROCHAINE, C. proximate. 

Cause, Prox'imate, Causa prox'ima vel con'. 
tinens vel conjunc'ta, (F.) Cause continente oupro- 
chaine, may be the disease itself. Superabundance 
of blood, e. g., is the proximate cause of plethora. 

Causes, Remote, C. predisponent. 

Causes, Specif'ic, Essen'tial causes, &e., (F.) 
Causes specifiques, C. essentielles, C. determinantes; 
those which always produce a determinate dis- 
ease ; special contagion, for example. 

CAUSIS, Burn, Ebullition, Fermentation, In- 
cendium, Ustion. 

CAUS0MA, Inflammation. 

CAUS'TIC, Cans' ticus, Cauteret'icus, Diaret'- 
icus, Era' dens, Adu'renn, Urens, Pyrot'icus, from 
xaiu), 'I burn.' (F.) Caustique. Bodies, which 
have the property of causticity; and which con- 
sequently, burn or disorganize animal substances. 
The word is also used substantively. The most 
active are called Escharot'ics. Caustics are also 
termed 'corrosives.' 

Caustic Bearer, Porte-pierre. 

CAUSTICA ADUSTIO, Cauterization. 

CAUSTICITY, Caustic" itas, from kiivctikos, 
'that which burns,' (icaio), 'I burn.) The impres- 
sion which caustic bodies make on the organ of 
taste; or, more commonly, the property which 
distinguishes those bodies. 

CAUSTICOPHORUM, Porte-pierre. 

Melan' icum caus'ticum. A sort of paste, made bj 
rubbing powdered saffron with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid, recommended by Velpeau as a caus- 
tic in cases of gangrenous and carcinomatous ul- 
cers. The acid is the caustic : the saffron, the 
constituent merely. 

Causticum Alkaltnum, Potassa fusa — c. Ame- 
ricanum, Veratrum sabadilla — c. Antimoniale, 
Antimonium muriatum. 

Causticum Commu'ne, Poten'tial Cautery, Com- 
mon Caustic, Caute'rium potentia'le, Lapis sep'- 
ticus, Caus'ticum commu'ne mit'ius. This con- 
sists of quicklime and black soap, of each equal 

Causticum Commune, Potassa fusa — c. Com- 
mune acerrimum, Potassa fusa — c. Commune for- 
tius, Potassa cum calce — c. Lunare, Argenti nitras 
— o. Potentiate, Potassa fusa — c. Salinum, Po- 
tassa fusa — c. Viennense fusum Filhos, see Pow- 
der, Vienna. 




CAUSTIQUE, Caustic. 

CAUSTIQUE FILHOS, see Powder, Vienna. 


CAUSUS, from koioi, 'I burn.' A highly ar- 
dent fever ; Deu'rens. Pinel regards it as a com- 
plication of bilious and inflammatory fever ; 
Broussais, as an intense gastritis, accompanied 
with bilious symptoms. See Synocha. 

Causus, Endemial, of the West Indies, 
Fever, Yellow — c. Tropicus endemicus, Fever, 

CAUTEJR, Cauterium. 

CA UTERE, Cauterium, Fonticulus — c. Inhe- 
rent, Inherent cautery. 


Cauterets is a bourg seven leagues from Bareges 
(Halites-Pyrenees,) France. The waters are hy- 
drosulpkurous and thermal — temperature 123° F. 
They are used in the same cases as the Bareges 

CAUTERIASMUS, Cauterization. 

CAUTE'RIUM, .Cauterium actua'le, Canter, 
Cau'tery, Inusto'rium, Rupto'rium, Ignis actua'lis, 
from Kato), ' I burn.' (F.) Cautere, Feu actuel, A 
substance, used for 'firing,' burning or disorga 
iiizing the parts to which it is applied. Cauteries 
were divided by the ancients into actual and po- 
tential. The word is now restricted to the red- 
hot iron ; or to positive burning. It was, for- 
merly, much used for preventing hemorrhage 
from divided arteries ; and also with the same 
views as a blister. The term Potcn'tial Cautery, 
Caute'rium potentia'le, Ignis potentia' lis, (F.) Feu 
potentiel, was generally applied to the causticum 
commune, but it is now used synonymously with 
caustic in general. Cautere also means an issue. 

Cauterium Actuale, Cauterium. 

CAUTERIZA'TION, Cauterisa'tio, Cauterias'- 
mus, Exus'tio, Inus'tio, Cans' ticaAdus'tio. Firing. 
The effect of a cautery. The French, amongst 
whom cauterization is much used, distinguished 
five kinds : 1. Cauterisation Inherente, which con- 
sists in applying the actual cautery freely, and 
with a certain degree of force, so as to disorganize 
deeply. 2. Cauterisation transcurrente, which 
consists in" passing the edge of the Cautlre cultel- 
laire, or the point of the Cautere conique lightly, 
so as not to disorganize deeply. 3. Cauterisation 
par pointes, which consists in applying on the 
skin, here and there, the hot point of the conical 
cautery, with sufficient force to cauterize the 
whole thickness of the skin. 4. Cauterisation 
lente, slow cauterization, by means of the moxa. 
5. Cauterisation objective, which consists in hold- 
ing the cautery at some distance from the part 
to be acted upon by it. 

Cau'terize; Oaustico adurere ; (F.) Cau- 
ttriser. To apply the cautery. To burn with a 

CAUTERY, Cauterium — c. Potential, Causti- 
cum commune. 

CAVA, Vulva. 

Cava Vena, Vena hepati'tes. The hollow or 
deep-seated vein. (F.) Veine cave. A name 
given to the two great veins of the body, which 
meet at the right auricle of the heart. The vena 
cava supe'rior, thorac"ica vel descen'dens, is 
formed by the union of the subclavians ; and re- 
ceives successively, before its termination at the 
upper part of the right auricle, the inferior thy- 
roid, right internal mammary , superior diaphrag- 
matic, azygos, &c. The vena cava infe'rior, ab- 
domina' lis vel ascen'dens, arises from the union 
of the two primary iliacs, opposite the fourth or 
fifth lumbar vertebra, receives the middle sacral, 
lumbar, right spermatic, hepatic, and inferior dia- 

phragmatics, and opens at the posterior and in- 
ferior part of the right auricle. 

CAVATIO, Cavity. 

CAVEA, Cavity — c. Narium, Nares. 

CAVER'NA, Antrum. 'A cavern.' This term 
has been used for the female organs of generation. 
See Cavity, and Vulva. 

Caverna Narium, Nares. 

CAVERNS DENTIUM, Alveoli denUum— o. 
Frontis, Frontal Sinuses. 

CAVERNEUX, Cavernous. 

CAVERNOUS, Cavemo'sus, (F.) Caverncux. 
Filled with small cavities or caverns, — as a 

Cavernous Bodies, Cor'pora Cavernosa of the 
penis, Cor'pora nervo'sa, C. Ner'veo-spongio'sa 
Penis, (F.) Corps Cavemeux. The corpus caver- 
nosum is a kind of cylindrical sac, composed of 
cells ; separated, through its whole extent, by a 
vertical, incomplete septum, Septum pectinifor' - 
me, and forming nearly two-thirds of the penis. 
The corpus cavernosum, on each side, arises from 
the ascending portion of the ischium, and termi- 
nates obtusely behind the glans. The arteries 
of the corpora cavernosa come from the internal 
pudic. See Helicine Arteries. Nerves are found 
on the surface of the outer membrane, but they 
do not appear to penetrate the substance, and the 
smooth muscular fibre has been traced into the 
fibrous parietes of the cells, as in the case of all 
erectile tissues. 

J. Miiller's researches have led him to infer, 
that both in man and the horse, the nerves of the 
corpora cavernosa are made up of branches pro- 
ceeding from the organic as well as the animal 
system, whilst the nerves of animal life alone 
provide the nerves of sensation of the penis. 

Cavernous Bodies, Corpora Cavernosa of the 
Clit' oris, are two hollow crura, forming the clitoris. 

Cavernous Body op the Vagi'na, Corpus Ca- 
verno'sum Vagi'na, Plexus retiform'is, is a sub- 
stance composed of blood-vessels and cells, simi- 
lar to those of the penis and clitoris, which covers 
the outer extremity of the vagina, on each side. 
It serves to contract the entrance to the vagina 
during coition. 

Cavernous Ganglion, see Carotid or Carotio 

Cavernous Respira'tion, (F.) When a cavity 
exists in the lungs, and one or more ramifications 
of the bronchia terminate in it, a loud tubal noise 
is emitted, provided the cavity be not filled with 
fluid, which is called cavernous respiration. In 
this condition, the cough is cavernous likewise, 
(F.) Toux Caverneuse. When the capacity of the 
cavern is very great, the sound of the respiration 
is like that produced by blowing into a decanter, 
with the mouth at a little distance from the neck. 
This kind of cavernous respiration has been called 
amphoric, from amphora, 'a flask;' (F.) Respi- 
ration amphorique, Souffle amphorique, S. metal- 

The Veiled Puff, (F.) Souffle voilS, is a modi- 
fication of the cavernous respiration, in which, 
according to Laennec, " a sort of movable veil 
interposed between the excavation and the ear" 
seems to be agitated to and fro. It is a sign 
which is not attended to. 

Cavernou8 Sinus, Sinus Cavemo'sus, Sinus 
polyrnor'phus seu Receptac'ulum, S. sphenoidalis, 
Reccptac'ulum sella equi'nee lat'eribus ajtpos'itum, 
(F.) Sinus cavemeux. The Cav'ernous Si'nuset 
are venous cavities of the dura mater, filled with 
a multitude of reddish, soft filaments, intersect- 
ing each other; and, as it were, reticulated. 
They commence behind the inner part of the 
sphenoid fissure, pass backwards on the sides of 
the fossa pituitaiia, and terminate by opening 




into a cavity, common to the superior and infe- 
rior petrosal sinuses. They receive some menin- 
geal veins, the ophthalmic veins, <fcc. The ante- 
rior extremity of each cavernous sinus has been 
named the ophthal'mie sinus. 

Cavernous Texture or Tissue, (F.) Tissu 
cavemeux. The spongy substance which forms 
the greater part of the penis and clitoris. It 
seems to consist of a very complicated lace-work 
of arteries and veins ; and, probably, of nervous 
filaments, with small fibrous plates, which form 
by their decussation numerous cells communicat- 
ing with each other. This spongy texture pro- 
duces erection, by dilating and swelling on the 
influx of blood ; and probably, also, by virtue of 
some property inherent in it. 

CAVIALE, Caviare. 

CAVIARE', Caviar, Caviale, Kaviac. A culi- 
nary preparation, much used by certain people, 
and made on the shores of the Black and Caspian 
Seas, from the roe of the sturgeon, mixed with 
salt and other condiments. 

CAVIC'ULA, Cavil' la, from cavus, 'hollow.' 
The ankle or space between the malleoli. Some 
have given this name to the os cuneiforme. See 


CAVILLA, Astragalus, Cavicula. 

C. Buccinata, Cochlea — c. Cochleata, Cochlea. 

Cavitas Digitata Ventriculi Lateralis, 
Cornu posterius ventriculi lateralis. 

Cav'itas Ellip'tica, Ampul'la, Sinus ampitl- 
la'cevs. A dilatation at one end of the semicir- 
cular canals of the ear. 

Cavitas Humeri Glenoldes, see Glenoid — c. 
Narium, Nares — c. Oculi, Orbit — c. Oris, Mouth 
— c. Pulpa), see Tooth. 

CAVITATES CEREBRI, Ventricles of the 
brain — c. Durae matris, Sinuses of the dura mater 
— c. Innominatae, Auricles of the heart — c. Inter- 
scapulars, see Interscapularis. 

GA VITE, Cavity — c. Bentaire, Dental cavity — 
c. des Epiploons, see Peritonseum — c. du Tympan, 

CAVITY, Cav'itas, Cavum, Cae'lotes, Coelon, 
Ga'vea, Caver'na, Cava'tio, (F.) Cavite. Every 
thing hollow, as the cranium, mouth, nasal 
fossae, <fcc. 

Cavities, Splanchnic, (F.) CavitSs splanch- 
viques, are those which contain the viscera. 
They are three in number ; — the cranium, chest, 
and abdomen. The cavities of bones, connected 
with joints or otherwise, are described under 
their particular denominations. 

CAVUM, Cavity — c. Abdominis, see Abdomen. 

Cavum Cra'nii, Venter Supre'mus. The cavity 
formed by the proper bones of the cranium. 

Cavum Dentis, see Tooth — c. Narium, Nares 
— -c. Oris, Mouth — c. Tympani, Tympanum. 

CAYAN, Phaseolus Creticus. 

CAZABI, Jatropha manihot. 

CEANOTHOS, Cirsium arvense. 

Trinervis, Celastrus. 

CEAR, Heart. 

CEASMA, Fissure. 

CEBI GALLI'NiB. The liver of the fowl, 
bruised. — Castelli. 

CEBIP'ARA. A large Brazilian tree, whose 
bitter and astringent bark is used in making anti- 
rheumatic baths and fomentations 

CECES, see Quercus alba. 

CECITE, Ca?citas. 

CEDAR. RED, Juniperus Virginiana. 

CEDEIA, Embalming. 

CEDMA, Aneurism, Varix. 

CED'MATA, Kt&paTa. Rheumatic pains of the 
joints, especially of the hips, groin, or genital 
organs. A form of gout or rheumatism. 

CEDE AT, Citrus medioa. 

CEDRELE'UM, from Ktfyoj, 'the cedar,' and 
eXaiov, ' oil.' The oil of cedar. — Pliny. 

CE'DRIA, Ce'drium, Ge'drinum, Gedri lack', 
ryma, Alkitran. The oil or resin which flows 
from the cedar of Lebanon. It was supposed to 
possess great virtues. — Hippocrates, Foesius, 
Scribonius Largus, Dioscorides. It has been 
supposed to be the same as the pyroligneous 
acid. See Pinus Sylvestris. 

CE'DRINUM VINUM, Cedar Wine. A wine 
prepared by steeping half a pound of bruised 
cedar berries in six French pints of sweet wine. 
It is diuretic and subastringent. 

CEDRI'TES, from KtSpos, 'the cedar.' A wino 
prepared from the resin of cedar and sweet wine. 
It was formerly employed as a vermifuge, <fcc. 

CEDRIUM, Cedria, 

CEDROMELA, see Citrus medica. 

CEDRON, see Simaba cedron. 

CEDRONELLA, Melissa— c. Triphylla, Dra- 
cocephalum canariense. 

CEDROS, Juniperus lycia. 

CEDROSTIS, Brvonia alba. 

CEDRUS BACCIFERA, Juniperus sabina— 
c. Mahogani, Sweetenia mahogani. 

CEINTURE, Cingulum, Herpes zoster. 

ROIBE, Ciliary ligament. 

c. de Hildane, Cingulum Hildani — c. de Vif Ar- 
gent, Cingulum mercuriale. 

CELANDINE, Impatiens — c. Common, Cheli- 
donium majus — c. Lesser, Ranunculus ficaria — c. 
Poppy, Stylophorum diphyllum. 

CELAS'TRUS, Celas'tus, Ceano'thus Ameri- 
ca'nus seu triner'vis, New Jersey Tea, Red Root. 
Used by the American Indians, in the same man- 
ner as lobelia, for the cure of syphilis. It is 
slightly bitter and somewhat astringent. A 
strong infusion of the dried leaves and seeds hag 
been recommended in aphthae, and as a gargle in 

Celastrus Scandens, Climhing Stafftree. A 
climbing American shrub, the bark of which is 
said to possess emetic, diaphoretic, and narcotic 

CELATION, (F.) Concealment, from celare, 
'to conceal.' A word used by French medico- 
legal writers for cases where there has been con- 
cealment of pregnancy or delivery. 

CELE, KyjXrj, 'a tumour, protrusion, or rupture;' 
a very common suffix, as in hydrocele, bubono- 
cele, <fec. See Hernia. 

CEL'ERY, (F.) Celeri. The English name for 
a variety of Apium graveolens. 

Celery, Wild, Bubon galbanum. 

CELETA, see Hernial. 

CELIA, Cerevisia. 

OELTAQUE, Coeliac. 

CELIS, KnKii, 'a spot, a stain.' A macula, or 
spot on the skin. 

CELL, Cella. A small cavity. The same sig- 
nification ns cellule. Also, a vesicle composed 
of a membranous cell-wall, with, usually, liquid 
contents. The whole organized body may be re- 
garded as a congeries of cells having different 
endowments, each set being concerned in special 
acts, connected with absorption, nutrition, and 
secretion, wherever an action of selection or ela- 
boration has to be effected. These cells are gene- 
rally termed primary, elementary, or primordial. 
When they give rise to other cells, they are, at 
times, termed parent or mother cells ; the result- 
ing cells being termed daughter celh. 




Cell, Apoplectic, see Apoplectic cell — c. 
Bronchic, Cellule, bronchic — c. Calcigerous, see 
Tooth — c. Daughter, see Cell — c. Elementary, 
see Cell. 

Cell, Eptder'mic or Epithe'lial. The cells 
or corpuscles that cover the free membranous sur- 
faces of the body, and which form the epidermis 
and epithelium, are termed ' epidermic or epithe- 
lial cells.' They are developed from germs fur- 
nished by the subjacent membrane. 
i" Cell, Epithelial, Cell, epidermic — c. Fat, 
see Fatty vesicles — c. Germ, Cytoblast — c. Ger- 
minal, see Cytoblast — c. Nucleated, see Cyto- 

Cell Life. The life which is possessed by 
the separate cells that form the tissues, and by 
which the nutrition of the tissues is presumed to 
be effected. 

Cell, Mother, see Cell — c. Parent, see Cell. 

Cell, Pigment. Pigment cells are mingled 
with the epidermic cells, and are most manifest 
in the coloured races. They are best seen on the 
inner surface of the choroid of the eye, where 
they form the pigmentum nigrum. 

Cell, Primary, see Cell — c. Primordial, see 

CELL "WALL, see Cell. 

CELLA TURCICA, Sella Turcica. 

CELLULA, Cellule. 

CELLULiE, see Colon — c. Medullares, see 
Medullary membrane — c. Pulmonales, Cellules 
bronchic, see Pulmo — c. Bronchicae, see Cellule. 

CEL'LULAR, Cellula'ris, Cellulo'sus, (F.) Cel- 
lulaire. Composed of cells or cellules, from cella 
or cellula, ' a cell.' 

Cel'lular Mem'brane, Membra'na cellulo'sa, 
M. Cellula'ris, — 31. adipo'sa, J/, pinguedino'sa, of 
some, Pannic'ulus adipo'sus, — Membrane formed 
of cellular tissue, (F.) Membrane cellulaire. Ge- 
nerally used for the tissue itself. 

Cel'lular System. The whole of the cellular 
tissue of the human body. 

Cellular Tissue, Tela cellula'ris, T. cellu- 
lo'sa, T. Hippoc' ratis cribro'sa, Ethmyphe, reticu- 
la' ted, filamentous, laminated, crib' riform, porous, 
are'olar, and mucous Tissue, Retic'ular or cellular 
substance, Contex'tus cellulo'sus, (F.) Tissu cellu- 
laire, reticule, lamineux, cribleux, poreux, areo- 
laire, muqueu.r, &c, is the most common of all 
the organic tissues. It contains irregular areola 
between the fibres, as well as serum, fat, and the 
adipous tissue. Of the fibres, some are of the 
yellow elastic kind ; but the greater part are of 
.the xchite fibrous tissue, and they frequently pre- 
sent the form of broad flat bands, in which no 
distinct fibrous arrangement is perceptible. See 

The cellular tissue or texture unites every part 
of the body, determines its shape, and by its 
elasticity and contractility, and by the fluid 
which it contains in its cells, facilitates the mo- 
tion of parts on each other. 

Cellular tissue has been divided by anatomists 
into the external, general or common cellular 
tissue — textus cellula'ris intcrme'dius seu laxus, 
which does not penetrate the organs, — the cellu- 
lar texture which forms the envelopes of organs 
— textus <■< Unla'ris strictus, and that which pene- 
trates into the organs, accompanying and enve- 
loping all their parts, — the textus cellula'ris sti- 
fia'tus, constituting the basis of all the organs, 
t has likewise been termed Textus organ'icus 
seu parenchyma' lis. 

Cellular Tissue of Bones, see Cancelli. 

CEL'LULE, Cel'lula, diminutive of cella, 'a 
cavity.' A small cavity. (F.) Cellule. Cellules- 
are the small cavities between the laminae of the 
cellular tissue, corpora cavernosa, &c. 

Cellules or Cells, Bronchic, Cel'lula Bron'- 
chicce seu Pulmona'les, Pari pulmo'num, Vesic'- 
nice pulmonales. The air-cells of the lungs. See 



CEL'LULOSE, same etymon as Cellules. The 
substance which is left after the action upon any 
kind of vegetable tissue of such solvents as are 
fitted to dissolve out the matter deposited in its 
cavities and interstices. It has been affirmed, 
that the tunicated or ascidian mollusca have, in 
their integuments, a considerable quantity of it. 

CELLULOSUS, Cellular. 

CELGLOG"IA, from ktj*v, 'rupture,' and Xoyos, 
'a discourse.' The doctrine of hernia. A treatise 
on hernia. 

CELOSO'MUS, from <h?A»?, 'a rupture,' and 
auifia, ' body.' A monster in which the trunk is 
malformed, and eventration or displacement of 
the viscera exists. 

CELOTES, see Hernial. 

CELOTOMTA, Kelotom'ia, Celot'omy, from 
Kn\ri, ' a rupture,' and rcuvetv, ' to cut.' An ope- 
ration, formerly employed for the radical cure of 
inguinal hernia; which consisted, principally, in 
passing a ligature round the hernial sac and sper- 
matic vessels. It necessarily occasioned atrophy 
and loss of the testicle ; and did not secure the 
patient against the return of the disease. The 
intestines were, of course, not included in the 
ligature. Also, the operation for hernia in gene- 
ral. — Hem iot'omy. 

CELOT'OMUS, same etymon. Herniot' omus. 
A knife used in the operation for hernia. Adjec- 
tively, it means relating to celotomy, like Celo- 

CELSA. A term, used by Paracelsus for a 
cutaneous disease, dependent, according to him, 
on a false or heterogeneous spirit or vapour, con- 
cealed under the integuments, and endeavouring 
to escape. Perhaps the disease was Urticaria. 

CELSUS, METHOD OF, see Lithotomy. 

Hackberry. Order, UlmaceoB : indigenous, flower- 
ing in May. The bark is said to be anodyne and 
cooling; the berries are sweet and astringent. It 
has been used in dysentery. 

CEMBRO NUTS, see Pinus cembra. 

CEMENT. A glutinous substance introduced 
into a carious tooth to prevent the access of air 
or other extraneous matters. The following is 
an example: (R. Sandarac. gij ; Mastich. £i; 
Succin. gr. x. JEther. gj ; Dissolve with the aid 
of heat.) Ostermaier's Cement for the teeth is 
prepared of finely powdered caustic lime, thirteen 
parts ,• anhydrous phosphoric acid, twelve parts. 
When introduced into a carious tooth, it becomes 
solid in about two minutes. 


CEMENTUM, see Tooth. 

CENANGIA, Ceneangia. 

CENCHRON, Panicum miliaceum. 

CENDRE, Cineritious. 


CENDRES GRAVELEES, see Potash — c. 
de Garment, see Potash. 

CENEANGI'A, Cenangi'a, from kcvos, 'empty, 
and ayyuov, 'a vessel.' Inanition. Empty state 
of vessels. — Galen. 

CENEMBATE'SIS, from kcvos, 'empty,' and 
cjifiaivh), ' I enter.' Paracentesis. Also, the act 
of probing a wound or cavity; Melo'sis. 

CENEONES, Flanks. 

CENIGDAM, Ceniplam. 

CENIGOTAM, Ceniplam. 

CENIPLAM, Ceuiydam, Cenigotam, Cenipo* 




lam. The name of an instrument anciently used 
for opening the head in epilepsy. — Paracelsus. 

CENIPOTAM, Ceniplam. 

CENO'SIS, from kcvos, 'empty.' Ine'sis, 
Incthmos. Evacuation. It is sometimes em- 
ployed synonymously with inanition, and op- 
posed to repletion, — Exinauit"io. 

CENOT'ICA, from icevutais, 'evacuation.' Dis- 
eases affecting the fluids. Morbid discharges or 
excess, deficiency or irregularity of such as are 
natural. The first order, class Genetiea, of Good; 
also, Drastics. 

CENTAU'REA BEHEN, Serrat'ula behen, 
Behen abiad, Behen album, Been, White Behen. 
Ord. Gentianeas. Astringent. 

Centau'rea Benedic'ta, Car'duus benedic'tus, 
Onions seines' trie, Cnicus benedic'tus, Cardiobot' - 
anum, Blessed or Holy Thistle, (F.) Chardon 
benit. Fam. Cynarocephaleae. Sex. Syst. Syn- 
genesia Polygamia frustranea. A strong decoc- 
tion of the herb is' emetic: — a strong infusion, 
diaphoretic ( ? ) ; a light infusion, tonic and sto- 
machic. Dose, gr. xv to gj of the powder. 

Centau'rea Calcitra'pa, Calcitra'pa, Calca- 
trep'pola, Car'duus solstitia'lis, Carduus stella'tus, 
Ja'cea ramosis'sima, Cacotrib' ulus, Calcitrap'pa 
etella' ta seu hippophastum, Stella' ta rnpi'na, 
Centau'rea Stella' ta, Oommon Star-Thistle, Star- 
Kuupweed, (F.) Centauree etoilee, Chardon etoile, 
Chaussetrappe, Pignerole. It is possessed of 
tonic properties, and has been given in inter- 
mittent?, dyspepsia, &e. It is not much used. 

Centau'rea Centau'rium, Bhapon'ticum vul- 
ga're, Centaurium magnum, Centaurium majus, 
Greater Cen'taury, Centaurium ojjicina'le, (P.) 
Centauree grande. It is a bitter; and was for- 
merly used as a tonic, especially the root. 

Centau'rea Cy'anus, Cy'anus, Blue bottle, 
Corn-flower, (F.) Blavelle, Blaveole, BlavSrolle. 
The flowers were once much used as a cordial, 
tonic, <fec. They are now forgotten. 

Centaurea Stellata, Centaurea ealcitrapa. 

CENTAUBEE ETOILEE, Centaurea ealci- 
trapa — -e. Grande, Centaurea centaurium — c. Pe- 
tite, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAUREUM, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTATJRIS, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAURIUM MAGNUM, Centaurea cen- 
taurium — c. Minus vulgare, Chironia centaurium 
— c. Officinale, Centaurea centaurium — c. Par- 
vum, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTAURY, AMERICAN, Chironia angu- 
laris — c. Greater, Centaurea centaurium — c. Les- 
ser, Chironia centaurium. 

CENTESIS, Paracentesis, Puncture. 

CENTIGBAMME, (F.) from centum, 'a hun- 
dred,' and ygajjLjia, 'gramme,' Centigram' ma. 
The hundredth part of a gramme. A centi- 
gramme is equal to about the fifth part of a 
French grain, gr. .1543, Troy. 

CENTILITBE, Centili'tra, from centum, 'a 
hundred,' and \irpa, 'litre.' An ancient Greek 
measure for liquids: — the hundredth part of a 
litre — equal to nearly 2.7053 fluidrachms. 

CENTIMETBE, Centim'eter; the hundredth 
part of a metre — equal to about four lines. 
.3937 English inch. 

CENTIMORBIA, Lysimachia nummularia. 


CENTINOBE, Polygonum aviculare. 

CENTINODIA, Polygonum aviculare. 


CENTRAD, see Central aspect. 

CENTRADIAPH'ANES, Catarac'ta centra- 
lis, from KcvTpov, 'centre,' a, privative, and ita- 
$avn<, 'transparent.' Cataract owing to obscurity 
of the central portion of the crystalline. 

CENTRAL, Ccntra'lis, from centrum, 'the 
centre.' Relating or appertaining to the centre. 

Central Ar'tery of the Ret'ina, Arte'ria 
Centra' lis Bet'ina, Central Artery of Zinn, 
This artery is given off from the arteria oph- 
thalmica, and penetrates the optic nerve a little 
behind the ball of the eye; running in the 
axis of the nerve, and spreading out into many 
small branches upon the inside of the retina. 
When the nerve is cut across near the eye, the 
orifice of the divided artery is observable. This 
was formerly called Poms Op'ticus. 

Central Aspect. An aspect towards the 
centre of an organ. — Barclay. Centrad is used 
by the same writer adverbially, to signify 'to- 
wards the central aspect.' 

CENTRE OF ACTION. The viscus in which 
the whole or a great part of any function is exe- 
cuted, and to which several other organs contri- 
bute. Thus, the vital activity seems to be wholly 
centred in the stomach, during chymification ; 
in the duodenum, during chylification. In like 
manner, the uterus becomes a centre of action 
during gestation. 

Centre, Epigas'tric. The ganglions and ner- 
vous plexuses, formed by the great sympathetio 
and pneumogastric nerves, in the epigastrium, 
around the coeliac artery ; where the impressions 
received from various parts of the body seem to 
be centred. 

Centre of Flux'ion. The part towards which 
fluids are particularly attracted. An irritated 
organ is said to be a centre of fluxion. 

Centres, Nervous, (F.) Centres nerveux. The 
organs, whence the nerves originate; as the brain 
and spinal marrow. 

Centre, Optic, see Optic centre. 

Centre, Oval, Centrum Ova'le, C. 0. Yieusse'- 
nii, Tegumen'tum ventriculo'rum cer'ebri. When 
the two hemispheres of the brain are sliced away, 
till on a level with the corpus callosum, the me- 
dullary part in each is of an oval shape : hence 
called centrum ovale minus, (F.) centre medullaire 
hemispheral. The two centres of the opposite 
sides, together with the corpus callosum, form 
the centrum ovale of Vieus'sens. Vieussens sup- 
posed all the medullary fibres to issue from that 
point, and that it was the great dispensatory of 
the animal spirits. 

Centre, Phrenic, Ten'dinovs Centre of the 
Bi'ajihragm, Centrum Phren'icum, C. Ner'vexim 
or C. Tendino'sum seu tendin'eum, (F.) Centre 
phrenique ou C. tendineux du Biaphragme. The 
central aponeurosis or cordiform tendon of the 

Centre of Sympathetic Irradia'tions, (F.) 
Centre d' irradiations sympathiques. Any organ 
which excites, sympathetically, the action of 
other organs, more or less distant from it; and 
with which it seems to have no immediate com- 
munication. — Marjolin. 

Centre, Tendinous, of the Diaphragm, 
Centre, phrenic. 


CENTRUM, see Vertebrae — c. Commune, So- 
lar plexus — c. Nerveum, Centre, phrenic — c. Op- 
ticum, Optic centre — c. Ovale, Centre, oval — c. 
Ovale minus, see Centre, oval — c. Ovale of Vieus- 
sens, Centre, oval — c. Semicirculare geminum, 
Tamia semicircularis — c. Tendinosum, Centre, 

Centrum Vita'le, Nodus seu Fons vita'lis, 
(F.) JVceud vital. A term applied, at times, to 
the medulla oblongata; at others, to the medulla 
oblongata, and the medulla spinalis as far as the 
second cervical nerve of the spinal marrow, in 
any part of which a wound would seem to be in- 




Btantly fatal. It is the nervous centre of respi- 
ration and deglutition. 

CENTRY, Chironia angularis. 

CENTUM CAPITA, Eryngium campestre. 

CENTUMNODIA, Polygonum aviculare. 

CEPA ASCALONICA, Bulbus esculentus, 
Echalotte — c. Victorialis, Allium victoriale — c. 
Vulgaris, Allium cepa. 

CEP^EA, Veronica beceabunga. 


CEPHALiE'A, Headach, (F.) Cephalee, from 
KttpaXn, 'head.' Some use the term synonymously 
■with cephalalgia; others, for a periodical head- 
ach ; others, again, for a more violent headach 
than cephalalgia implies; and others for a chronic 
headach. The last was its ancient signification. 

Cephalee' a spasmod'ica, Cephalalgia spasmod'- 
ica, C. Nauseo' sa, Sick-headach, is characterized 
by partial, spasmodic pain ; often shifting from 
one part of the head to another : chiefly com- 
mencing in the morning, with sickness and faint- 
ness. It is extremely apt to recur, notwithstand- 
ing every care. 

CephaLjEA Arthritica, Cephalagra — c. He- 
micrania, Hemicrania — c. Nauseosa, C. Spas- 
inodica — c. Pulsatilis, Crotaphe. 

CEPHALHEMATOMA, from K t<pa\r,, 'head,' 
and 'aiua, 'blood;' Cephalamato' ma neonato'rum, 
Ecchymo'ma cap'itis, E. capitis recens nato'rum, 
Thrombus neonato'rum, Absces'sus cap'itis san- 
guineus neonatorum, Tumor cap'itis sanguin'eus 
neonato'rnm, Cephalophy'ma, Craniohamaton'cus. 
A sanguineous tumour, sometimes developed be- 
tween the pericranium and the bones of the head 
of new-born children. Similar tumours are met 
with occasionally above other bones, and at all 
periods of existence. 

Cephalhematoma Neonatorum, Cephalaema- 

CEPHALiE'MIA, Hyperemia cer'ebri, H. 
Cap'itis, Encephalohm'mia, (F.) Hyperemie ou 
Congestion du cerveau, Encephalohemie, H. ceri- 
brale, Congestion cerebrate. Accumulation of 
blood in the vessels of the brain. 

CEPHALAGO'GUS, Cephaloduc'tor, Capiti- 
due'tor, from Ke<pa\rj, 'head,' and ayuyos, 'a 
leader, a driver.' An instrument used for draw- 
ing down the foetal head. 

CEPH'ALAGRA, from KrfaXr,, 'the head,' and 
aypa, ' seizure.' Cephala'a arthrit'ica, Menin- 
gi'tis arthrit'ica. Gout in the head. 

CEPHALAGRA'PHIA, from Kt<t>a\v, 'the 
head,' and ypa(pi, 'a description.' An anatomical 
description of the head. 

CEPHALAL'GIA, Cephalopo'nia, Cephalo- 
dyn 'ia, Encephalodyn 'ia, Homonopa 'gia, from 
Kt(pa\r), 'the head,' and a\yo;, 'pain;' Encepha- 
lal'gia, Dolor Cap'itis, D. cephal' icui, Soda, Pain 
in the head ; Headach, (F.) Ce'phalalgie, Mai d 
tete. Every kind of headach, whether symp- 
tomatic or idiopathic, is a cephalalgia. It is 
ordinarily symptomatic, and has to be treated 

Cephalalgia Contagiosa, Influenza — c. In- 
flammatoria, Phrenitis. 

Cephalalgia Period'ica, Febris intermit' tens 
cephal'ica larva'ta, Intermittent headach. Head- 
ach which returns periodically; properly, per- 
haps, a form of neuralgia. 

Cephalalgia Pulsatilis, Crotaphe — c. Spas- 
modic^, see Cephalaea. 

CEPHALALOG"IA, from kcQu^v, 'the head,' 
and Xoyos, ' a discourse.' An anatomical disser- 
tation on the head. 

lanthus occidentalis. 

tonwood shrub, Buttonbush, White Ball, Little 

Snowball, Swampwood, Pond Dogwood, Globe- 
flower, (F.) Cephalanthe d'Amerique, Boia de 
Marais. An ornamental shrub, Nat. Ord. Ru- 
biacese; Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia, which 
grows all over the United States, near streams 
and ponds, and flowers in July and August. 
The bark of the root has been used as an anti- 
periodic tonic. 

CEPHALARTICA, Cephalic remedies. 
CEPHALATOM'IA, Cephalotom'ia, from 
Kt<t>a)>.n, 'the head,' and rtpvuv, 'to cut.' Ana- 
tomy, or dissection, or opening of the head. 

CEPHALIC, Cephal'icus, Capita'lis, from 
KC(f>a\v, 'the head.' (F.) Cephalique. Relating 
to the head. 

Cephal'ic Rem'edies, Cephal'ica vel Capita'- 
lia remed'ia, are remedies capable of relieving 
affections of the head, especially headach: — 

Cephal'ic Vein, Vena Cephal'ica, Vena Cap'- 
itis, (F.) Veine cephalique, Veine radiale cutanee 
of Chaussier. The great superficial vein at the 
outer part of the arm and fore-arm. It begins 
on the back of the hand, by a number of radicles, 
which unite into a single trunk, called the Ceph- 
alic of the Thumb, Cephal'ica Pol'/ icis, (F.)Fei'ne 
cephalique du pouce. It ascends along the ante- 
rior and outer part of the fore-arm, where it forms 
the superficial radial. At the fold of the elbow 
it receives the median cephalic, ascends along the 
outer edge of the biceps, and opens into the axil- 
lary vein. The name Cephalic was given to it by 
the ancients, because they thought it had some 
connexion with the head, and that blood-letting 
ought to be performed on it, in head affections. 

Chaussier calls the internal jugular, Veine ce- 
phalique, and the primary or common carotid, 
Ariere cephalique. 

CEPHALIDIUM, see Caput. 

CEPH ALI'NE. The base or root of the tongue. 
— Gorraaus. 

CEPHALIS, see Caput. 

CEPHALITIS, Phrenitis. 

CEPHALIUM, see Caput. 

CEPHALODUCTOR, Cephalagogus. 

CEPHALODYM'IA, Encephalodym'ia ; from 
Kc<pa\tj, 'head,' and ivio, 'I enter into.' A class 
of double monstrosities, in which the heads are 
united. It is divided into two genera, Fronto- 
dym'ia and Bregmatodym'ia ; in the former the 
union being between the ossa frontis ; in the lat- 
ter between the bregmata. — Cruveilhier. 

CEPHALODYNIA, Cephalalgia. 

CEPHAL03DEMA, Hydrocephalus. 

CEPHALOID, Encephaloid. 

CEPHALOMA, Encephaloid. 


CEPHALOM'ETER, from Kt$a\n, 'the head,' 
and /itrpov, 'measure.' An instrument for mea- 
suring the different dimensions of the foetal head, 
during the process of accouchement. A kind of 

CEPHALON'OSUS, from K t<pa\n, 'the head,' 
and vocros, 'disease.' This term has been applied 
to the Febris Hungar'ica, in which the head Was 
much affected. See Fever, Hungaric. Others 
have so called any cerebral disease or fever. 

CEPHALOPAGES, Svmphvoeephalus. 

CEPH'ALO-PHARYNGiE'US, from Kt<pa\t,, 
' the head,' and <papvy(, ' the pharynx :' belonging 
to the head and pharynx. Winslo